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e included in this celestial city whole nations, as Cappadoki cians, Scythians, and others, having in numberless multi

tudes at once settled in Rome.". This boast, in reality, • can relate only to the few quarters, or wards, where some * individuals of thofe nations, used chiefly to live. Vespa

fian's amphitheatre was about a hundred and fifty feet in height; yet Ammianus Marcellinus, book xvi. c. 16. is

pleased to say, that its height is scarce discernable by human eyes. In Pliny the elder's time, the eastern part of the city was terminated by the Agger Tarquini, or Tarquin's rampart, as it is to this day; and the monument of Cestius may be concluded to have been the western bounds, as the

ancient Romans did not admit of tombs, or fepulchral monuments, within the city. Towards the Ponte Molle, as in modern times, there was an open plain, in which Conftantine the Great drew up his army in order of battle ; and the Vatican Mount is known to have been entirely without any buildings. :)

It is very probable, both from the present ruins, and parFages of ancient writers, that in most places the walls of the

'modern city, were the limits of the ancient, and that the entire circumference of both was nearly equal; but

there is a very great difference in the number of the builde

ings on the same ground plot; for the plan of modern • Rome plainly thews, that one half of it is not built upon ; (and that those places on which the most splendid and magni« ficent structures anciently stood, are now turned to gardens, "fields, meadows, vineyards, and even waste ground. To • walk round the circuit of the city, including all the wind• ings and angles of the walls, takes up, at most, but four « hours, being about thirteen short Italian miles ; whereas a

tour round Paris, and its fuburbs, will require fix or seven 6 hours.

6 As to the number of inbabitants in ancient and modern « Rome, Livy, lib. i. c. 44. informs us, that in the time of

Servius Tullius the citizens were computed at eighty thou“ fand; which in the Consulship of Quintius, were increased

to a hundred and twenty-four thousand two hundred and « fourteen. (Idem. lib. iii. c. 3.) But it is not to be imagin

ed, that this number includes only such Roman citizens ag were housekeepers at Rome; it rather comprehends all who were made free of the city, though they resided in other parts of the empire. This honour at first was not fo cheap as it was afterwards under the prevalence of corruption, when this privilege was lavishly bestowed on whole cities Rri

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• and movinces; till at laf the Emperor Antoninus declared • all hoe boots of the Roman empire Citizens of Rome,

and thus finally abrogated the distinction which otherwise « had fuife. I continual violation. At first, the Roman legi+0.5 cung only of citizens of Rome; but this was foon " altcri 'The Lufrá were inftituted every fifth year for tag an account of the nurmber of the people, and the

pi" a 1 proportion of the taxes. In the Dictatorship of atos Fabius Maximus, the Roman citizens amount

editorundred and fourteen thousand; and this Lustrumi * was a burk of time, being carried on through all the pro• vinces. (Liv. lib. xxix. c. 37.). Before the civil wars, it

appears from Florus's eţitome of Livy, that the number of • Roran cit zers, at the highest calculation, was four hun• dred and filty thousand; but generally they were reckoned i to be twixt two and three hundred thousand, till the civil « difcords reduced them to a hundred and fifty thousand. This < calulation is attended with no difficulty, Plutarch and Ap

pian concurring in it; and the latter says, that the civil “ wars had destroyed above half the Roman citizens." Sue. « tonius, c. xli, in Cæsare, informs us, “ that Cæfar dimi66 nished the number of those to whom corn was diftributed e out of the public granaries, and that only three hundred 66 and twenty thousand partook of that donation." But on « thele occasions the question was not concerning citizenship, • but indigence; and thus all the common people who pré& ferited thi nfelves were gratified. These calculations being

indispute, we cannot but wonder at reading in Tacitus, • what he lays concerning the Emperor Claudius, Condidit lujiruin, (Ho crufa funt civium LXVIII cantena & LXIIII sila. “He ordered a Luftrum, by which the munter of

citizens was found to be fixty-nine claffes of a hundred, and fixty-four of a thousand each ;" for before, in the cico fome centuries, the number had increased but four . or fix fold. In the fhort interval between Cæfar's triumph

and Claudius's Luftrum, which, at most, was not above eight years, according to this account, the proportion had at once, as it were, role forty-six to one. This is either

owing to the negligence of transcribers, or Tacitus had • forced his computation upon very different grounds from “Livy. Posibly the case is, that in Tacitus's time the num• ber of serícns, men and women, old and young, intitled to the freedom of Rone, amounted to betwixt lix and fe« ven millions. They who ascribe to ancient Rome fuch an incredibic number of inhabitants, if they allow that its cir7

cumference

* cumference did not extend beyond the remains of its ancient

walls, must have recourse to the height of the houts, but

to very little purpose: for Strabo, in his firth bouk, men« tions an order of Auguftus, avaint buling hoole alove

feventy feet high ; and according to Aurelius Victor, Trajan reduced the standard to fixty teet, which is equal but !3

about four or five itories; cfpecially in het countries, 2210 s low rooms are very inconvenient.' Nov! ki is well krosa,

that this is the common height of the boules a Vienna, Ha4 ris, and other modern capital cities, and conquerit; in this point Rome had no particular advantage over time.

If Rome contained to many milions of louls, lee lidlc reason why Suetonius, in his Life of Pro, bond it' it 4 down, as something very extraordiniy, “this "cpSince « in one autumn had swept away not fit on thirty tho ind " people;" it being known from e orien, ihas in pelle lous cities the annual number of natural deaths is ab ;-tong

in twenty-six, or thirty. Hence it is creant, thai? city containing four millions and a brif of inabitants, accorda ing to the common courië of nature, without any police

interfering, must lose every quarter of a your above that & thousand of its inhabitants. London contains a millica of ? inhabitants, and the burials are annually about twenty-3% ? thousand; but the plague in King Charles the second's tine,

carried off ninety-seven thousand. Whatever was the nine

ber of the inhabitants of ancient Rome, it greatly cxcced < those of modern Rome. It appears froin Ciacconius's Life

of Gregory XI. that in 1376, all the fouls in Rome amount

ed only to thirty-three thousand. In the quiet and happy 6 reign of Pope Leo, according to Paulus Jovius, they were • increased to eighty-five thousand; but in the tumultuous

times, under Clement VII. they funk again fo low as thirty two thousand. In the year 1709, the number of births at

Rome, were three thousand fix hundred and fixty-two ? and the whole number of inhabitants amounted to a hundred • thirty-eight thousand five hundred and fixty-eight. Aiung

these were forty Bishops, two thousand fix hundre' and eighty-fix Priests, three thousand five hundred and fifty-zine * In the year 1716, a wager was laid at Hanover, betwixt

Lord Wharton and Count Monceau, concerning the number of . inhabitants of London, which the former affirmed to be fifteen • 'hundred'thousand. The decision of this wager was referred, by

letter, to the Lord Mayor of London ; who allowed my Lord

Wharton to be in the wrong, but judged the number to be, at • least, eleven hundred thousand.

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• Regulars,

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• Regulars, one thousand eight hundred and fourteen Nuns, • three hundred and ninety-three Courtezans, or common « Prostitutes, and fourteen Moors. In the above-mentoned • calculation, the Jews, who are generally above eight or

nine thousand, were not thought worthy to be included. Five years after this calculation was made, viz. 1714, in • the month of July, Pope Clement XI. ordered Carraccioli s to take an account of all the inhabitants of Rome, which

then amounted to an hundred and forty-three thousands whereas Paris can produce, at least, eight or nine hundred thousand, and London still more, as may be evidently seen by their yearly Bills of Mortality .

15.99 Oniti The last mentioned city, within these twenty years, has s increased prodigiously, and the difference between London . and Paris, will

plainly appear to any one who takes a view 6 of Paris from the cower of Notre Dame, and of London « from the upper gallery of St. Paul's. As to the number of

inhabitants, London is better adapted for it than Paris, « which abounds with spacious convents, the inhabitants of

which bear little proportion to their largeness. The Seine « also employs but few people, whereas the many hundreds of s large vessels, and some thousands of boats, which ply on the • Thames, maintain more people than are usually found in a • large city, Some conjecture may be formed of the number

of inhabitants at London, from the consumption of eatables ; for, my Lord Townsend, in the year 1725, aflured

the King of Pruffia, at Herenhaufen, which is confirmed by • exact registers, that, one day with another, it amounts to

twelve hundred oxen, besides which, above twenty thou• fand sheep, and twelve thousand hogs and calves, are con« sumed there every week *.

The sovereignty of ancient Rome over" a great part of " the world, may seem to raise it considerably above modern * Romebut the latter also glories in a monarchy raised by

the profoundest policy, and by an artifice of a very singular

nature; and in respect of dominion, especially before the s time of Luther, it almost surpassed even ancient Rome, "ac* cording to Prosper's words ;

According to Maitland's calculation for the same year, there were consumed in London, in 1725, 98,247 oxen, 711,123 • sheep and lambs, 194,760 calves, and 186,932 hogs, and a pro

portionable quantity of filh, fowl, and vegetables. I must be observad, that London is considerably increased fince that time. The number of houses, according to the fame authors in London, Weftminster, and Southwark, is 95,968.

. Faâa Cuput mundi quidquid non poffidet

armis 231 Relligione tenet. SV11513"

pewgte $ She is become the metropolis of the world; and those « countries where her arms have not penetrated, the holds by “the tenure of religion.”

With regard to external fplendor, its stately temples, and ! magnificent palaces, I am 'inclined to think that modern • Rome is fuperior to the ancient; at least in this particular • Idiffer from St. Auftin, who, preferably to all other things, • wilhed to have seen Chriftum in carne, Paulum in ore, Romam in flore. « Christ in the Aeth, St. Paul preaching, u rand Rome in its ancient glory.”

* What high ideas Petrarch entertained of the grandeur of ' ancient Rome, appears from the following beautiful lines of that celebrated poet :

Qui fu quella di Imperio antica sede,
Temuta in pace e triomfante in guerra.
Fu! perché altro che il loco hor non si vede.

Quella che Roma fu giace, s' atterra.
LR

Quest cui l'herba copre e calia il piede
Fur mali ad ciel vicine, & hor fon terra,

Roma che'l monda vinse, al tempo cede,
119:11
Che i piani inalza, e che l'altezza atterra.

Roma in Roma non e. Vulcano e Marte
La Grandezza di Roma a Roma han tolta,
Struggenda lopre e di Natura e di Arte

olio ofopra il mondo e'n polve e volta.
E fra queste ruine à terra fparte

In fe fella cadea morta e sepolta.
mai Here stood th' august and ancient seat of empire,
ved In war victorious, dreaded ev'n' in peace;
c'i« Here food, alas! its place is only seen,
*304.8. And what was Rome lies buried in its ruins.
2,"Those lofty structures, whose aspiring heads

« Tow'r'd up to heav'n, are leveli'd with the earth,
« O'ergrown with weeds and trampled under foot.
« Rome, which was once the mistress of the world,
« Yields to the tooth of all-devouring time,
" Which levels heights, and raises humble plains.
“ Rome is no longer Rome.-The fire and sword
“Her grandeur have destroy'd, and laid in dust
• The noble works of nature and of art ;
“And here her scatter'd fragments lie interr’d.”

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