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loudly pronounced against, in order that a speedy amelioration of the state of female labour be brought about. The crying injustice of subjecting young and tender females to labour which no other animal could endure should rouse men to the rescue of their sisters from the degradation of pining in unhallowed occupations. In a poem, designated London, from the pen of Wordsworth, we find an invocation to the spirit of Milton to come amongst the people again, and for this reason :

“ We are selfish men. Oh! raise us up, and return to us again,

And give us virtue, manners, freedom, power." So now might some person invoke the spirit of an illustrious philanthropist to come amongst us, and tear away the stain from the occupations of these kingdoms, and in particular from the over-toiling ones of the females. It is not proper that females should undergo severities; as we find that wherever they are depreciated, bad consequences arise from their depreciation. As enlightenment has dawned on countries, so the respect paid to the female character increased. From injuries and insults offered to females many important consequences have followed. The Tarquins fell by reason of an insult having been offered to a woman. Many historical facts could be brought forward to illustrate this assertion; yet, as each reader is likely in vividness to hold them in remembrance, it will not be necessary to have recourse to their recapitulation. It should never be forgotten, in any discussion or mention of any question with respect to females, that they are those who will be the mothers of future generations. As our own home is, so is generally our feelings towards other ones; and if we respect not our own mothers, scarcely shall any respect on our parts be extended to other mothers. The great Richter has beautifully said, “Unhappy for the man whom his own mother has not made all other mothers venerable." Mother is a sweet word-redolent of kind thoughts and pleasing memories, fond caresses, and the happy pillowing of our infant limbs on a bosom beating in fondness towards us. If we deteriorate in any way mothers, to a far greater extent will that deterioration be visible in their children; and the future degeneracy of the children will make posterity mourn for the depreciation of the mothers of the past. It has been well said, that “the future always atones for the past ;” and so any present neglect to females is an inheritance of evil to our children : but it would be apparent even in our own time, as children are of quick growth, and the young can teach the old. Apart from any maternal consideration, females, as wives, sisters, and companions, exert a large influence either for good or bad on society. Hence it must be obvious how important an object must be the obtainment of their being of that species which shall be serviceable to the causing in the breasts of their companions pure motives, happy thoughts, and balmy influences.

We find, in looking at the Second Report of the Commissioners of the Children's Employment Commission of 1843, details of the circumstances respecting the millinery and dressmaking trades of London and other localities. The age at which females commence the millinery business is fourteen ; spending two years as apprentices, then they enter the large and fashionable houses as “improvers." Great numbers of girls of the age of sixteen or seventeen come up to London from the country to enter the houses as such. The numbers of females employed in those occupations are very large ; and in London it is estimated, from the fact of there being 1500 employers, there must be 15,000 individuals employed in the occupations mentioned. The numbers employed in the establishments varying from two or three to twenty-five or thirty-five; hence the average is ten. “ To this number must be added the journeywomen who work at their own homes, and of these there exist a numerous class.”

As to the other cities and towns, the actual numbers employed in the above alluded to occupations are not mentioned, with the exception of Liverpool, wherein it is stated that the numbers are about a thousand. So, from the numbers employed in those trades, the treatment of the employed cannot be deemed as unimportant. We find, as to London, “In some of what are considered the best-regulated establishments, during the fashionable season, occupying about four months in the year, the regular hours of work are fifteen, but on emergencies, which frequently occur, these hours extend to eighteen. In many establishments the hours of work, during the season, are unlimited—the young women never getting more than six, often not more than four, sometimes only three, and occasionally not more than two hours for rest and sleep out of the twenty-four; and very frequently they work all night.” Similar courses are pursued at particnlar periods throughout the kingdom, with few exceptions. Liverpool stands forth as a bright exception to other localities in its extreme devotion to the interests and comforts of the toilers for bread. As to this town we find, “Of milliners, dressmakers, and bonnetmakers, the number employed in Liverpool, under eighteen years old, may be calculated at one thousand. I made many inquiries into the hours of work. The result of the evidence is, that there are establishments where, in what is called the season, they are frequently kept to a late hour without any additional remuneration ; that in general in Liverpool, as well as in Warrington, the usual time of work is from eight o'clock in the morning till eight o'clock at night, allowing an hour and a half for meals. These young persons are not generally of the poorer classes. None are employed under eighteen, except those who are apprenticed (the general term is for three years); and, as they receive no wages during that time, and in the higher establishments pay a premium, it is clear that their friends or parents are in a respectable situation in life, and are able to maintain them. They generally can write and read, and some attend Sunday-schools as teachers.” (Austin's Report.) As to the Sabbath, we find that it is almost an impossibility that much attention can be given to its sacred duties. From young women's statements we find, “On Saturday night they are never out of the room earlier than twelve ; frequently the work is carried on till one and two in the morning.” Another : “On Saturday night it is usual to work till three, four, and five on Sunday morning.” Again : “ It frequently happened that the work was carried on till seven o'clock on Sunday morning. If any particular order was to be executed, as mournings or weddings, and they left off on Saturday night at eleven, they worked the whole of Sunday; thinks this happened fifteen times in the two years. In consequence of working so late on Sunday morning, or all that day occasionally, could very scarcely go to church; indeed it could not be thought of, because they generally rested in bed." The food in some establishments is not good, though extremely nourishing victuals are required by females subjected to so severe toil. We will pass from this consideration to the results of the over-toil. One proprietor says, “The effects upon the health are lassitude, debility, loss of appetite, pain in the back, shoulders, and loins ; should think there is not one in twenty who does not suffer from this. Indigestion is very common. Pulmonary affections, such as cough and tightness in the breath, are also frequent. Headache is very common ; you would never be in a work-room half an hour without some one complaining of that." Another says, “It brings on all manner of complaints to which females can be subject.” Sir James Clark, Bart., the Queen's physician, says, “I have found the mode of life of these poor girls such as no constitution could long bear. Worked from six in the morning till twelve at night, with the exception of the short intervals allowed for their meals, in close rooms, and passing the few hours allowed for rest in still more close and crowded apartmentsa mode of life more calculated to destroy human health could scarcely be contrived, and this at a period of life when exercise in the open air, and a due proportion of rest, are essential to the development of the system. Judging from what I have observed and heard, I scarcely believe that the system adopted in our worst-regulated manufactories can be so destructive of health as the life of the young dressmaker; and I have long been most anxious to see something done to rescue these unfortunate girls from the slavery to which they are subjected.”

The eyes suffer from these occupations, particularly when employed on black and mourning articles. John Dalrymple, assistant-surgeon, London Ophthalmic Hospital, after giving a minute account of the manner in which the general health of great numbers of these young people becomes utterly destroyed, and more especially in which all forms of occular disease are induced, “from simple irritation to complete blindness," adds the following illustration : “A delicate and beautiful young woman, an orphan, applied at the hospital for very defective vision, and her symptoms were precisely as just described. Upon inquiry it was ascertained that she had been apprenticed to a milliner, and was in her last year of indentureship. Her working hours were eighteen in the day, occasionally even more; her meals snatched with scarcely an interval of a few minutes from work; and her general health was evidently assuming a tendency to consumption. An appeal was made, by my directions, to her mistress for relaxation; but the reply was that, in this last year of her apprenticeship, her labours had become valuable, and that her mistress was entitled to them as a recompense for teaching. Subsequently, a threat of appeal to the lord mayor, and a belief that a continuation of the occupation would soon render the apprentice incapable of labour, induced the mistress to cancel the indentures, and the victim was saved.” Another surgeon, belonging to the same hospital, speaks equally strong, and gives an instance of a case of total blindness caused by excessive and continued application to making mourning. The girl told this surgeon that “ she had been compelled to remain without changing her dress for nine days and nights consecutively; that during this period she had been permitted only occasionally to rest on a mattress placed on the floor for an hour or two at a time; and her meals were placed at her side cut up, so that as little time as possible should be spent in their consumption.”

Callous, indeed, must be the heart of any reader who will not be touched by the recitals which have been offered to the notice of the perusers of this paper. Plainly it must appear to any person that no necessity can exist for all the misery that is entailed on the females alluded to; and so our sympathy is the more likely to be excited in their behalf from the absence of any selfish consideration entering into the case of their emancipation. With the following remarks from the Report, to which we have already referred—remarks which should be well weighed and considered by every individual --we close this paper: “All classes of witnesses concur in stating

that there is no necessity for a system which entails such dreadful consequences; that the real interests of the trade are not promoted by it; and that it would not be impracticable to devise and enforce general regulations, which, while they should afford protection to the employed, would not injure the employer."



Its attachment to a certain class of men.—The story of the fireman's dog is well known. We give another. “In the first regiment of the Royal Guards," says M. Blaze, “ we had a dog called Bataillon. Entertained by the soldiers at the guard-house, he always remained there: his masters changed every twenty-four hours; but that gave him no uneasiness. Sure of his pittance, there he stayed. He would follow no one to the barracks: but looked upon himself as the humble servant of twelve soldiers, two corporals, a sergeant, and drummer, whoever they might happen to be ; and without being uneasy about the matter. During the night, when it froze hard, the sentinel frequently called Bataillon, and took his place to warm himself at the stove: the dog would have suffered death rather than have passed beyond the door. When we changed garrison, the dog followed the regiment, and immediately installed himself in the guard house of the new barracks. He knew all the soldiers, he caressed them all; but would take no notice of those who did not wear our uniform. To this dog the regiment was a master, an individual whom he loved. His feeling was for blue dresses with amaranth facings; he despised all other colours."

A city saved by dogs. The citadel of Corinth was guarded externally by an advanced post of fifty dogs placed en vidette on the sea-shore. One night the garrison slept, overcome with wine. The enemy disembarked, but were received by the fifty dogs, who fought with indomitable courage till forty-nine fell. The survivor, named Soter-history has preserved his name-retreated from the field of battle to the citadel, and gave the aların; the soldiers were roused, and the enemy was repelled. The senate ordained that Soter should wear a silver collar, with this inscription: Soter, defender and preserver of Corinth.” A monument of marble was erected in honour of the dogs which fell, on which their names, with that of Soter, was engraved.

Smuggling carried on by dogs. The first attempts at this extraordinary use of animal sagacity were made at Valenciennes. The system afterwards spread to Dunkirk and Charleville, and subsequently extended to Thionville, Strasbourg, and Besançon. The dogs trained to play the smuggler's part were conducted in packs to the foreign frontier, where they were kept without food for many hours; they were then beaten and laden, and in the beginning of the night started on their travels. They reached the abodes of their masters, which were generally selected at two or three leagues distance from the frontiers, as speedily as they could, where they were sure to be well treated, and provided with a quantity of food. The dogs engaged were conducted in leashes of from eight or ten to twenty and even thirty individuals; they went very unwillingly, well aware of the starvation and harsh treatment which awaited them. They were for the most part dogs of large size, and, as on their return they usually travelled direct across the country, they often did much mischief to agricultural property; and, moreover, according to the report, from being hunted about by the custom-house officers, and subjected to excessive fatigue and various deprivations, they were very liable to hydrophobia, and frequently bit the officers, one of whom died in consequence in 1829. Tobacco and colonial products were generally the objects of this illicit trade; sometimes cotton twist and manufactures. In the neighbourhood of Dunkirk, dogs have been taken with a value of 241., 25., or even 481. In 1833 it was estimated that 100,000 kilogrammes were thus introduced into France (a kilogramme is equal to 2lbs. 8ozs. 3dwts. 2grs. troy); in 1825, 187,315 kilogrammes; in 1826, 2,100,000 kilogrammes: but these estimates are reported as being under the mark. The burden of each dog has been regarded as averaging two and a half kilogrammes; but sometimes they carried ten or even twelve kilogrammes. The above estimate supposes that in certain districts one dog in ten got killed, in others one in twenty ; but this is a matter of uncertainty, and the officers were of opinion that not above one dog in seventy-five was destroyed, even when notice had been given and the canine sinugglers were expected.

Mendicant dogs.-“ I was travelling," says M. Blaze, “ in a diligence. At the place where we changed horses, I saw a good-looking poodle-dog (chien cuniche), which came to the coach-door, and sat up on its two hind legs, with the air of one begging for something. "Give him a sou,' said the postilion to me, and you will see what he will do with it.' I threw to him the coin ; he picked it up, ran to the baker's, and brought back a piece of bread, which he ate. This dog had belonged to a poor blind man, lately dead: he had no master, and begged alms on his own account."

The affection of the dog.-A most affecting instance of attachment in a spaniel is narrated in Daniel's Rural Sports, and quoted by Mr. Bell. “A few days before the overthrow of Robespierre a revolutionary tribunal had condemned M. R., an ancient magistrate and a most estimable man, on pretence of finding him guilty of conspiracy. His faithful dog, a water-spaniel, was with him when he was seized, but was not suffered to enter the prison. He took refuge with a neighbour of his master, and every day, at the same hour, returned to the door of the prison, but was still refused admittance. He, however, uniformly passed some time there; and his unremitting fidelity won upon the porter, and the dog was allowed to enter. The meeting may be better imagined than described. The jailer, however, fearful for himself, carried the dog out of prison; but he returned the next morning, and was regularly admitted on each day afterwards. When the day of sentence arrived, the dog, notwithstanding the guards, penetrated into the hall, where he lay crouched between the legs of his master. Again, at the hour of execution, the faithful dog is there: the knife of the guillotine falls, but he will not leave the lifeless and headless body. The first night, the next day, and the second night alarmed his new patron, who, guessing whither he had retired, sought him and found him stretched on his master's grave. From this time, every morning for three months, the mourner returned to his protector merely to receive food, and then again retreated to the grave. At length he refused food; his patience seemed exhausted; and, with temporary strength supplied by his long-tried and unexhausted affection, for twenty-four hours he was observed to employ his weakened limbs in digging up the earth that separated him from the being he had served. His powers, however, here gave way; he shrieked in his struggles, and at length ceased to breathe, with his last look turned upon the grave."

Dogs have an idea of time.-Dogs certainly acquire some knowledge of time. Mr. Southey, in his Omniana, relates two instanees of dogs which were able to count the days of the week. One of these he says belonged to his grandfather, and was in the habit of trudging two miles every Saturday to cater for himself in the shambles. “I know," he adds, “ a more extraordinary and well-authenticated example. A dog which had belonged to an Irishman, and was sold by him in England, would never touch a morsel of food upon Friday.” We have heard of a dog which was in the habit of attending church with the bailiff of a gentleman in a parish some distance from Edinburgh. When the family resided at Edinburgh, the dog being with them, he would start off on a Saturday to the bailiff's house, that he might not lose his privilege, and would punctually return. M. Blaze says that a dog belonging to M. Roger set out every Saturday, at two o'clock precisely, from Locoyarne to go to Hennebon (about three miles distant). On arriving, he went straight to the butcher's, because they killed on that day, and he was sure of having a good dinner of offal. At this same gentleman's, family worship was conducted every evening, and the dog would listen very quietly to the Paternosters; which, however, did not seem much to edify him, for the moment that the last Paternoster was begun, he would get up and place himself at the door, ready to go out as soon as it should be opened. It was evident that he knew how to count the number of prayers which were ordinarily repeated. Many instances of a similar nature might be collected; but the repetition of such, in proof of a point which few acquainted with dogs will contest, is not requisite.


Lectures to the Working Classes. By W. J. Fox. Vol. i. and Parts vi.

& vii. London: CHARLES Fox, 67, Paternoster-row. We need no apology for calling the attention of our readers to the Lectures delivered to the working classes by that eloquent advocate of popular rights, and earnest exposer of popular wrongs, William Johnson Fox. His name has gone forth as that of a man who speaks as one having authority — who has power to excite and influence the hearts of his fellow

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