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dream, he turned aside into the parts of Galilee,” Matt. ii. 21, 22.
By which words it is implied, not only that Archelaus succeeded Herod in Judea properly so called ; but also that his power did not reach over all the land of Israel, and particularly not to Galilee.
Josephus has informed us, that Herod, usually called the Great, by his last will and testament, which he made a little before his death, appointed Archelaus his successor in Judea, with the title of king; and assigned the rest of his dominions to Herod Antipas, and Philip, excepting only some small part, which he gave to his sister Saloune. However, the disposal of all was left to the determination of Augustus. This will the emperor ratified, as to the main parts of it. Archelaus was decreed successor to his father in Judea, Samaria, and Idumea, with the title of ethnarch : but was not to have the title of king, till he should do somewhat to deserve it. Herod Antipas was ap . pointed
tetrarch of Galilee and Peræa; and Philip, of Trachonitis and the neighbouring countries."
If Joseph returned out of Egypt immediately after the death of Herod, I presume no one will except against the propriety of the expression here made use of, that Archelaus reigned. For his father had in his last will appointed him his successor with the title of king. If this return out of Egypt be supposed not to have happened, till after the decree of Augustus was passed, by which Archelaus was forbid as yet to use the style of king'; yet no just exception will lie against St. Matthew's phrase. For Josephus himself
, who has given us an account of this limitation, calls Archelaus, the king that succeeded Herod. And he has used the verb reigning concerning the duration of his government.P And what in one place he calls a tetrarchy, in another, he calls a kingdom.
St. Matthew says, that " when Joseph heard that Archelaus did reign in Judea, he was afraid to go thither." There must have been some particular reason for this fear, and for his “turning aside into the parts of Galilee,” (by virtue of a pure choice of his own, or of a new direction from
n Jos. Ant. lib. xvii. c. 8. sect. l. de Bell. lib. i. c. 33. sect. 7. 8. et lib. ii. cap. 6. sect. 3.—Et gentem coercitam, liberi Herodis tripartito rexere. Tacit. Hist. lib. v. cap. 9.
• O ErikaTasadeus autq Baoilevs Apxelaog vios wv. Antiq. I. xviii. p. 802. v. 16, 17. ΡΩςε βασιλευσειν μεν αυτον τον των ταχυων αριθμον de B. lib. ii. c. 7. p. 1059. vid. etiam p. 789. v. 23. et p. 904. v. 20 Λυσανια τετραρχιαν p. 818. ν. 27. βασιλειαν την Λυσανια καλομενην" p. 1071.
heaven ;) though Galilee also was in possession of one of Herod's sons.
Some may infer from hence, that Archelaus must have had a bad character in Judea, even in his father's lifetime. And there are divers particulars in Josephus, which may confirm such a suspicion.
After his father's death, and before he could set out for Rome, to obtain of Augustus the confirmation of Herod's last will; the Jews, upon his not granting some demands they made, became very tumultuous at the temple. And he ordered his soldiers in among them, who slew above three thousand;" which was reckoned a great piece of severity, in the beginning of his reign, or rather whilst he was but a private person : for many reckoned him no more, till the succession was confirmed by Augustus.
As Archelaus went to Rome, so did Herod Antipas, and almost all the rest of the family. When they came thither, Herod made interest for Archelaus's share, which was called the kingdom : and the whole family favoured Herod's pretensions, “ not out of any love to him, but out of hatred • to Archelaus.'s
After Archelaus had left Judea, with the leave of Quintilius Varus, president of Syria, an embassy of fifty of the chief men of Jerusalem was sent to Rome, in the name of the whole nation, with a petition to Augustus, that they might be permitted to live according to their own laws under a Roman governor: and when they came to Rome, they were joined by above eight thousand Jews who lived there. They arrived before Augustus had given his sentence upon Herod's will. When he gave Archelaus and this embassy an audience, none of the royal family would attend Archelaus to support his interest; such was their aversion to him. • Nor did they join in with the embassy, being ashamed * to oppose so near a relation in the presence of Augustus.'
• And in the tenth year of his government," the chief of the Jews and Samaritans, not being able to endure his • cruelty and tyranny, presented complaints against him to • Cæsar. Augustus, having heard both sides, banished • Archelaus to Vienna in Gaul, and confiscated his treasury.'
Ant. lib. xvii. cap. 9. sect. 3. 8 Επει δε εις Ρωμην αφικετο (Αντιπας,) και πάντων των συγγενών αποστασις ην προς αυτόν, θκ ευνοια τη εκείνο, μισει δε τω προς Αρχελαον. ibid. sect. 4. Οποσοι δε συγγενεις ησαν προς Βασιλεως, Αρχελαω μεν συντεταχθαι δια μισος το προς αυτον ύσερον, τοις δε πρεσβεσιν ομοψηφειν κατ' αυτα δεινον ηγοντο, αισχυνη τη αυτων οιoμενοι γενήσεσθαι παρα Καισαρι κατ' ανδρος οικειο τoιαδε πρασσειν προθυMelodai. Antiq. lib. xvii. cap. 13. sect. 1. u A. D. 6 or 7.
Δεκατω δε ετει της αρχης Αρχελας, οι πρωτοι των αδελφων ανδρων εντε
Indeed, he seems to have been the worst of all Herod's sons, except Antipater, whom Herod had put to death five days before his own decease.
As the evangelists have said little concerning our Saviour after his return out of Egypt, and settlement in Galilee, till the time of his public ministry, when the government of Judea was in other hands, we find no farther mention made of Archelaus by them.
III. But of the two other sons of Herod between whom the other half of his dominions was divided, we have mention made long after this. For St. Luke says, Luke iii. 1, that when “ the word of God came to John, in the fifteenth year of Tiberius, Herod was tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Iturea, and the region of Trachonitis.” That is, they were then in possession of the same territories and titles, which were assigned them by their father's last will, and Augustus's decree. And it was this same Herod, tetrarch of Galilee, to whom our Saviour was sent by Pilate, Luke xxiii. 6, 7, when he was accused before him.
That Philip was tetrarch of Trachonitis, in the fifteenth year of Tiberius, we are assured by Josephus, who says, that · Philip the brother of Herod died in the twentieth year • of Tiberius when he had governed Trachonitis, and Batanea, • and Gaulanitis thirty-seven years.''
And Herod continued tetrarch of Galilee, till he was removed by Caligula, the successor of Tiberius.*
IV. Of this Herod some other things are related, namely, his marrying Herodias and beheading John the Baptist. These are mentioned by several of the evangelists, Matt. xiv. 1–13, Mark iv, 14-29, Luke iii. 19, 20. - I shall only set down St. Mark's account. “ For Herod had sent forth and laid hold upon John, and bound him in prison, for Herodias' sake, his brother Philip's wife; for he had married her. For John said unto Herod, It is not lawful for thee to have thy brother's wife: therefore Herodias had a quarrel against him, and would have killed him, but she could not. For Herod feared John, knowing that he was a just man and an holy, and observed him. And when a convenient day was come, that Herod on his birth-day made a supper to his lords, high captains, and chief estates of Galilee : and when the daughter of the said Herodias came in and
Ιεδαιοις και Σαμαρειταις μη φεροντες την ωμοτητα αυτά και τυραννιδα, κατη-
* Ibid. c. 8. sect. 2.
danced, and pleased Herod, and them that sat with him, the king said unto the damsel, Ask of me whatsoever thou wilt, and I will give it thee. And he sware unto her, Whatsoever thou wilt ask of me, I will give it thee, unto the half of my kingdom." Mark vi. 17–23.
This unlawful marriage is recorded in Josephus. •About this time there happened a difference between Aretas, king “ of Petrea, and Herod, upon this occasion. Herod the . tetrarch had married the daughter of Aretas, and lived a considerable time with her. But in a journey he took to Rome, he made a visit to Herod, y his brother; though not by the same mother, for Herod was born of Simon's the • high-priest's daughter. Here falling in love with
Herodias, the wife of the said Herod, daughter of their • brother Aristobulus, and sister of Agrippa the Great, he • ventured to make her proposals of marriage. She not • disliking them, they agreed together at this time, that • when he was returned from Rome, she should go and live * with him. And it was one part of their contract, that • Aretas's daughter should be put away.”
Josephus speaks again of this marriage in another place, from which it appears likewise, that Herodias had a daughter by her first husband. She is generally supposed to be the person, whose dancing so much entertained Herod, the tetrarch. Giving an account of Herod's children and grand-children he says : · Herodias was married to Herod,
son of Herod the Great, by Mariamne, daughter of Simon • the high-priest. They had a daughter whose name was • Salome, after whose birth, Herodias, in utter violation of • the laws of her country, left her husband then living, and • married Herod the tetrarch of Galilee, her husband's bro*ther by the father's side.'a
y Josephus here calls Herodias's first husband Herod. The Evangelists call him Philip. This difficulty will be considered amongst the objections.
* Εν τετω δε σασιαζεσιν Αρετας τε ο Πετραιος βασιλευς και Ηρωδης, δια τοιαυτην αιτιαν. Ηρωδης ο τετραρχης γαμει την Αρετα θυγατερα, και συνην χρονον ηδη πολυν" σελλομενος δ' επι Ρωμης καταγεται εν Ηρωδε αδελφε οντος ουχ ομομητρια" εκ γαρ της Σιμωνος τ8 αρχιερεως θυγατρος Ηρωδης εγεγονει ερασθεις δε Ηρωδιαδος της τετο γυναικος, θυγατηρ δε ην Αρισoβαλε, και ατος αδελφος αυτων, Αγριππε δε αδελφη το μεγαλε, τολμα λογων άπτεσθαι περι γαμων και δεξαμενης, συνθηκαι γινονται μετοικισασθαι προς αυτον, οποτε απο Ρωμης παραγενοιτο" ην δε εν ταις συνθηκαις, ωσε και το Αρετα την θυγατερα εκβαλειν. Αntig. 18. c. 6. sect. 1. * Ηρωδιας δε αυτων ή αδελφη γη μεται Ηρωδη Ηρωδε το μεγαλο παιδι, ός γεγονεν εκ Μαριαμνης της το Σιμωνος τ8 αρχιερεως, και αυτοις Σαλωμη γινεται, μεθ' ης τας γονας Ηρωδιας, επι συγχυσει φρονησασα των πατριων, Ηρωδη γαμειται τα ανδρος των ομοπατριω αδελφω, διασασα ζωντος. Την δε Γαλιλαιων τετραρχιαν ειχεν ουτος. ibid. sect 4.
It may, perhaps, be expected, I should here produce an instance about that time, of some lady of a like station with Herodias's daughter, who danced at a public entertainment. But I must own, I am not furnished with any instance exactly parallel. And I should conclude from this very story, as related by the evangelists, that this dance was a very unusual, if not a singular piece of complaisance. If it had been a common thing, it is not to be supposed that Herud would have thought of requiting it with so large a present as half his kingdom.
However, the daughter of the said Herodias, having received from Herod a solemn promise, confirmed by an oath, that he would give her “whatsoever she should ask of him,” and she having withdrawn and advised with her mother, Mark vi. 25, 27, 28, “ came with haste unto the king, and asked, saying, I will that thou give me by and by in a charger the head of John the Baptist.--And immediately the king sent an executioner, and commanded his head to be brought: and he went and beheaded him in the prison. And brought his head in a charger, and gave it to the damsel, and the damsel gave it to her mother.”
At the time of this event, it was common for princes to require the heads of eminent persons, whom they ordered for execution, to be brought to them, especially where there was any particular resentment.
We have an instance in Josephus, which follows the story of this marriage. Aretas was extremely provoked at the treatment of his daughter, and at length a war broke out betwixt him and Herod. A battle was fought, and Herod's troops were defeated. • Herod sent an account of this to • Tiberius; and he resenting the attempt of Aretas, wrote • to Vitellius to declare war against him, with orders, that • if he were taken prisoner he should be brought to him in
chains, and that if he were slain his head should be sent • to him.'b
Agrippina, then wife of Claudius, and mother of Nero, who was afterwards emperor, sent an officer to put to death Lollia Paulina, who had been her rival for the imperial dignity. And Dio Cassius says, that when Lollia's head was brought to her, not knowing it at first, she examined it with her own hands, till she perceived some particular feature, by which that lady was distinguished. I bave put down 6 Ant. lib. 19. cap. 6. sect. 1.
Και τηνγε Παυλιναν την Λολλιαν, , επειδαν ελπιδα τινα ες την τε Κλαυδια συνοικησιν εσχηκεν, απεκτεινε. την τε κεφαλην αυτης κομισθεισαν αυτη, μη γνωρισασα, το, τε σομα αυτης αυτοχειρια ηνεωξε, και της οδοντας εσκεψατο, ιδιως πως εχοντας. Dio. lib. lx. p. 686.