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reduced those who were formed to bless and gladden to degradation the most abject and entire ? We urge the question: we shall endeavour to give the reply.
Young men, you are to blame. You have not striven and borne up against the system as you ought-you have forgotten the duties you owe to yourselves and the God that made you. You come here with minds that can be taught to soar—with souls that can never die. What have you done with them? You could never have become what you are if you had not permitted yourselves to be degraded and enslaved. Why have not you spoken out against the system by which so many of you are crushed and ruined for this world and the next? Why have you not co-operated ; and, as with one heart and voice, why have you not gone to the employer, and said to him, “We will do your work-you shall profit by our toil—we will be faithful and obedient to you ; but we must be faithful to ourselves—we must be obedient to our God. The minds He has given us we dare not stint and destroy. We have something else to do than to labour that this our outward man may have food to eat and raiment to wear. We are young and strong, the hope and pride of our country: we will not, for the gold that such as you can give, forfeit all that can make life a blessing and a boon !" Why have you not said this before? Why do not more of you say it now? Why do you not stand by those of us who are labouring for ourselves and for you? Why is it that you treat our appeals with indifference and neglect? The evil of the system of which you complain, and under which you groan, in part is chargeable to you.
Employers, you are to blame. You have seen the system entailing its bitter curse around, and yet have been voiceless and dumb. The young man has come to live with you, and you have seen his cheek become pale, and his eye lustreless, heavy, and dim. You have seen how his life has become one unwearied routine of mechanical toilhow for him social and intellectual enjoyments have had no existance at all. You have seen him sinking lower and lower in the scale of being - becoming more and more vulgarized in his ideas, in his habits, in his amusements; and you have never said one to another, “ This must not, this cannot be. We can have no more of this. The blood of these young men is on our shoulders, and we dare not let the system go on to blight and destroy. We must not step in between these young men and God, and tell them that they are mere beasts of burden, and nothing else. We have done this long enough. It is time for us to publish, as with a voice of thunder, the evils of the system through the length and breadth of the land !” Why have not you done this? Why did you not act this generous and noble
part? Why have you treated these young men worse than the horse that carries you in the street, or the dog that guards your home? No men have known better than you the melancholy effects of the system we are now labouring to destroy; and yet you uttered no word-you told no tale. Verily you are much to blame. Be one with us, and let the present atone for the past. Remember, you are stewards. God and society require to know what you have done with the young men committed to your charge. Evade not this one truth. You will have to render a steward's account.
Buyers, you are to blame. With a strange forgetfulness of your own interests, you have made the shop an evening lounge when you were better at home. You may not have known the evils of the system, but you might have known them : it would not have been difficult to have done so—a moment's reflection would have convinced you of them. But you have been apathetic, thoughtless—we must add, selfish. To work is man's true dignity—it is the only condition of healthy life; but such as you have made it a curse bitter as death itself. The money you have spent has poisoned the life-blood of the heart, and has dragged down many a mother's son to an untimely grave. They are gone—they are sleeping with the myriads man has cut down in their early bloom !-you cannot recall them! In Heaven's “high court and capitol” they have told the tale of such as you. Retributive justice sooner or later you must expect. The mercy you have refused you may need yourselves. Sorrow not for the past—for the wrong you have done—for hearts and hopes blighted by you—for the death you have dealt around; but avoid the accursed system which would never have existed but for such as you. You are to blame, fearfully to blame—blood is on your heads—and a curse is registered above.
Ministers of the gospel-spiritual teachers of our land !-is there no blame attaching to you? Why do we give you a standing in society at all, but that you may act as your master did, and mitigate the ills under which your fellow-men groan and die ? You must have seen how the moral and intellectual natures have been starved out and withered in consequence of the absorption of body and soul in trade. You must have seen that Mammon was the God at whose shrine were offered whole hecatombs of the young and high-hearted, even the beautiful, the loving, and the fair. You must have seen how, as a consequence, the national morality has been sickly and defective in its every part, and how the great duties of life have been neglected, postponed, denied. Where has been your testimony your indignant expostulation-your burning invective? How is it that the pulpit, comparatively speaking, has been dumb; that it has given forth no certain sound on the immorality of this glaring abuseof this crying wrong? We respect you—we listen to your teachings -we magnify your office : let us have your advocacy—your aid; so shall there be between us and you a heartier sympathy-a deeper respect.
We have done. We have pointed out where lies the blame. All that is required to remove it is co-operation with us—activity in our sacred cause—the proclamation of the truth—the reiteration of the the rights and dignity of man.
ON THE EVIDENCES OF UNITY AND DESIGN DISPLAYED
IN THE ORGANIZATION OF ANIMALS.
The Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation consists partly of descriptive details, embracing a variety of topics—astronomy, geology, 200logy, and physiology,—and partly of speculations regarding the phenomena of creation ; such, for example, as “the origin of the animated tribes, and “the development of the vegetable and animal kingdoms." Although the work is thus divisible into two parts, the descriptive and the speculative, yet the whole of it is so pervaded and interwoven with theory, and the actual facts of physical science are so intermingled with mere hypothesis, that the entire production assumes the character of one of those historical romances, so prolific of late years, in which truth and fiction are so intimately blended together that the exact knowledge of the cultivated mind is required to disentangle the one from the other.
It is a principle object with the author to show that in the organic creation, animal and vegetable, there was observed a gradation from simple to complex. The following extract embodies these views :
“ In pursuing the progress of the development of both plants and animals upon the globe, we have seen an advance, in both cases, from simple to higher forms of organization. Amongst plants, we have first sea-weeds, afterwards land plants; and amongst these the simpler (cellular and cryptogamic) before the more complex. In the department of zoology we see, first, traces all but certain of infusoria ; then polypiaria, crinoidea, and some humble forms of the articulata and mollusca ; afterwards higher forms of the mollusca ; and it appears that these existed for ages before there were any higher types of being. The first step forward gives fishes, the humblest class of the vertebrata ; and, moreover, the earliest fishes partake of the character of the lower sub-kingdom, the articulata. Afterwards come land animals, of which the first are reptiles, universally allowed to be the type next in advance from fishes, and to be connected with these by the links of an insensible gradation. From reptiles we advance to birds, and thence to mammalia, which are commenced by marsupialia, acknowledgedly low forms in their class. That there is thus a progress of some kind, the most superficial glance at the geological history is sufficient to convince us. Indeed the doctrine of the gradation of animal forms has received a remarkable support from the discoveries of this science, as several types formerly wanting to a completion of the series have been found in a fossil state.”
The author, after endeavouring to establish this position, proceeds to explain how, according to his views, the successive development above sketched out was accomplished ; or, in other words, how, in the ascending scale, the higher tribes were produced. Perhaps the paragraph subjoined will suffice to convey to our readers the author's hypothesis :
“ The idea, then, which I form of the progress of organic life upon our earth—and the hypothesis is applicable to all similar theatres of vital being-is that the simplest and most primitive type, under a law to which that of like-production is subordinate, gave birth to the type next above it; that this again produced the next higher, and so on to the very highest, the stages of advance being in all cases very small- namely, from one species only to another: 80 that the phenomenon has always been of a simple and modest character."
Thus it is inferred that at some particular epoch of the world's existence individuals of a lower species produced individuals of the class next above it; that, for example, a fish produced a reptile, a reptile a bird, and a bird a mammal.
A third and favourite view discussed in these pages is that all the varied phenomena of nature, physical and organic, intellectual and moral, are dependent not upon any direct or immediate interposition of the Deity, but upon certain fixed and general laws, impressed by God upon the universe in the first or primeval act of creation, and including within themselves a provision not only for the production and regulation of all that has hitherto occurred, but likewise for every event which at present latent within the womb of time is designed hereafter to become developed into activity. A summary of this idea is thus expressed:
“ Thus the whole is complete on one principle. The masses of space are formed by law; law makes them in due time theatres of existence for plants and animals; sensation, disposition, intellect, are all in like manner developed and sustained in action by law. It is most interesting to observe into how small a field the whole of the mysteries of nature thus ultimately resolve themselves. The inorganic has been thought to have one final comprehensive law, GRAVITATION. The organic, the other great department of mundane things, rests in like manner on one law, and that is DEVELOPMENT. Nor may even these be after all twain, but only branches of one still more comprehensive law, the expression of a unity, flowing immediately from the One who is First and Last."
In addition to these, which constitute the leading principles contended for, there are sundry other speculations, which are as so many episodes introduced into the main argument, which our space will not allow us to notice.
It is hardly necessary we should point out to the readers of this paper that the conclusions just stated are opposed to received opinion both in science and revelation; and although we have neither the inclination nor the right to inquire into the religious belief of the author, yet we are required, by a duty which admits of no compromise, to affirm that the whole work, unaccompanied as it is by a single disclaimer to the contrary, indicates the sentiments of the philosophical deist rather than of the Christian believer. If we should by this avowal of our impressions have done any injustice to the talented writer, we shall with thankfulness correct the misapprehension into which we may have fallen.
Such then being the momentous interests involved in this theory of creation, we have a just right to inquire do the facts and arguments adduced by the writer support the conclusions drawn from them. To this question we may answer in simple truth that neither the facts nor the arguments are sufficient to establish any one of the peculiar hypotheses embodied in the work before us. This negation would be borne out by an appeal to the existing knowledge in all the branches of science involved in the inquiry: but, inasmuch as the author has entered more minutely in the way of illustration into zoology, comparative anatomy, and development, it will be desirable to consider in the first place the evidences really afforded by these interesting divisions of natural science.
Zoology distinctly proves, what the author asserts, that there is a regular gradation in the animal kingdom ; that, with some few exceptions, probably dependent upon the incompleteness of our knowledge, and still more upon certain species having become, like the ichthyosaurus, the sivatherium, the dinornis, and the dodo, extinct, there are no abrupt transitions the links formed by the several tribes of animals constituting one continuous whole without break or interruption; and therefore that although, when remote members of the zoological scale are contrasted with each other, wide differences are observed between them, yet, when the allied genera, and still more when kindred species, are compared together, the modifications of structure are so slight that it may even become a matter of difficulty to decide whether the diversity of organization indicates a specific separation or merely amounts to what naturalists term a variety. The writer places considerable importance upon the existence of several curious sub-links, such as the ornithorhynchus, which serve even more intimately to blend together several families of the animal creation. These are the facts of zoology: the author's inference from them is that there is no insuperable barrier separating species from species, but that, if the conditions or circumstances are favourable, an animal of a lower species might generate an offspring with the properties of the species just above it; that “a fish mother might thus develop a reptile heart, or a reptile mother develop a mammal one;" that favourable conditions "would suffice in s goose to give its progeny the body of a rat and produce the ornithor: hynchus, or might give the progeny of an ornithorhynchus the mouth and