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from the first Philippic what he still here admits to appear as the latter part of it, tho' Dionyfius assures us, and himself is persuaded of it, that it is a separate and complete piece, and was, indeed the sixth Philippic. Had this been done, we should not only have had in reality, but in appearance too, which is a circumstance that may well attend reality, eleven intire Orations of the twelve fo justly stiled Philippic. And that we have not the compleat twelve, may, as we presume, tho' our Author takes no notice of it, be imputed to this ; that, along with Libanius, he looks upon the Oration intitled wapi

Anovnog, and which in common editions precedes that on the Chersonesus, as not the genuine production of Demofthenes, but of Hegesippus, or somebody else. Yet we should have been pleased to have had our Author's reasons for determining thus; as he might have thrown, perhaps, more light on the subject than Libanius does.

We proceed next, to what is of more importance, to select a few of the many observations, sentiments, and reasonings, which dignify these Orations; and which, if duly attended to, might then have saved Athens, and may now be of service to us.

« First then, Athenians! these our affairs must not be • thought desperate; no, tho' their situation seems entirely

deplorable. For the most shocking circumstance of all our « past conduct, is really the most favourable to our future ex

pectations. And what is this? That our own total indo

lence hath been the cause of all our present difficulties. For « were we thus distressed, in spite of every vigorous effort ( which the honour of our state demanded, there were then

no hope of a recovery.—And if you (my countrymen !)

will now at length be persuaded to entertain the like senti<ments; if each of you, renouncing all evasions, will be

ready to approve himself an useful citizen, to the utmost « that his station and abilities demand : if the rich will be rea

dy to contribute, and the young to take the field: in one 6 word, if you will be yourselves; and banish those vain

hopes which every single person entertains, that while so ( many others are engaged in public business, his service will • not be required: you then (if heaven so pleases) will re

gain your dominions, recall those opportunities your supine

ness hath neglected, and chastise the insolence of this man. 6-Talk not of your ten thousands, or twenty thousands of < foreigners; of those armies which appear so magnificent on

paper ; but let them be the natural forces of the state.--In affairs of war, and warlike preparations, there is no order,

no

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(no certainty, no regulation. So that when any incident

alarms us, first, we appoint our Trierarchs *; then the supplies are considered. These points once settled, we resolve to man our fleet with strangers and foreigners; then, find

it necessary to supply their place ourselves. In the midst of o these delays, what we are sailing to defend, the enemy is al

ready master of: for the time of action we spend in pre

paring: and the junctures of affairs will not wait our flow cand irresolute measures. These forces too, which we think may

be depended on, until the new levies are raised, when put to the proof, plainly discover their insufficiency. By

these means hath he arrived to such a pitch of insolence.-+ They who conduct a war with prudence, are not to follow,

but to direct events ; to direct them with the same absolute

authority, with which a general leads on his forces : that (the course of affairs may be determined by them, and not < determine their measures. But you, Athenians, although • poffefsed of the greatest power of all kinds, ships, infantry, < cavalry, and treasure ; yet to this day have never employed

any of them seasonably; but are ever the last in the field. • Just as barbarians engage at boxing, so you make war with

Philip: for when one of these receives a blow, that blow engages

him: if he is struck in another part, to that part 6 his hands are shifted : but to ward off the blow, or to watch

his antagonist; for this, he hath neither skill nor fpirit, - Even so, if you hear that Philip is in the Chersonesus, you « resolve to send forces thither; if in Thermopylæ, thither; <if in any other place, you hurry up and down, you follow 6 his standard. But no useful scheme for carrying on the war,

no wise provisions ever thought of, until you hear of some en6 terprize in execution, or already crowned with success. This

might formerly have been pardonable, but now is the very

critical moment, when it can by no means be admitted." To me it is astonishing, that none of you looks back to the - beginning of this war,, and considers that we engaged in it " to chastise the infolence of Philip; but that now it is be

come a defensive war, to secure us from his attempts.—So shamefully are we degenerated, that each of our command

ers is twice or thrice called before you, to answer for his • life, though not one of them dared to hazard that life, by

once engaging his enemy. No; they chuse the death of robbers and pilferers, rather than to fall as becomes them (a).

Admirals. (a) Taken from his first Philippic, p. 1, 3, 6, 13, 14, 15, 16.

. How

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How is it that our affairs were once so flourishing, and now in such disorder ? Because, formerly, the people dar«ed to take up arms themselves; were themselves masters of « their ministers; themselves disposers of all emoluments : so • that every citizen thought himself happy, to derive honours 6 and authority, and all advantages whatever, from the peo

ple. But now, on the contrary, favours are all dispensed,

affairs all transacted, by the minifters: while you, quite • enervated, robbed of your riches, your allies, stand in the

mean rank of servants and asistants, --It never has, nor I could it have been moved by me, that the rewards of the di. <ligent and active, should be bestowed on the useless citizen:

or that you should fit here, fupine, languid, and irresolute, « listening to the exploits of some General's foreign troops ; < for thus it is at present. Not that I would reflect on him

who serves you, in any infance. But you yourselves, A" thenians, should perform those services for which you heap • honours upon others; and not recede from that illustrious

rank of virtue, the price of all the glorious toils of your an« cestors; and by them bequeathed to you (1).

• It is not the conquest of Athens which Philip aims at:

no; it is our extirpation. He knows full well, that slavery • is a state you would not, or if you were inclined, you could • not submit to ; for sovereignty is become habitual to you. « Nor is he ignorant, that at any unfavourable juncture, you

have more power to obstruct his enterprizes, than the whole * world besides.--I should not have thought myself a good citi

zen had I proposed such measures as would have made me the ' first among my countrymen, but reduced you to the last of « nations. On the contrary, the faithful minifter should raise

the glory of his country ; and, upon all occasions, advise

the most falutary, not the easiest measures. You should < send Embassadors into all parts, to inform, to remonstrate,

to exert all their efforts in the service of the state. But,

above all things, let those corrupt Ministers feel the feverest • punishment; let them at all times, and in all places, be

the objects of your abhorrence.(c)

( What is the cause of all this? (for there must be fome ' 'cause, some good reason to be assigned, why the Greeks

were once so jealous of their liberty, and are now so ready « to submit to savery.) It is this, Athenians ! Formerly « men's minds were animated with that, which they now feel o no longer, which conquered all the opulence of Perfia,

(6) Olynthiac the second, p. 46, 47, 48.-
(c) Cn the state of Chertorefus, p. 103, 105, 106.

« main

« maintained the freedom of Greece, and triumph'd over the

powers of sea and land: but now that it is lost, universal ruin

and confusion overspread the face of Greece. What is this? • nothing subtile or mysterious'; nothing more than an unani

mous abhorrence of all those who accepted bribes from Prin

ces, prompted by the ambition of fubduing, or the bare intent (of corrupting Greece. To be guilty of such practices, was « accounted a crime of the blackest kind; a crime, which o called for all the severity of public juftice; no petitioning • for mercy, no pardon was allowed. So that neither Orator « nor General could sell those favourable conjunctures, with

which fortune oftentimes assists the supine against the vigi.. lant ; and renders men, utterly regardless of their interests, « fuperior to those who exert their utmost efforts: nor were

mutual confidence among ourfelves, diftruft of tyrants, and « barbarians, and such-like noble principles, subject to the

power of gold. But now are all thefe expofed to fale, as • in a public mart: and, in exchange, such things have been 6 introduced, as have affected the safety, the very vitals of • Greece. What are these? Envy, when a man hath re• ceived a bribe; laughter if he confesses it; pardon, if he • be convicted; resentment at his being accused; and all the • other appendages of corruption. For as to naval power, « troops, revenues, and all kinds of preparations, every thing « that is esteemed the strength of a state, we are now much • better, and more amply provided, than formerly: but they • have lost all their force, all their efficacy, all their value, by means of these traffickers (d).

• White (d) As the above paffage is that of the largest extent we have. cited, or shall cite, in our extracts from these Orations, we here fubjoin to it the Greek text, that Judges may discern the precision and spirit of our Translator, and recommend the performance accordingly : a performance, which we have compared, through whole orations, with the original; and with so much fatisfaction, that we may here collate

Τι ουν αιθιον τουλωνι και 8 γαρ ανευ λογου και διιαιας αλιας ελε το9 εως είχον ελοιμως προς ελευθεριαν απαλες οι ελληνες, ουδε νυν προς το δουλευειν. ην

τ' ανδρες αθηναιοι, εν ταις των πολλών διανοιαις, ο νυν εκ εσιν, ο και τα σερσων εκρατησε πλαία, και ελευθερας ηγε την ελλαδα, και ούτε ναυμαχιας εθε σεζης μαχης εδεμιας ητταίο. νυν δ' απολωλος, απαλα λελυμανται, και ανω και καίω πεποιηκε τα των ελληνων πραγμαία. τι 8ν ην τελο και δεν ποικιλον ουδε σοφον" αλλ' ότι τους παρα των αρχειν αει βαλομενων η και διαφθειρείν την ελλαδη, χρημαία λαμβανονίας, απαλες εμίσουν και χαλες παλαιον ην, το δωροδοκανα εξελεγχθηναι' και τιμωρια μεγιση τείον εκολαζαν και παραίτησης εδεμια ην, υδε συγγνωμη τον εν καιρου εκασθ των πραγμαων, η τυχη και τους αμελεσι καλα των προσεχονίων, και τους μηδεν εθελουσι σοιειν, καια των παλα και προσηκεν αραιτολων πολλακις σας 2

ρασκευαζει,

a venture.

( While the vessel is fafe, whether it be great or small, o the mariner, the pilot, every person should exert himself • in his particular station, and preserve it from being wreck

ed, either by villainy or unskilful ness. But when the o sea hath once broken in, all care is vain. And therefore, • Athenians, while we are yet fafe, poffefied of a powerful

city, favoured with many resources, our reputation illu< ftrious, what are we to do? (perhaps some have fat with • impatience to ask.) I shall now give my opinion, and

propose it in form; that if approved your voices may con

firm it. Having, in the first place, provided for your de• fence, fitted out your navy, raised your supplies, and array6. ed

your forces: (for altho' all other people fhould submit to • slavery, you should still contend for freedom.) Having

made fuch provifion, (I fay) and this, in the fight of • Greece; then we are to call others to their duty; and for < this purpose, to send Ambassadors into all parts, to Pelo« ponnesus, to Rhodes, to Chios, and even to the King : • (for he is by no means unconcerned to oppose the rapidity of <this man's progress.)-(e)

• At present, your conduct must expose you to derision.

Nay, I call the powers to witness, that you are acting as if · Philip's wishes were to direct you. Opportunities escape

you; your treasures are wafted; you shift the weight of public business upon others; break into pasiion; criminate each other. If from the variety of merchandizes, and plen

ty of provisions, you flatter yourselves that the State is not ' in danger, you judge unworthily and falsely. Hence, we • might determine whether our markets were well or ill

supplied: But 'the strength of that State which is regarded by all who aim at the sovereignty of Greece, as the sole ob

stacle to their designs, the well-known guardian of Liberty, ' is not surely to be judged of by its vendibles. No; we should

enquire whether it be secure of the affections of its allies; " whether it be powerful in arms. These are the points to be

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δ' απανθ, ωσπερ

φασκευαζει, 8κ ην αριασθαι σαρα των λεγούλων, εδε των σραλαγουλων, εθε την προς αλλήλους ομονοιαν, εδε την προς τας βαρβαρους και τους τυράννους απιςιαν, ουδ' ολως των τομείων εδεν.

αγορας, εκπεπραίαι ταύλα" αυθεισηκαι δε αι τελων, υφων απολωλε και νενοσηκεν η ελ. λας. ταυλα δ' εςι τι και ζηλος ει τις ειληφε τι γελως, αν ομολογη" συγγνωμη τους ελεγχομενοις" μισος, αν τελoις τις επιτιμα ταλλα σανlα οσα εκ το δωροδοκειν ηρθηλαι. Επει τριηρεις γε και σωμαίων αληθος, και χρηματων προσοδοι, και της αλλης κατασκευης αφθονια, και τάλλα οις αν τις ισχυειν τας πολεις κρινοι, νυν απανία και αλείων και μειζω εςι των τοίε πολλω. Αλλ' απαθα ταυλα αχρησα, απρακια, ανoνήλα, υπο των πυλενίων, γινεται» (e) Philippic the third, p. 119, 120, 126.

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