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ness, erection of the hair, alvine discharges, fainting, slight spasms, difficulty of breathing, violent vomiting, great agony, repeated convulsions, and death.
To dogs it generally proved fatal in an hour; a mouse died in ten minutes, a monkey in seven, a cat in fifteen, and a buffalo in two hours and ten minutes.
The juice has been analysed by Mulder, who found it to contain a peculiar resin, antiarin, the principle in which its activity resides, and several other ordinary vegetable matters.
As regards the uses to which the tree is applied, besides yielding its celebrated poison, with which the natives imbue both their weapons of war and of the chase, a strong kind of rope, and a coarse stuff is made from its liber, or inner bark, which is somewhat analogous to that of the paper mulberry (Morus papyrifera). This stuff the poorer classes wear at labour in the open fields, and it is said that when they are exposed to rain, it gives rise to such intolerable itching as to render it quite insupportable.
THE IMPORTANCE OF VENTILATION.
THERE can be no question, that a great amount of physical evil resulting from the system of late-hours, must be laid to the account of bad ventilation. The fearful amount of impurity existing in an atmosphere where an enormous quantity of flame has been burning for many hours, places the assertion beyond dispute. We feel it our duty, therefore, to call the attention of employers to a simple but admirable plan for the ventilation of gas-lamps, recently brought before the notice of the Pharmaceutical Society, by Mr. P. Squire. The cost of its adoption cannot be very heavy, and the increased health and comfort it must produce will, we are sure, quite compensate for the original outlay.
“I now,” says Mr. Squire, “come to the form of apparatus which I employ, and which I think is perhaps the most simple and least costly of any that I can recommend for general adoption, taking all its advantages into the account: it consists of an iron gas pipe, 14-inch in diameter, having a diminishing connector as it is called (capable of receiving a 2-inch pipe at one end, and connecting the other with a 14-inch pipe) screwed on to its aperture. This forms the cap to drop over the mouth of the glass chimney. Each of the lights will require one of these capped pipes, and it may approach the glass chimney within one-eighth of an inch, or drop close over it. These are connected with a pipe in the ceiling, which conveys through the joists the products of combustion into the nearest chimney; the pipe is surrounded by a circular tube of sheet iron, about nine inches in diameter, or if there are several lights, six inches may do for each, and they must be flattened, if they cross the joists to get to the chimney, as indeed mine do. This flue of sheet iron commences at the ceiling, passing the whole course of the pipe to the chimney, and answers admirably in carrying off the vitiated and heated air which collects under the ceiling. The iron pipe rising direct from the gaslight to the ceiling, if left naked, radiates a considerable quantity of heat, and this can either be used as a warming agent, or the pipe can be cased with a loose tube of bronze, or better still by ornamental porcelain, or by opaque glass, which will stop half the heat. The heat by this arrangement draws up to the perforated ventilator which covers the opening of the sheet iron flue, and is thus got rid of: the iron gas-tube retains the heat so well, that all the water produced by the combustion of the gas, is carried in the
DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING THE PROCESS OF VENTILATION.
Recommended by Mr. Squire, page 40.
A, The Pipe conveying heated air to the open air, and finishing in a T piece, B. C, the outer casing of ditto. D D D, Tubes conveying the heated
air between the joists to the chimney. The dotted line represents the outer iron casing for the double ventilation.
*** This diagram has been kindly furnished by the Pharmaceutical Society,
shape of vapour up the chimney. If the pipe is in the centre of the casing of sheet iron, it removes all possible qualms as to the probability of risk of fire—the inspector of the Phænis informs me that my insurance is not affected by it. Thus the ceiling does not become blackened by the smoke from imperfectly burnt gas, nor does the water stream down the windows in cold weather, destroying every metallic, mahogany, or papered article, it may fall upon ; for the unconsumed gas, the carbonic acid resulting from combustion, and the air which has been respired, are got rid of by these means. Means must be taken for the admission of fresh air, without which, it must be evident no ventilation can go on; and very much depends upon the manner in which this part of the plan is carried out, as the admission of a large undivided stream of cold air could not be borne in severe weather. I have made an opening in the wall, and my waste steam-pipe from the kitchen boiler traverses a series of pipes set in the opening, all terminating in a tinned copper vessel which receives the condensed water, and thus I employ that which was a nuisance in my kitchen chimney to warm the cold fresh air as it enters the apartment, and I gain by that arrangement about five gallons of distilled water daily, which, in small establishments, would be a sufficient supply, without the expense of a still, and be considered as one among the many inducements to ventilate. A perforated zinc plate, for the air thus warmed to pass through and diffuse itself into the apartment, completes the arrangement."
Mr. Squire concludes his admirable paper with the following important facts, which are more forcibly stated than we have previously seen them.
“The usual argand burner consumes about five cubic feet of gas per hours, producing rather more than five cubic feet of carbonic acid, and nearly half a pint of water.
“Shops using thirty of these lights therefore, in an evening of five hours, produce upwards of nine gallons of water, holding in solution the noxious products of the gas.
“An argand lamp, burning in a room twelve feet high and twelve feet square, containing 1728 cubic feet of air, with closed doors and windows, produces sufficient carbonic acid in rather more than three hours to exceed one per centum, which is considered unfit for respiration, and when it amounts to ten per cent, it is fatal to life.
“A man makes on an average twenty respirations per minute, and at each respiration inhales sixteen cubic inches of air ; of these 320 cubic inches inhaled, thirty-two cubic inches of oxygen are consumed, and twenty-five cubic inches of carbonic acid produced.
“These are data for our consideration ; and I trust will lead many to think seriously about making their knowledge practically useful. The following extract from the pamphlet of Mr. Ritchie, published this year on the ventilation and warming of factories, puts in a very clear manner the importance of pure air. He says, “If the various convolutions of the aircells of the lungs were spread out, they would present a surface thirty times as extensive as the surface of the body; that over this extensive surface, through exceedingly minute vessels, the entire blood of the body passes every three minutes ; that we respire every twenty-four hours a quantity of air that would fill upwards of seventy-eight hogsheads, and the blood passes upwards of 500 times in the course of the day through the lungs, exposed to the enormous quantity of air which we respire. * * * Thus in proportion as the impurities exist, the air we breathe becomes a slow or more rapid poison.””
SKETCHES OF ENGLISH SCENERY.–No. II.
ST. ALBAN'S AND ITS VICINITY.
AFTER leaving the abbey precincts, and passing the gatehouse, a gloomy building, once used as
the prison of the abbey, and now as that of the borough, we approach the venerable church dedicated to St. Michael, which stands at the bottom of the town, on the road to Dunstable, and within the walls of the ancient Verulam. It was founded about the middle of the tenth century, by Ulsinus, the most wealthy and powerful of the many abbots of St. Alban's, and still displays unquestionable specimens of the original Saxon architecture, in its massive piers and plain semicircular arches. Since that early period, it has, however, been much altered; and the tower at the west end is apparently of a later date, although still very ancient. This was originally open to the nave by a large plain pointed arch, but is now excluded from the body of the church by a curiously ornamented gallery, brought from the old manor house at Gorhambury, the residence of the Grimstones, to this edifice, which has for many years been the last restingplace of that noble family. There are many ancient inscriptions sculptured on the time-worn stones; some that were here, but are now illegible, have been recorded by Weever and Chauncy; others yet remain, to which there
attaches no particular interest, with the single exception of the monument and epitaph to the memory of the illustrious Lord Bacon, who, together with his mother, was interred in this fabric. His statue is placed in an arched recess, and represents him sitting in a contemplative posture, and attired in the robes and insignia of chancellor. On a tablet underneath is the following curious epitaph, supposed to have been written by Sir Henry Wootton.
FRANCISC. Bacon; BARO: DE VERULAM, SANCT. ALBANI VICECO :
SEU NOTIORIBUS TITULIS
SIC SEDEBAT :
ET CIVILIS ARCANA EVOLVISSET,
The only remaining edifice within the town of St. Alban's which is wor. thy of particular notice, is the church of St. Peter's, which is also of great antiquity. Here lie the remains of many of those slain in the two bloody battles, which, in the wars of the Roses, were fought in the vicinity of this town. Over Sir Ralph Babthorpe and his son, who were killed in one of these encounters, are carved the following lines :
“ This yeare one thousand and four hundred fifty-five,
God grant them light in heaven and withoutt ende a day." On exploring the environs of St. Alban’s, the ruins of the old nunnery of Sopwell attract our attention. They are situated in the midst of fruitful orchards, which were once the gardens of the nunnery. All that remains of the building is merely huge fragments of the old walls, composed of flint or brick, and a small and ruinous chapel in the gardens.
Another object of great interest to the tourist is Gorhambury Hall, the splendid mansion of Lord Grimstone, situated a few miles from St. Alban's, in a well-wooded and picturesque country. This building, however, is of modern erection, and although, both within and without, its aspect is extremely magnificent, yet it is far inferior in interesting reminiscences to the old hall, which lies embosomed in trees at a short distance from the new structure. This venerable manor house was the country seat of Lord Bacon, and he is believed, in this sequestered retreat, to have composed the splendid treatises destined to be the instruction and delight both of his own and of succeeding ages. At the time he inhabited this mansion, it appears to have been a favourite residence of Queen Elizabeth, as we find many of her letters dated from Gorhambury; and here, doubtless, she was entertained by her Lord Keeper of the Seals with the pageantry and splendour in which, although so strong-minded a woman, she appears to have taken so much delight. The gardens were then adorned with rare plants and
* It may be thus rendered : Francis Bacon, Baron of Verulam and Viscount St. Albans, better known as The Light of the Sciences, and the Law of Learning, used thus to sit. He, after he had unravelled the secrets of natural and human wisdom, fulfilled the decrec of nature, “ Let compounds be dissolved," A.D. 1626, aged 66.