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we publish, whose cause we plead. For is it not there that are to be found the victims and slaves of mere mechanical toil—the men, aye even the women, who have been robbed by overwork of all that gives lustre to the name they bear—who have sunk deeper and deeper in ignorance, in vice, and their products, misery and crime, till our senators themselves have been excited by parliamentary blue-books to endeavour in some degree to remedy the ill complained of, and till the nation itself has been struck with horror and alarm at the thought of the fearful malady that was engendering corruption and death at its heart? These men and women, degraded though they be, are our clients : inasmuch as it is overwork has made them what they are—inasmuch as the imperious task-master society has required that they labour with the body, and with that alone-has said to them (and when it speaks man must obey), “You may seek to be something besides beasts of burden, you may endeavour to expand and elevate the mind; but when you do so, you disobey the law, and the penalty is starvation, poverty, disgrace, and death.”
Where we now write we are surrounded by thousands who have been thus degraded by the established customs of trade-who, for no crime of their own, have been denied the enjoyments of rational society—who, breathing a polluted air, have never felt the warm blood of life coursing through their veins—and who, weary with the labours of the day, have been utter strangers to intellectual excitements and intellectual pursuits—for whom art and genius, the poet's lyre, the painter's pencil, the sculptor's chisel have excited and thrilled in vain—who have lived
“Gazing upon the ground with thoughts that dare not fly.” Of women, delicate and young, formed to love and to be beloved—to shed light and loveliness on many a happy hearth and home, there are fifteen thousand in London alone who are compelled to
“ Work, work, work!
Till the brain begins to swim."
And in the gilded shops, fair as whited sepulchres, pleasing to the unwary observer, as if fraud and puffing were unknown, many : young man is learning to abandon the ideal he fondly loved, and to become base and sordid as must ever be the man who says to the counter, “ Thou art my god!” There are, according to data
quoted by Emerson Tennent, Esq. at the Second Annual Meeting of the Metropolitan Drapers' Association, held in Exeter-hall, January 23, 1844, upwards of 16,790 assistants to clothiers and linendrapers ; of grocers' assistants there are 12,831; of chemists, 2,500; giving a total, in London, for the four departments alone, 47,000 persons. There are also in London, at this moment, 77,000 commercial and mercantile houses, in different departments we have not specified, and who have in their employment young men and women between the ages of fifteen and twenty-five; "and, allowing three individuals for each of those houses, which is a most moderate calculation, it will appear that there are 231,000 persons in London alone who are enduring a life of unrelieved toil, of comfortless labour and hopeless prospects.” We make no mention of the needlewomen whose wrongs have been exposed by a power higher than our ownby one who, by the one song that his magic genius sang, has gone down to his grave with the blessing of the fatherless and the widow on his head. We speak merely of situations held by those who belong to what are called the middle classes of society—of those who, ignorant though they may be, yet are growing up to form the national character and to mould the national will—to whom our preachers will preach and our senators appeal, and who in a few years will wield powers and responsibilities of no common order. These are our clients. Their emancipation will ensure the emancipation of all of the sons and daughters of toil that go mourning to the grave—their emancipation will be the signal of freedom for the worker wherever he may be, whether he labour on the foaming sea, on the mountain's brow, in the monster factory, or even in the dark and sunless mine—their emancipation will be the dawn and herald of that coming hour when work shall be deemed sacred, when life shall be a boon to be desired, when man shall look with a brother's eye wherever he witnesses the human form or listens to the human voice, and when, after the divorce of many a weary age, right shall again be might. It is the property of any one philanthropic movement in no way to retard but materially to assist all others. The triumph of one is the triumph of all. They have but one common base—the law of creation and creation's God -the law which man has arrogantly trampled under foot, but which sooner or later he will learn to reverence and obey.
ON THE EVIDENCES OF UNITY AND DESIGN DISPLAYED
IN THE ORGANIZATION OF ANIMALS.
a Stroma or cellulo-vascular bed of Ovarium.
f Ovum (velk).
It is, we are convinced, a law of organization, without an exception, that every animal and vegetable being has sprung from an egg ; so that the postulate of the earlier naturalists, omne vivum ex ovo, has become in these later years an established verity.*
One of the most splendid discoveries of modern times, rivalling those of Newton, of Harvey, and of Bell, is that of Schwann, who has shown that, however diversified may be the forms of vegetable and animal existence, all have sprung from one type, the nucleated cell. The work in which this sublime truth, for such it is, was announced, is entitled Microscopical Researches upon the Correspondence in the Structure and in the Grouth of Animals and Plants, . by Dr. Thomas Schwann.f Previously to the appearance of this celebrated work, it had been determined, by the combined discoveries of Purkinje, Von Bär, Coste, Valentin, our countryman Wharton Jones, and Rudolph Wagner, that the ovum itself, or the egg from which the new being, as we have just seen, springs, consists of parts, which, however difficult it may be exactly to interpret, evidently bear & close resemblance to the constituent portions of the nucleated cell. These parts are in the ovum :
1. The germinal spot, macula germinativa. 2. The germinal vesicle, vesicula germinativa s. Purkinji. 3. The yelk, vitellus. I * We need not embarrass this position with an inquiry as to which is the essential part of the ovum—the part furnished by the male or the part provided by the female: we speak of the ovum as it exists.
+ This work has not been translated into English; it was published at Berlin in 1839, and has for its original title Mikroskopische Untersuchungen über die Udbereinstimmung in der Strukstur und dem Wachstum der Thiere und Pflanzen,
# See figure of the ovum.
The nucleated cell consists equally of three parts :-
Now, it is evidently a point of much interest to determine the exact signification of these constituent parts in these two primordial organic formations. The author of the Vestiges, borrowing his knowledge at secondhand through translations and reviews, has, with his usual facility, cut the knot, by asserting that the germinal vesicle is identical with the nucleated cell. This, at least, we infer from the following passage, although the apparent ignorance of the writer concerning the germinal spot renders it difficult to know what is precisely his meaning : “ It is ascertained that the basis of all vegetable and animal substances consists of nucleated cells; that is, cells having granules within them. ... The ovum destined to become a new creature is originally only a cell with a contained granule.” (p. 173.) It is instructive to contrast the cautious inductions of true genius with the confident assumptions of shallow minds—the master with the pupil. Upon this same subject, thus speaks the deeply philosophic Schwann: “In considering the constituent parts of the egg, it cannot be distinguished with entire certainty whether the germinal vesicle is a young cell, or whether it be merely the nucleus of the cell formed by the whole egg.” (1. c. p. 258.) However, let this pass; it is probable that there is an identity in principle between the ordinary nucleated cell and a part or the whole of the ovum.
It is impossible to adduce a more striking fact of the wonderful unity prevailing throughout the vast domain of organic nature than is afforded by the great discovery of the German physiologist. Such unveiling of the mysteries of creation affords to the scientific mind a sure and certain revelation of that sublime truth which was never attained by the sages of enlightened Greece and Rome—the Unity of the Deity. That such discoveries and such deductions should only have been possible in this matured age of the world's existence that they should have been withheld from man's knowledge until, by the mercy of God, the same truth had, through the revealed word, become familiar to the humblest individual in the civilized nations of the earth,—what, we may ask, do these things signify but to teach us that great lesson of humility, so fitting to our fallen estate, that man of himself cannot discover the things which concern his peace. But, received in this submissive spirit, the great truths of science become the handmaids of religion, by showing the perfect harmony that exists between the book of nature and the book of revelation ; a species of proof which it is not superfluous to point out is clearly of the cumulative kind, and which will in after ages, when the boasted acquirements of these our times will seem but as the mere alphabet of knowledge, acquire a force rendering the pernicious imaginings of the deist as palpably absurd as are at present the ravings of the atheist.
Such then being the facts relating to the ovum, we will allow the author to explain his “Hypothesis of the Development of the Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms” in his own words:
“ The fundamental form of organic being is a globule, having a new globule forming within itself, by which it is in time discharged, and which is again followed by another and another, in endless succession.
“ The whole train of animated beings, from the simplest and oldest up to the highest and most recent, are, then, to be regarded as a series of adrances of the principle of development, which have depended upon external physical circumstances, to which the resulting animals are appropriate. I contemplate the whole phenomena as having been in the first place arranged in the counsels of Divine Wisdom, to take place, not only upon this sphere, but upon all the others in space, under necessary modifications, and as being carried on, from first to last, here and elsewhere, under immediate favour of the creative will or energy. The nucleated vesicle, the fundamental form of all organization, we must regard as the meeting-point between the inorganic and the organic-the end of the mineral and beginning of the vegetable and animal kingdoms, which thence start in different directions, but in a general parallelism and analogy. We have already seen that this nucleated vesicle is itself a type of mature and independent being in the infusory animalcules, as well as the starting point of the fætal progress of every higher individual in creation, both animal and vegetable. We have seen that it is a form of being which there is some reason to believe electric agency will produce, though not perhaps usher into full life, in albumen, one of those component materials of animal bodies, in whose combinations it is believed there is no chemical peculiarity forbidding their being any day realized in the laboratory. Remembering these things, we are drawn on to the supposition that the first step in the creation of life upon this planet was a chemico-electric operation, by which simple germinal vesicles were produced. This is so much, but what were the next steps? I suggest, as an hypothesis countenanced by much that is ascertained, and likely to be further sanctioned by much that remains to be known, that the first step was an advance, under favour of peculiar conditions, from the simplest forms of being, to the next more complicated, and this through the medium of the ordinary process of generation.
Now we beg of the reader well to mark the kind of argument here employed. First of all there is a truth adduced (relating to the typical form of organic matter); then, next, a position is affirmed as if it were a truth, though it is simply a theory, and a theory moreover which is doubted or denied by the highest authorities in the science, geology, to which it more especially relates-namely, that the animal kingdom has been formed upon the principle of a successive development from the simplest and least perfect types to the highest and most complex forms. After this follows a supposition that the organic cell may be produced by electric agency, and this resting, as we shall presently see, upon some preposterous, so-called experiments of Mr. Crosse and Mr. Weekes, which have been totally, and without one exception, rejected by all physiologists as unfounded and valueless; then, approaching the grand conception, the hypothesis, it is supposed that germinal vesicles were produced by a chemico-electric operation ; and, last of all, we have the suggestion that the simplest forms of being advanced to the next more complicated, through the medium of the ordinary process of generation. We have read some considerable number of works relating to different branches of science, not merely for amusement, but for information-we have also been engaged in the investigation of some of the more difficult questions relating to organization and life; but we may, with truth, affirm, that in no science, and in no book assuming the guise of science, did we ever meet with such an entire disregard of the laws of evidence and the rules of argument. Indeed, if the author did not by his earnestness indicate his sincerity, we should have regarded the Vestiges as a philosophical jeu d'esprit, sporting with the creation of worlds as if they were playthings for grown-up babies to put together and take to pieces, and speculating on the most mysterious operations of life as if they were to be made plain to the commonest understanding.
Our readers have, however, a claim to expect that we should ourselves adduce some facts and substantial arguments in support of such a sweeping condemnation. And first, with respect to the main assumption that the higher animals have sprung from the lower, in obedience to the principle of development, and in consequence of the influence of external physical circumstances, we may observe that the whole volume does not advance a single fact which would be satisfactory to the physiologist in support of the former of these positions. It would be taking a very narrow view of