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will, and he pretended that will ought to take place. When the Jews at the temple made their demands of Archelaus, he gave them fair words, that they might not make any disturbance and retard his journey, he being in baste to go to Rome; this haste is expressed by Josephus in the War, and in the Antiquities, in very strong terms. Archelaus, in his way to Rome, at Cæsarea rnet Sabinus, the emperor's procurator in Syria, who was going d in all haste to Jerusalem to secure Herod's treasure for Augustus.
By help of the intercessions of Varus, president of Syria, (who was then likewise at Cæsarea,) Archelaus prevailed upon Sabinus to promise, that he would not proceed any farther. But not. withstanding that, when Archelaus was gone away he went up to Jerusalem, and there ordered all things according to his own will and pleasure. This was all managed without any orders from Rome. If Herod bad been dead two or three months, they would have had directions from thence upon this matter; nay, if Herod had been dead one month, this vigilant procurator would have been at Jerusalem, beforo now. I take this to be a kind of demonstration, that, according to Josephus, Herod's death happened but a very short space
before some passover: III. That Herod died a little before the passover, A. U. 750, Julian year 42, is argued in this manner. His distern. per had made great progress before the pulling down the golden eagle at tbe temple. The Jewish rabbies excited their scholars to this action, news being brought that • Herode was dying,' as it is in the War; 'dead, as it is in the Antiquities. These rabbies were taken up, and carried to Jericho, where Herod was; a council was called, and they were tried. Herod was so ill that he could not stand, and notwithstanding the new strength & which rage gave bim upon the occasion, he was carried h to the council in a chair.
Προς α παρωξυνετο μεν Αρχελαος, απειχετο δε την αμυναν υπο της περι TNV eğooov ETT ELÉEWÇ, K. 1. De Bell. I. ii. c. 1. sect. 3. Totoic Apxelaos, KaLTTEP δεινως φερων την όρμην αυτων, επενυε, έχων την επι Ρωμης οδον ανυεσθαι προκειμενην αυτη ταχος, επι περισκοπησει των δοξαντων τω Καισαρι. Αnt. 1. xvii. c. 9. sect. 1.
d Ύπαντιαζει δ' εν Καισαρεια Αρχελαον Σαβινος, Καισαρος επιτροπος των εν Συρια πραγματων, εις Ιεδαιαν ώρμημενος επι φυλακη των Ηρωδε χρηματων. Antiq. ibid. sect. 3. vid. etiam De Bell. ibid. c. 2. sect. 2.
Ainonuuoon kai IvnoKELV Ó Baoileuc. De Bell. 1. i. c. 33. sect. 1. * Και οι μεν τοιοτοις λογους εξηραν τες νεες αφικνειται και λογος εις αυτες τεθνάναι φραζων τον βασιλεα, και συνεπραττε τοις σοφισαις. Αnt. 1. xvii. c. 6. sect. 3.
8 Επι τετοις ο βασιλευς, δι' υπερβολην της οργης κρείττων της νοση γενομενος, προεισιν εις εκκλησιαν, κ. λ. De Bell. 1. i. c. 33. sect. 4.
Και παραγενομενων, εξεκκλησιασας εις το αυτο θεατρον επι κλινιδια κειμενος αδυναμια τε τηναι. Αntig. ibid.
Soon after this these rabbies were burnt to death, and that very night i there was an eclipse of the moon; this eclipse, according to astronomical computations, happened k the 13th of March, A. U. 750. After this, Herod grew worse and worse: it is plain, be could not live long. The passover! of this year happened the 11th of April. From the 13th of March to the 11th of April, is a sufficient space of time for all that Josephus has related concerning Herod's illness, bis settling bis affairs, the execution of Antipater, Herod's death and funeral; which are the things placed between the eclipse and Archelaus's coming to Jerusalem at the passover.
In the War," Josepbus says, that Archelaus was banished in the ninth year of his reign : in the Antiquities, that he was accused before Augustus by the Jews and Samaritans in the tenth year of his government. In his own Life, Josephus says, that his father was born in theo tenth year of Archelaus's reign. From whence one would be apt to conclude, that Archelaus reigned nine years complete, and that the tenth year was current when he was banished. Dio P places Archelaus's banishment in the 759th year of Rome. If Herod did not die till the beginning of A. U. 751, the ninth year of Archelaus's reign could not be completed in the 750th year of Rome. But if Herod be supposed to have died the beginning of A. U. 750, Josephus and Dio agree. Moreover, Josephus says, that Cyrenius' seized Archelaus's estate, and finished the assessment in Judea in the thirtyseventh year after the defeat of Antony at Actium by Cæsar Augustus. The victory at Actium was obtained on September 2, A. U. 723; therefore the 37th year from it begins Sept. 2, A. U.759. and ends Sept. 2, 760. Supposing, then, that Herod died the beginning of A. U. 750, there is in this particular also a very good barmony between Josephus and Dio.
There is, however, one great difficulty attending this opinion. For Josephus has said in two places, that Herod
k Petav. Doctrin. Temp.
xi. c. 1. ! Vid. Lamy, App. Chron. p. 58. η Ετει της αρχης εννατη φυγαδευεται μεν εις Βιενναν. De Bell. 1. ii. c. 7. sect. 3.
Δεκατω δε ετει της αρχης Αρχελας, οι πρωτοι-κατηγοpoolv avre emri Kalapoç. L. xvii. c. 15. sect. 2.
° Και [γινεται] Ματθιας βασιλευοντος Αρχελας το δεκατον. sect. 1.
Ρ ο τε 'Ηρωδης ο Παλαισονος,-υπο τας Αλπεις υπερωρισθη" και το μερος της αρχης αυτα εδημοσιωθη: 1. 1. p. 567. Β.
4 Κυρηνιος δε τα Αρχελας χρηματα αποδομενος ηδη, και των αποτιμησεων περας εχασων, αι εγενοντο τριακουφ και εβδομω ετει μετα την Αντωνια εν Ακτιο uttav úno Kaisapoc. Ant. 1. xvii. c. 2. sect. 1.
reigued thirty-four years after the death of' Antigonus, and thirty-seven years after he was declared king by the Roman
And be placeth this declarations of the senate in A. U. 714, the death of Antigonus in the year 717. Jf indeed at the beginning of A. U. 750, Herod bad reigned thirty-six years complete from the first date of his reign, and thirty-three from the latter; so that the 37th of the one epoch, and the 34th of the other, were to be current at the time of his death ; then Herod might be said not improperly to have reigned, with respect to the one, thirty-seven years, and to the other thirty-four. It is supposed by some learned men, that Herod was declared king by the senate," toward the very end of the year 714 : by others' at the latter end of October, or beginning of November; by others in September or October: by others * about the middle of July that year. But then, at the beginning of the year 750, Herod could not have reigned from this date thirty-six years complete, nor was the 37th year current. Herod took Jerusalem, , as some y think, in September, A. U. 717; others, about 2 the end of June; archbishop Usher, on the first of January tbis year. If the archbishop's supposition could be allowed, we should have here no difficulty. But if any of the others are followed, then from this date, of Herod's reign, the taking of Jerusalem, or the death of Antigonus, (which are all one.) to the beginning of the year 750, we have not quite thirtythree years complete, nor is the thirty-fourth current.
In answer to this difficulty it is said b by learned men, that the years of the Jewish kings were computed from the beginning of the month Nisan, which usually answers pretty near to our Marcb. insomuch, that if a king began to reign in any part of the year before, even in February, another year of his reign would begin with Nisan, that is, March. So Josephus relates, that Jerusalem was taken by Pompey, when Antony and Cicero were consuls; by Herod, when M.
-Τελευτα βασιλευσας αφ' ο μεν αποκτεινας Αντιγονον εκρατησε των πραγ: ματων, ετη τεσσαρα και τριακοντα, αφ' ε δε υπο Ρωμαιων απεδείχθη βασιλευς, étra kai tpiakovra' de B. J. 1. i. c. ult. sect. 8. Vid. etiam Ant. 1. xvii. c. 8. sect. 1.
& Ant. 1. xiv. c. 14. sect. 5. De B. I. i.c. 14. sect. 4. " Ant. I. xiv. c. ult. sect. 4.
u Alix. de J. C. Anno et Mense natali. p. 75.
Basnage, ann. Polit. E. Vol. i. p. 17. n. 16. " Noris. Cenot. Pis. p. 139. Pagi Appar. p. 80. * Whiston's Short View, p. 150.
y Alix, ubi supra, p. 117. ? Whiston, ibid. p. 152. Basnage, ibid. p. 30. n. 9. a Annals, P. J. 4677.
6 Inde etiam anni regum Hebræorum supputabantur, ita ut si quis rex in Adar regnaret, a Nisam alter annus imperii ejus inciperet. Reland. Antiq. Heb. de Temporib. Sacris, c. 1. init. vid. etiam Kepler. de Ann. natal. J. C. cap. 7. p. 46.
c Ant. l. xiv.c. 4. sect. 3.
Agrippa and Caninius Gallus were consuls, on the very
anniversary of the saine calamity from Pompey, it having • been taken by him on the same day, twenty-seven years • before :' though there were but twenty-six years complete between these two events. And from the taking of Jerusalem by Herod to its destruction by Titus, Josephus computes e one hundred and seven years, though it was but one hundred and six complete. But, in my opinion, these instances are not home to the point. For in them the year named is current, whereas, in the case before us, it is not so. If Herod died in the beginning of the year 750, the thirty-third and thirty-sixth years of his reign were not complete.
IV. Other' learned men suppose, that Herod died a short time before the passover, A. U. 751. This they argue froin the number of years assigned to Herod's reign in the places above mentioned. They do not allow the truth of the Talmudical account of computing the reigns of the Jewish kings from the beginning of Nisan, or from the passover. If Josephus had followed such a kind of computation, he would have given some hint of it, in his books written in the Greek language, and for the instruction of strangers. They say also, that Herod's was a slow, lingering distemper, and that it is not likely he should die so soon after the execution of the rabbies and their accomplices, as is supposed by the patrons of the former opinion. Lastly, they observe the 8 agreement of all the other numbers in Josephus, concerning the dates of the reign of Archelaus and other sons of Herod.
This opinion, however, labours under several very great difficulties. Dio's account of the removal of Archelaus is entirely rejected. But to do this h is not very reasonable. Farther, the supporters of this opinion must allow of the eclipse above inentioned ; or they must say, it was no real eclipse, but only some obscurity that was taken for an eclipse. If they allow the eclipse, then Herod must have lived a year after the execution of the rabbies, provided hei died but a few days before the passover, A. U. 751. But
d Ibid. c. 16. sect. 4.
e Ibid. l. xx. c. 9. vid. Kepler, ibid. | Vid. Lamy, Appar. Chron. Par. i. c. 9. Basnage, annal. Pol. Eccl. Vol. i. p. 156. n. v.
& Note; the learned men, who espouse the former opinion, suppose also that Josephus's numbers in all other places agree with them.
h Vid. Noris. Cenot. Pis. p. 147. . Quæ aptis temporibus tribui non possunt, nisi hæc mors contigerit jam aliquibus mensibus promoto anno U. C. 751, in quo comprobavimus mortuum fuisse Herodem. Quoquo autem anno mortuus sit, non multis ante pascha diebus mors illa obtigit, ut testatur Josephus, cui fidem adhibemus. Lamy, ubi supra, sect.
it is incredible that Herod should live so long, considering the description Josephus gives of his distemper. Besides, it is evident, that the mourning of the Jewish people for the rabbies, at the passover next after Herod's death, was a very fresh, which it could not have been, if the rabbies had been dead above a year before. Moreover, it is evident, that Herod's ambassadors were sent away to Rome, to know Augustus's pleasure concerning Antipater, some time before the disturbance at the temple, when the golden eagle was taken down. And it is very plain, that Herod lived not " many days after the arrival of the ambassadors. So that, according to this opinion, these ambassadors must have spent above a year in their journey from Judea to Rome and back again, though they were sent upon very pressing business, which is also incredible. Or they must reject the account of the eclipse, and say, as Lamy" does, that it was only a paleness or obscurity, which was no real eclipse of the moon ; which, I believe, will appear very unreasonable to all astronomers.
These are the three principal opinions concerning the time of Herod's death : and these the main arguments for, and objections against them. I presume it appears to the reader, from particulars alleged from Josephus and Dio, that Herod did not die before the year 750, nor survive the year 751 : and that he died a short time before the Jewishi passover of one of these years. It follows, that if Herod died in 750, he died three years and nine months before the vulgar christian æra, which commences January 1, A. U. 754: if at the time above mentioned, in the year 751, then he died about two years and nine months before the said æra. Which is the truth, I am not able to determine,
Ην δε το πενθος 8κ υπεσαλμενον, αλλ' οιμωγαι διαπρύσιοι, και θρηνος EykNEUSOS, KOTETOL TE TREPINXOVTES ólny tnv noliv. De B.' I. ij. c. 1. sect. 2. Vid. et Ant. l. xvij. c. 9. sect. 1.
I De B. I. i. c. 32. fin. Ant. 1. xvii. c. 5. fin.
Ubi supra, sect. 6.
END OF THE FIRST PART.