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From this time, until the summer of 1644, Henrietta led a busy and troubled life. At one time heading troops and leading recruits across the country to join her husband; at another dancing in a masque at Oxford, or receiving the ready homage of the court poets: now raising money for her husband's use, sometimes by the sale of her jewels, sometimes by the fascination of her manners; now groaning beneath the pressure of disease, brought on by care and fatigue: and now flying like a hunted hare before human blood-hounds, who had set a reward of fifty thousand crowns upon her head ; now hiding in huts by the road-side, or lying for two whole days under a heap of litter : and now betaking her, as best she could, towards the sea-side, that she might quit the subjects who had persecuted her, and the husband whom she was never to see again. To heroic souls Providence most frequently gives full scope for heroic actions indeed an evil world affords to every man the opportunity of becoming a hero; but perhaps few women have had greater trials, or have borne them more bravely, than the queen, who, being herself the danghter of a hero and the bride of a martyr, did never, from the first commencement of her sufferings, show that she was deficient in the qualities which constitute both the hero and the martyr. On the 29th June, 1644, she sailed for France in a Dutch vessel. The vessel, in which she was, was chased by a cruiser in the service of the Parliament. In this exigence she took the command of the vessel: she forbade any return to be made to the cannonading, for fear of delay ; but urged the pilot to continue his course, and every sail to be set for speed; and she charged the captain, if escape were impossible, to fire the powder magazine, and destroy her with the ship rather than permit her to fall alive into the hands of her husband's enemies. Fortunately, a fleet of vessels hove in sight from Dieppe, and convoyed her to the coast of France. As soon as her arrival was known, the people flocked to welcome the daughter of their beloved Henry—their wandering princess, the romantic tenor of whose life had brought her back to the land of her birth, an exile from the land of her adoption. She went first to the baths of Bourbon, hoping to recover her health, and thence proceeded to Paris, which she entered on the 20th of August.

Years and care had dimmed the lustre of her beauty, and robbed her of her wealth and power; but neither time nor misfortune had been able to take from her the place which she held in the affections of her relatives and countrymen. Anne of Austria, her sister-in-law, gave her a suite of apartments in the Louvre, and a pension of twelve thousand crowns per month. But by degrees she stripped herself, not only of money, but even of jewels and clothes, to satisfy the pressing necessities of her husband. Though she was born and reared in the magnificence of courts, yet the love which she bóre to the partner of her sorrows was more powerful than the prejudices of education or the cherished customs of happier years. In the September of 1646 she was joined in Paris by the Prince of Wales, who had been compelled to fly from England. She longed ardently to bring about a match between Charles and Madame De Montpensier, the daughter of the Duke of Orleans, but the young lady had views of her own, and was endeavouring to gain the heart of the young King Louis, whose splendid prospects were more pleasing to her than the broken fortunes of her cousin Charles. Eventually she failed in gaining Louis; but whether she lost much by not gaining Charles is a question which must be left to the decision of our readers. Towards the end of the year Lady Morton escaped from England with the queen's youngest child Henrietta. The manner of their escape was singular : “ Lady Morton dressed the infant princess in rags like a beggar-boy, and called her Pierre, that name being somewhat like the sound by which the little creature meant to call herself 'princess,' if she was asked her name. Lady Morton herself was tall and elegantly formed, and it was no easy matter to disguise her noble air and graceful port. She however fitted herself up a hump with a bundle of linen. She walked with the little princess on her back all the way to Dover, giving out that she was her little boy. On the road she was at the same time amused and alarmed at the indignation of the royal infant at her rags and mean appearance, and at the pertinacity with which she strove to inform every one she passed that she was not a beggar-boy and Pierre, but the little princess.' Fortunately for the infant Henrietta nobody understood her babblings bat her affectionate guardian, and they crossed from Dover to Calais without molestation.” This is not the first or last time that a noble spirit has gone through the world, disguised by adverse circumstances, struggling to make known its lofty qualities, and failing in the attempt. Too often the caterpillar has been crushed ere it could put on the lineaments of the butterfly.

Soon the troubles of the Fronde broke out, in which Henrietta, being beloved by all parties, did much good as a mediatress. But it was at this period, during one of the blockades of the city, that Cardinal de Retz found her without even a loaf or a faggot, keeping her lonely watch by the bed-side of her poor little child. The heart of the arch intriguer was melted; he flew to the parliament of Paris, then in open rebellion against her relatives, and gained a pension of twenty thousand livres for the daughter of the monarch, who was dear to every Frenchman. But on this very same day, when the Cardinal saved her from the horrors of starvation, she had received news that her husband was about to be tried, and had written a letter to the French ambassador in England to procure the parliamentary sanction to her being present at the trial; for the time was now coming when the struggles of the monarch were to end, and the sorrows of the man were to be requited by the consolations of the grave. Round the royal victim the hunters had gathered resolutely, and were busy, preparing for him that last crowning punishment which has blotted out the record of his faults with blood, and gained for him more love and sympathy than all his virtues, if he had lived and died wealthy and powerful, had ever been able to procure.

It has been said often (and few have said it more forcibly than Miss Strickland) that the English people, properly so called, were averse to the execution of Charles. With this dictum we are disposed to agree, seeing that the English people are not at any time great lovers of bloodshed; but, when we are further told to express our wonder that the English people did not rise and stay the execution, we are compelled to decline so doing. We see no reason for wonder. On the funeral piles of Latimer and Ridley, on the headless trunks of More and Raleigh, on the humble grassgrown tombs of many a martyred sage, the unjust victims of a too unbridled kingly power, this English people had gazed with a calm and stoica] indifference, uttering perhaps, at intervals, some brief expression of grief and displeasure, but raising no hand to defend the objects of their pity. Could we expect more from them when the personification of that kingly power was brought to the block? Between the subject murdered by an unjust king, and a king murdered by an unjust subject, we can see small

difference. The headsman's axe levels all distinctions. In death, at least, the man is equal to the monarch ; both may be deserving of our pity, but we can hardly pity one more than the other. The narratives of Charles' death are so numerous that it would be useless for us to dwell on this point. Let it suffice that he died as became a man ; and let us return to his widow. After she had received the tidings of an event, which, though she had long expected it, was still almost too horrible for belief, she wore a widow's weeds until the close of her life. One other trial she had to experience in the failure of her son's attempt at the battle of Worcester ; but we must regard the death of her husband as the climax of her misfortunes, and consider that the minor evils which afterwards beset her were but steps to bring her down gradually from the highest pinnacle of woe to the smooth level of prosperity. Of her attempt to make her youngest son, the Duke of Gloucester, a Catholic, and of the severity with which she treated him when he refused compliance with her wishes, let us say nothing, for such attempts did not redound to her credit. Let us, in charity, hope that age and sorrow had scoured her temper, and marred the accuracy of her judgment, ere she resolved upon a line of conduct so contrary to her old ideas of rectitude. Of her subsequent return to England let us say as little ; for we cannot bear to contemplate the warrior queen of 1640, the heroine of unnumbered perils, in connection with the hollowness and vanity which marked the court of her son. Let us only say that she died in France, on the 31st August, 1669, calmly and resignedly, fearing not to quit a world wherein she had found little else than pain. The pangs of her disease drew from her no complaints; she had marked the horrors of civil war, she had mourned the untimely fate of her husband, and had no fears of aught that could hurt herself. She was buried in the tombs of her fathers; but the republican fury which had persecuted her through life did not long permit her bones to lie quiet in their grave. During the excesses of the French revolution, her tomb, with the other monuments of royalty, was broken and defaced; so that the admirer of her character can now find no earthly trace of the queen, of whose life we have endeavoured to narrate the most remarkable events.

F. I. S.

Christian Philosophy; or, Materials for such topics as were rather practical than

Thought. By the Author of “Sketches speculative; for utility, and not display, has and Skeletons of Sermons," “The Chris- been the principle under which he has entian's Daily Portion,” “ Pulpit Cyclo- deavoured to act in preparing them for the pædia," “ Sermons for Families and press. Having a strong attachment to Villages," “ Youthful Christian," &c. &c. works of a proverbial kind, and thinking &c. London: Houlston and STONEMAN, many others might have a similar prePaternoster Row.

dilection, he concluded that such a book This is an unpretending volume, with would tend both to interest and instruct a nothing very particularly novel or very numerous class of readers. The subjects particularly philosophical, and which may, treated of are very various, and many of to a certain order of minds, be on the them, apart from the author's handling, are whole a useful performance. It has been interesting enough. The book is rightly the author's aim (we quote his own words) called Christian Philosophy-an undefinto present a variety of articles on interesting able title for a very undefinable kind of and important subjects, expressed in a con- performance. With such a title the author densed, sententious style, so as to furnish has contrived to write as one before him useful and instructive materials for thought did, De omnibus rebus et quibusdam aliis. on intellectual, moral, and spiritual themes. Notwithstanding, however, it is a work For carrying out this object, he has chosen that can be read at odd intervals of time with advantage: the chapters are short; agree) that this subject cannot be too fully most of them relate to important matters, and earnestly discussed. The pamphlet and certainly do not unnecessarily tax the before us, which must be allowed to be reader's powers.

calmly and fairly written, deserves to be, What was the Fall ? or, a Brief State

and we trust will be, widely read. ment of the Doctrines of Divines on the

The Pharmaceutical Latin Grammar; beFirst and Second Death, with Observations, ing an Easy Introduction to Medical in which it is attempted to be shown that Latin, the London Pharmacopæia, and the Two Deaths are to be literally under

the Perusal of Physicians' Prescriptions. stood. London: Jackson and WALFORD,

By Arnold James Corley, Author of the 18, St. Paul's Churchyard.

Cyclopædia of Practical Receipts and It is very far from our intention to turn

Collateral Information in the Arts, MaThe Student into a theological organ of any

nufactures, and Trades," &c. London: of the numerous denominations now exist- R. GROOM BRIDGE and Sons, 5, Patering in our country. We only notice this noster Row, 1845. as an important pamphlet on one of the The title we have given describes the most eventful subjects that the believer in nature of this work. It is, however, a conrevelation can conceive of. From our own cise and comprehensive introduction to the knowledge of the author, we feel called on Latin tongue, and is thus suited to all to state that he is perfectly honest and sin- classes, and not to the chemist, or druggist, cere in his search after truth; and it is our or the mere student of medical Latinity opinion (an opinion in which we believe alone. We can as such honestly recomall the friends of rational Christianity will mend it.


METROPOLITAN INTELLIGENCE. No. 1,) a monthly periodical, published

Tue Central Board of the Metropolitan under the auspices of the Association. Drapers' Association have been actively en

It is now nearly three years since the gaged, during the past month, upon various object — an abridgment of the hours of

Association was instituted, and its primary matters of detail connected with the general business-has as yet been but partially atbusiness of the Association (not requiring tained. Why is this? We will tell you more minute mention), and the raising of The funds placed at the disposal of the Asthe £5000 Prize Tract Fund. In reference sociation have not admitted of more powerto the latter, the following address has been

ful measures being carried into operation. prepared for circulation:

It is now conceded, by all who have given

attention to the subject, that the case of EXCESSIVE TOIL.

the late hours to which business is very £5000 FUND.

generally protracted in all trades, is the In commencing this address, the Commit

custom on the part of the public of evening tee feel that it would be unnecessary to say shopping. To achieve, therefore, a general much with reference to the origin and prin- and permanent improvement, it is necessary ciples of the Metropolitan Drapers' Associa

to effect an alteration in the public mind. tion. Few societies have had the good for- That alteration can only be produced by an tune to meet with a larger meed of public fa- extensive diffusion of information on the your, and it is now well

known. Should any, subject, showing the evils of the system, however, desire additional information, we

the causes of, and the remedy for those refer them to the pages of The Student, and evils; and appealing directly to every indiYoung Men's Advocate,* (more particularly vidual to assist in effecting the great im

provement contemplated by the Association. * The Student and Young Men's Adrocate: a To accomplish the desired end, the followMagazine of Literature, Science, and Art. Price

Arlott and JONES, 8, Paternoster-row; ing plan has been decided on :-
NISBET, Berners-street; and all booksellers.
Also, the Prize Essay upon the Evils of Late

A prize is to be offered for the best tract Hours of Business, with Preface by the Hon.

upon that part of the question relating to the public; and this tract, when procured, is



to be printed, and a copy of it, together not do so without injury to our own; for with other documents bearing upon the we conceive the interests of employers and subject, sent to every householder in the employed in this important question to be metropolis, and as far as possible elsewhere. identical. The burden of late hours falls To meet the expenses incidental to so great as heavy in many cases upon the one as an undertaking, a special fund of £5000 is the other, and, in one essential point, we to be raised; and, in doing this, the Board believe you will reap very great benefitof Management earnestly appeal to the that is, in the improved character and more sympathy of all classes for support. profitable services of your assistants; for it

is now universally admitted that men, To Assistants in the Drapery and all worked within the limits of what they other Trades, wholesale and retail, we are able to perform, get through a greater first address ourselves, as being the most amount of labour, and execute it more immediately interested and we address satisfactorily, than when worn out and all equally ; for all will derive benefit fagged by over-toil. Under a system of from our success, and all will feel bitterly shorter hours, therefore, your assistants the withering effects of our failure. We would set about their avocations with appeal with the same confidence to our greater cheerfulness and alacrity, and with fellow-assistants in the country as to those à disposition to do as much as possible in London; for no great good can take within the prescribed period ; and that much place in the metropolis without extending as well as possible. Experience justifies us its influence to the provinces. In addition in believing, gentlemen, that such would to which, as so many flock from all parts of be the result, and we hope that a similar the country to London--the great heart of conviction will induce you to contribute tothe kingdom-it is to their interest to pro

wards the fund we propose to raise. mote any change for the better in the place whither circumstances may be leading them. To the Public.-It is upon the public, We would also emphatically impress upon however, and upon you, Îadies, in partithe minds of assistants in other trades that cular, that we mainly rest our hopes of there is nothing selfish in our object ; but, getting rid of this system of late hours. even if there were, still our exertions could It is only with your co-operation that we not fail to benefit them, and the measure can ever achieve our emancipation. We which we have more immediately in view cannot expect, in these times of competiwill be attended with fully as much ad- tion, that our employers will close their vantage to them as to ourselves; for a tract shops of an evening while you continue to upon the evils of the Late-hour System throng them. Let us entreat of you, then, generally, must be as effectual in favour of to abstain from doing so. If you were one trade as another. Come forward and acquainted with the injuries you inflict assist us, then, one and all, in this grand upon us by your late shopping—if you effort! One strong and vigorous pull to- knew that year after year added thousands gether will accomplish the object! Singly, to the victims of this horrible system of no body of assistants would perhaps ac- protracted labour, who descend to a precomplish it; if all be united, it may be mature grave, in many cases unnoticed and easily achieved. Contribute something, how- unknown, we are convinced you would ever trifling the amount. Do not be with- resolve, with one universal mind, never held by an ignoble fear that you may be more to enter a shop after six, or at the advancing your money without the certainty latest seven o'clock in the evening. It is of a return. Victory already dawns! its upon this conviction we build our hopes of consummation is sure, if we be but united, not making this appeal in vain. Every and put forth our strength to achieve it; good and generous impulse prompts us to and a generous friend of our cause, the Rev. sympathize with the sufferings of each Dr. Cumming, says, “ Either we ought not other. We call upon you, then, ladies and to have begun, or, having begun, we must gentlemen, earnestly and respectfully, to not withdraw till success shine unclouded release us from the thraldom under which on our path.”

we groan.

To every denomination of

Christians, for our object may be regarded To Employers.—To you, gentlemen, we in a great degree as a religious one-to the appeal with grateful feelings for the sym- philanthropist, and the philosopher, we alike pathy which has hitherto been manifested appeal. The system is admitted upon all towards us by many of your body, and

hands to be a hateful one. The voice of with the earnest hope of securing your co- Humanity calls loudly for its extirpation ; operation for the future. We have never Justice demands it with equal vehemence; sought, we never shall seek, anything and Religion prays for it. Who, then, can inimical to your interests-indeed, we can- hesitate to come forward and aid us in our

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