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nal longings of the soul for that infinite in- Comparative Philology, and Comparative comprehensible, from which sprung, in Archæology; the Doctrine of Catastrophes which is contained, and will finally be con- and of Uniformity; the relations of TRAsummated, all contingent existence. So DITION to Palætiology; the conception of a fatile, so pitiful are the attempts made to First CAUSE; and the SUPREME CAUSE. subvert and overturn the empire of the The general character of these extracts is living God, and to substitute the idolatry of the same as that of the preceding; the cona fictitious, soul-less NATURE, in the hearts tents of which we have given above in an and understandings of men ; and so em- abridged form. But we should have prephatically have some, professing themselves ferred seeing them all in an order the very to be wise, become fools!
reverse of the Professor's. It would at The subjects of the remaining extracts are least have appeared more natural for the GEOLOGY and the question of CREATION, general consideration of Biology and Palæas related to that science, and Theology, re- tiology—the idea of a Final Cause, and the spectively: the Philosophy of BIOLOGY, or conception of a First, to have preceded the the science of life and organization, and the particular applications of these principles to idea of FINAL CAUSES: PALÆTIOLOGY, or Astronomy, Geology, Physiology, and so the Philosophy of those Sciences of which forth. Beyond this, we have nothing to the object is to ascend from the present add to the opinion we formerly expressed. state of things to a more ancient condition, We wish the work a most extensive circufrom which the present is derived by intel- lation: it can meet with no measure of sucligible causes as Geology, Glossology, or cess which it does not deserve.
THE LATE-HOUR QUESTION.
ME TROPOLITAN INTELLIGENCE. scheme for impressing more forcibly upon The advance of the season is unfortu
the public mind the objects they have in nately accompanied by a partial relapse
view, and measures of the greatest importinto late hours, rendering the Committee
ance are in contemplation which it would unable to devote so much of their time to
be premature to speak more fully upon at the affairs of the Association as they could present. during the winter months. Our record of intelligence, therefore, is necessarily less copious this month than it has been before.
GENERAL TRADES' ASSOCIATION.
A Public Meeting of this Association, PROCEEDINGS OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE
called for the purpose of taking some steps OF THE METROPOLITAN DRAPERS' ASSO
to procure the abolition of the present sysCIATION.
tem of late business hours, so prevalent April 30th.-Resolved, “ That a Depu- throughout the metropolis, was held on tation from the Committee of the Metro- Wednesday evening, the 14th of May, at politan Drapers' Association do meet the Blagrove's Concert Rooms, Mortimer-street, Committee of the General Trades' Asso- Cavendish-square, Dr. Epps in the chair. ciation, for the purpose of deliberating upon The Meeting was very respectably atmeans to advance the common object." tended ; a considerable number of well
The other business has been chiefly of a dressed ladies being present. routine nature, which it is unnecessary to The Chairman, in opening the business publish. The Committee have also been of the Meeting, said that he was sure that much occupied of late in considering a all who were met in that room must feel that these as a case which called for their des mensures to proste the closing of warnet strany. It was one which ap- obope at seven O'dock throughout the year. pared to their kindest and most innate The attendance was tolerably pod, and feeing; for it only asked that they should many of the shopkeepers of the township do tat jastice to others which they would were present The Rer. A Knox, of SL with extended to themselves. He was no Mary's Birkenhead, as in the chai, and, admirer of legislative interference in ques among the gentlemen anrions to promote tions of this kind; and be was very certain early closing, we noticed the Res. J. Gardthat, even if the legislature of this country Da, curate, the Rer. George Goodman, passed an Act to-morrow limiting the boars curate of Holy Trinity Church, C. E H. of labour, that Act would be set aside by Orpen, Esq, MD, William Cole, Esa those persons who were most interested in M. Vale, M. Hicklis, editor of the Clean so doing Their legislature shoaid there ter Courant, Mr. Jones, treasures of the fore be the eniightened publie mind of the Shopkeepers Assistants' Association of cruntry; and their measure of success would Liverpool, &c. &c. Many ladies honoured be in that degree only in which they acted the Meeting with their presence. on that mind by agitation, and by conting- The Chairman, after a few preliminary ally holding up to their mental vision the observations with reference to the object of baneful effects which resulted from this the Meeting, said, - The length of time system. He would leave to the gentlemen the shops were kept open might be conwho would address the Meeting after him, sidered as a sort of slavery; and it was the to give a detailed statement of their pro duty of every Christian to come forward ceedings, and the success which had already and put a stop to such proceedings. He attended them: and first he should call on had noticed with regret that many farmers' the Secretary to report the history of the sons had come as shop-assistants with the Society; and he trusted that the good they bloom of health on their cheeks, which in had already done would form a foretaste of a few years had departed, and they grathe greater good which would result from dually withered away like flowers. That their after exertions.-(Cheers.)
was the first evil late hours of business The Secretary then entered into a length- entailed on the assistants. The next was ened statement of the rise, progress, and the immorality the system produced ; for prospects of the London General Associa- young men, after being penned up all tion of all Trades for the abridgment of the day, finding their body fatigued and weakhours of business, and concluded by expos- ened, went to public-houses, with the ining the fallacy of the saying, that the pre tention of recruiting their strength, and sent hours were necessary, because people thus, in a short time, completely ruined could not make their purchases sooner. themselves. Another evil was the want
Several gentlemen afterwards addressed of time for reading and improving themthe Meeting, and the following resolutions selves, which they could not do, unless were unanimously agreed to:
they broke into the hoqrs which ought to “That the Meeting views with the deep- be devoted to refreshing sleep; whilst est regret the present protracted system of numbers of them, from the same canse late hours in business, as having a tendency neglected their religious exercises, and to impair the physical and mental energies thus gradually became hardened in rice. of those who are engaged in the same. There were some people who said that the without advancing the interest of the em masters were against curtailing the hours ployer, or yielding to any one branch of of labour : this, however, he was enabled trade the least conceivable benefit."
to contradict, for the system entailed not “ That, in order to facilitate the just only slavery on the assistants, but on the efforts of those who are engaged in the masters also; and he was happy to say laudable endeavour to remove the grievance that many of the shopkeepers of Birkencontemplated in the first resolution, this head had signed a declaration to shorten Meeting pledges itself to co-operate with, the hours of labour. and assist them to the utmost of its power Dr. Orpen moved the first resolution, in securing so desirable an object."
which was to the following effect :Thanks having been voted to the Chair- “That the long hours of business so man for his able and impartial conduct in prevalent in retail trades, precluding, as the chair, the Meeting separated.
they do, the proper opportunities for health
ful exercise and the cultivation of the PROVINCIAL INTELLIGENCE.
higher faculties of man, are destructive
to the health, degrading to the morak, BIRKENHEAD.—On Tuesday, April 29th, and injurious to the highest spiritual intera Public Meeting of the inhabitants of ests of the persons employed in them." Birkenhead was held in the Town-hall, to He said, --That the present opportunity
which now presented itself to the in- if the shops were closed at seven o'clock, habitants of Birkenhead ought to be taken the assistants would abuse the privilege. advantage of, for Birkenhead was not like This argument bad no foundation in what Liverpool or London, where, from long was called logic, for the abuse of a thing habit, bad principles were fully developed. can never be an argument against its use. As a medical man, he had had opportunities Mr. Hicklin, in seconding the resolution, of seeing the bad effects which the system said, ---That, after the remarks he had just had upon the health of the assistants, and heard, it would scarcely be necessary for the variety of illnesses it led to. It was him to say anything in support of the obintended by the Almighty that the mind ject of the Meeting. It was a libel on should have rest while awake as well as young men to say early closing would asleep, which, however, it could not under drive them to vice; and he was happy to the late-hour system. The Scriptures gave say that, in most instances where the as many hints, which are not often noticed; system had been tried, the boon had been for in one part it is said, “ Man goeth forth properly recognized. The speaker afterto his labour till the evening," but it does wards alluded to the good effects which not say that man should labour during the early closing had had both on his bodily evening.
and mental powers, and concluded an eloMr. Shore seconded the resolution. He quent speech by calling on the tradesmen thought it was the interest of every body of Birkenhead to be unanimous in support to shorten the hours of labour. It was de sirable that there should be one uniform The Rev. Geo. Goodman moved the third hour for closing shops; for till there was the resolution:objects of the Meeting could never be pro- “That the following gentlemen be apperly carried out. The speaker then made pointed as a Committee, with power to add a few observations on the necessity of to their number, to take such steps as may closing shops at eleven instead of twelve appear desirable in furtherance of the above o'clock on Saturday evenings.
objects; and that within three months from The Chairman observed that one of the this time the said Committee do report to causes why the shops were kept open, so the inhabitants of this township the result late on the Saturday evening was the late of their labours:--Rev. A. Knox, Rev. C. hour on the same day at which mechanics Hamilton, Rev. John Hancock, Rev. Geo. and others were paid their wages. The Goodman, Rev. J. H. James, Rev. John only way to diminish that evil was by pay Gardner, C. Harper, Esq., W. Potter, Esq., ing wages on Friday evening.
W. Cole, Esq., C. Bentham, Esq., R. Fry, The Rev. J. Gardner moved the second Esq., Mr. John Shore, Mr. James Macgreresolution :
gor, and Mr. Orange.” “That the numerous appeals which have The reverend gentleman remarked that been made to the inhabitants of Liverpool, the principal object of early closing was to on behalf of the shop assistants, have called give the assistants an opportunity for spirifor the strong sympathy and the active co- tual and intellectual cultivation. He had operation of a humane and thinking people; frequently observed placards on the walls that the very general avoidance of evening with the words “Enormous Reduction-Unshopping, on the part of the public, has precedented Attraction;" he should like to enabled many tradesmen to close their estab- see them altered to “Enormous Reduction in lishments at seven o'clock; that, where the Hours of Business—Unprecedented Atthis regulation has prevailed for any length traction in Healthful Assistants.” How can of time, results have followed, not only in assistants come to church and listen with the improved health but in the elevated cha- profit to a sermon while the words cash, racter of the assistants; and it is the ribbons, &c., were ringing in their ears. earnest desire of this Meeting to see so wise M r. Richard Fry seconded the resolution. and salutary a rule adopted by the shop- We owed a deep debt to the apprentices, keepers of Birkenhead."
&c., and it was our duty to liberate them After expressing the pleasure he felt in from their thraldom. He was sure that, if attending the Meeting, the reverend gentle. the shopkeepers looked to the facts of the man said, -We have heard a great deal of the case, they would find it their interest to slavery practised in foreign lands, and much close early. bad been said about it by sentimental Mr. Hicklin then proposed a vote of writers, but we had forgotten to look at the thanks to the Chairman, and the Meeting slavery at home. We are bound by the separated.--A collection in aid of the funds laws of God to do good when we have an of the society was made at the doors. opportunity, and the object of the present LEICESTER.- In the early part of March Meeting demands our warmest sympathy it occurred to one or two young men here and co-operation. We had been told that that it might be possible to form an Association of the young men employed in the retail dependents will give them an opportunity trades of the town, for shortening the hours of making their purchases in the evening." of labour. They called a Meeting, enrolled BEVERLEY.-- The following agreement Members, chose a Committee; that Com- has just been signed by the principal mittee prepared an address to the employ- drapers and hosiers of this town, and pubers, and circulated it. They then appointed lished by them :a Deputation to wait on and ascertain the “The inhabitants of Beverley and the feeling of some few of the principal employers neighbourhood are respectfully informed on the subject. They found those gentle that the undersigned drapers, hosiers, &c. men favourable to the movement; so much have acceded to the request of their assistso that two of them, Mr. Baines, hosier ants, and others in the trade, to abridge the and hatter, and Mr. Berridge, draper, hours of business, as it will afford additional agreed to go round to the various shops and opportunity for exercise and mental inendeavour to obtain their signatures. The provement to those by whom late hours are result is, that those gentlemen succeeded felt to be irksome, and in many cases injuin obtaining the signatures of all but rious to health ; and as it is becoming so two engaged in the drapery trade, all the general throughout the country, they trust hatters, booksellers, printers, ironmongers, the public will approve of the alteration, and some few others : so that this year pre and assist as far as possible in the accomsents a decided contrast to last. Many of plishment of this object, by making their these shops being then open very late, and purchases as early in the day as is connone closed before nine o'clock. The time venient to th they now close is eight o'clock, being the “They will in future close their shops same time as during the winter months. each evening, from the 1st April to the
HULL.--The Second Annual Meeting of 30th Sept. at eight o'clock, and from the “The Hull Assistant-Tradesmen's Associa- 1st Oct. to the 31st March at seven o'clock; tion, for curtailing the Hours of Business," excepting Saturdays, on which evenings they was held in the grand saloon of the Mecha- will close at nine o'clock throughout the nics' Insitute on Friday evening, May 9th. year.” Humphrey Sandwith, Esq., M.D., occupied MANCHESTER.— The booksellers have the chair, in the unavoidable absence of agreed to close their shops on the Saturday Sir W. Lowthorp, the Mayor, who had afternoon. consented to preside on the occasion. The WHITEHAVEN.—The following is an explatform was filled by the clergy and dis- tract from a letter showing the state of the senting ministers of the town, and a num movement in this town: ber of employers. The following resolutions “In February last, following up the were passed :
early shop-shutting, an Association was 1. “That the attempts to correct the formed by the young men in this town evils arising from the late-hour system for general improvement. Our proceedings having received the sanction of so many of were opened by a course of lectures on the the humane and intelligent, amongst whom “Natural History of Fossils,' by Rymer the question has been discussed, and that Jones, Professor in King's College, and by the public having distinctly expressed ap- a little agitation we had soon members to proval of the same, it becomes the duty of the number of 120. The subscription is every assistant, and especially of this As- 78. 6d. per annum; and this, with between sociation, to pursue, with unabated perse- £30 and £40 liberally contributed by the verance, such measures as may secure the masters, has enabled us to proceed much closing of shops at eight o'clock in the better than we expected. For the last evening in summer and seven in winter.” three months our library has been opened,
2. “ That the respectable portion of the and has as yet been well attended; vopublic having desisted from late-shopping, lumes at present about 500, and from the co-operation of the humbler classes but 15 to 20 monthly periodicals. In connecremains to be obtained ; and while there- tion with the library is our lecture-room, fore it continues necessary on the part of (both of course merely rented,) where classes this Association to issue periodical appeals, are carried on. A museum has been set in the form of handbills and circulars, it is on foot, and through the kindness of friends, earnestly to be desired that all who have we hope to succeed well in this also."
YOUNG MEN'S ADVOCATE.
THE LATE-HOUR SYSTEM,
WHERE LIES THE BLAME ?
The subject of late hours has been fully and fairly discussed, a beginning has been made,-the crusade has been entered into with a spirit worthy its importance. Each age has had its own appropriate agitation, and has listened to its own appropriate truth. After much toil, after many a struggle with iron custom and foul deceit, men have been led to admit freedom of religious inquiry-freedom of race. To us it is given to labour for the freedom of the middle classes of our land,—to proclaim their manhood and their immortality—that in them there is heart and head, as well as blood and bone that they come into this living world that they may know and exemplify the beauty, and dignity, and blessedness of life. If life can be compared to a scene of toil and strife, it is for something better and higher than the bread that perisheth or than the gold that can rust and rot that it is to be toiled and striven. If work is to be done, it is not to be done as if the doer were chained to the treadmill or were a prisoner in his cell. If man were meant alone for this, the sinewy arm and the muscular frame would have been enough; it were unnecessary that his should be the living soul, the heart that could feel, the head that could plan,-it were unnecessary that he should be removed, by superiority of condition and endowment, from the beast of the field. The truth is, man has been degraded—a foul wrong has been done him-youth has been blasted in its power and its pride society has been cursed to its core-God has been set at nought. Where lies the blame? By whom have these deeds been done? Whose accursed agency has