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ple, had furnished him with the means of being perfectly ( well acquainted with the customs and manners of the inha<bitants' he has therefore enlarged his plan, and instead of confining himself to such objects as were sufficient for the purpose of his profession, he presents his readers with a particular account of such things as feemed most to merit attention.

Our Author is pleased to make an apology for his stile, which, whether neceffary or not, our readers will determine from such extracts as we shall lay before them.

" When it is confidered, that the Author resided many

years abroad, and conversed daily in other languages more o than in his own, which he had but little leisure to cultivate, < the defects in his stile, it is hoped, will be forgiven.'

And again, at the end of his advertisement to the Reader, we have another specimen of the Author's diffidence and modesty, which should not only bespeak our candour, but give us assurance of his fidelity in what he relates. • How far the

Author's abilities have been equal to the task he has under< taken, the public will judge, and he entreats their candour. « That he has had fair opportunities of observing, that he has « given a faithful narrative of facts, and that he has used no « false colouring in his representation, he presumes to appeal s to his cotemporaries and acquaintance; who, in visiting o these places again in his description, may, perhaps, call to « mind many agreeable hours they have spent in these scenes, « so far distant from their native country.'

The description our Author gives of Aleppo is as follows: · This city and suburbs stand on eight small hills, or emi

nences, none of them considerable, except that in the middle 6 of the place, on which the castle is erected. This mount is • of a conic form, and seems, in a great measure, to be arti<ficial, and raised with the earth thrown up out of a broad deep • ditch that surrounds it. The suburbs, called Sheih il Arab, 6 to the N. N. E. are next in height to this, and those to the 6 W.S. W. are much lower than the parts adjacent, and than any other parts

of the city. • An old wall, not a little decayed, and a broad ditch, 6 now in most places turned into gardens, furround the city, is the circumference of which is about three miles and an half;

but, including the suburbs, which are chiefly to the north• east, the whole may be about seven miles *.

- Two hours and four minutes on horseback, in the usual way of riding for pleasure, which, I am apt to believe, is nearer four miles, than three and a half per hour.

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« The houses are composed of apartments, on each of the '' sides of a square court all of stone, and consist of a ground < floor, which is generally arched, and an upper story, which o is flat on the top, and either terraced with hard plaister, or

paved with stone. Their ceilings are of wood, neatly paint• ed, and sometimes gilded, as are also the window-shutters,

the pannels of some of their rooms, and the cupboard-doors, 6 of which they have a great number: these taken together, • have a very agreeable effect. Over the doors and windows o within the houses of the Turks, are inscribed passages out 6 of the Koran, or verses, either of their own composition, or • taken from some of their most celebrated poets. The Chrif<tians generally borrow theirs from Scripture.

• In all their houses the court-yard is neatly paved, and, for, the most part, has a bason with a jet d'eau in the middle, on one or both sides of which, a small spot is left unpaved for

sort of garden, which often does not exceed a yard or two « square; the verdure, however, which is here produced, to• gether with the addition of a few flowers in pots, and the o fountains playing, would be a very agreeable sight to the

passenger, if there were openings to the street, through which ! these might be discovered; but they are entirely shut up with « double doors, fo contrived, as that, when open, one cannot

look into the court-yard; and there are no windows to the • street, except a very few in their upper rooms; fo that no

thing is to be seen but dead walls, which make their streets appear very disagreeable to Europeans.

. Most of the better fort of houses have an arched alcove 6 within this court, open to the north, and opposite to the • fountain; the pavement of this alcove is raised above a foot 6 and an half above that of the yard, to serve for a divan * « Between this and the fountain the pavement is generally laid

out in Mosaic work, with various coloured marble; as is • also the floor of a large hall, with a cupola-roof, which « commonly has a fountain in the middle, and is almost the • only tolerably cool room in their houses during the summer.

* 'Divan is a part of the room raised above the floor, as is said • in the text : this is spread with a carpet in winter, in summer with * fine matts; along the sides are thick matrasses, about three feet • wide, covered commonly with scarlet-cloth, and large bolsters of • brocade, hard ftuffed with cotton, are set against the walls, (or rails, • when so fituated as not to touch the wall) for the conveniency of • leaning. As they use no chairs, it is upon these they fit, and all • their rooms are so furnished. The word divan is also used to sig. nify a number of people affembled in council.

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• The people of fashion have in the outer court, but one or two rooms below stairs for themselves, the rest are for « fervants and stabling; the pavement of this is but rough, as o their horses stand there all the summer, except a few hours

in the middle of the day. Above stairs is a colonade, if

not round the whole court, at least fronting the west, off < from which are their rooms and kiosks; these latter are a « sort of wooden divans, that project a little way from the 6 other part of the building, and hang over the street; they 6 are raised about one foot and an half higher than the floor o of the room, to which they are quite open, and by having ( windows in front, and on each side, there is a great draught

of air, which makes them cool in the summer, the advan

tage chiefly intended by them. Beyond this court is ano? ther, containing the womens apartments, built much in the < same manner that I have described the other houses ; some

few of them have a tolerable garden, in which, as well as in • the outer yard, there is generally a tall cypress-tree.

• The mosques in Aleppo are numerous, and some few of. ( them magnificent; before each is a square area, in the mid(dle of which is a fountain for the appointed ablutions before • prayers, and behind some of the larger mosques there is a 6

. · Befides these open spaces, there are many large khanes,

or (as most travellers call them) caravan saraijs, consisting • of a capacious square, on all sides of which are built on the

ground floor, a number of rooms, used occasionally for <tables, warehouses, or chambers. Above stairs, a colonade i occupies the four sides, to which opens a number of small (rooms, wherein the merchants, as well strangers as natives, 6 transaćt most of their business.

The streets are generally narrow, but, however, are well « paved, and kept remarkably clean.

- The market-places, called here bazars, are properly long,

covered, narrow streets, on each side of which are a number < of small shops, just sufficient to hold the tradesınan (and perhaps

one or two more) with all the commodities he deals in about • him, the buyer being obliged to stand without. Each fe

parate branch of bufiness has a particular bazar allotted them, and these, as well as the streets, are all locked up an hour and

an half after fun-fet, and many of them earlier, which is a < great security against house-breakers. It deserves to be re

membered, that tho' their doors are mostly cased with iron, yet their locks are made of wood,


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In the suburbs, to the eastward, are their slaughter-houses, • in a very airy place, with a large open field before them.

The tanners have a khane, where they work, in the south6 west

part of the town, near the river. « To the southward, just without the walls in the suburbs, « they burn lime; and a little way further, is a small village,

where they make ropes and catgut, which last manufacture • is, at some seasons, extremely offensive. • In Mesherka, which is part of the suburbs on the

Oppo< site side of the river, to the westward, is a glafs-house, where • they make a coarse kind of white glass, but they work only

a few months in the winter, the greatest part of this manufacture being brought from a village called Armenass, about

thirty-five miles to the westward, from whence also they < bring the sand used in their glass-house at Aleppo.

«The city is fupplied with very good water from some • springs near the banks of the river at Heylan, about five (miles to the north north east, which is conveyed from thence

by an aqueduct, and distributed to the different parts of the

town by earthen pipes. There is a tradition, that this aque• duct was the work of the Empress Helena, and that from

her the springs took their present name: this water is suffi• cient for the necessary purposes of drinking, cookery, &c, • Besides this, almost every house has a well, but the water

of these, being brackish, is only employed in washing their court-yards, and filling the reservoirs for their fountains.

« The fuel used in their houses, is wood and charcoal; for cheating their bagnios, they burn the dung of animals, leaves

of plants, parings of fruit, and such like, which they em• ploy people to gather and dry for that purpose.

The markets are well supplied with provisions, of which we shall have occasion to give a more particular account. < For at least four or five miles round Aleppo, the ground is very stony and uneven, having a number of small eminences, most of which are as high as any part of the city,

From the west-south-west, to the north-west by west, this « fort of country continues for at least twenty miles, with a < number of small fertile plains interspersed. To the north« ward and southward, after about fix or seven miles, the

country is level, and not stony. To the eastward, a vast plain commences, which, tho it is called the Defart, yet

for a great many miles beyond Aleppo, affords a fine fer< tile foil.

• In clear weather, the top of Mount Cassius, bearing west ! by fouth, and part of the mountains called Amanus, are to

« be

« be seen from several places of the city; but as the nearest of « these, viz, that part of Amanus which stretches to the east

ward, and approaches to Killis, is at least thirty miles distant

from Aleppo, they can be supposed to have but very little 6 influence upon

the air of the place, any more than a small « conical rocky hill, called Sheih Barakat, at about twenty

miles to the west by north, and a narrow chain of low

rocky hills, usually named the Black Mountains, to the 6 south-south-east, at about ten miles distance.

« The river Coic * (if a stream scarce fix or eight yards (wide, deserves that name) passes along the western part of

the city, within a few yards of the walls, and barely serves ( to water a narrow flip of gardens upon its banks, reaching

from about five miles north to about three miles south of the town.

Besides these gardens, there are a few more, near “a village called Bab-Allah, about two miles to the north• east, which are supplied by the aqueduct.

“The rising grounds above the gardens, to which the water cannot be conveyed, are in some places laid out in vineyards, interspersed with olive, fig, and pistachio trees, as are also many spots to the eastward, where there are no gardens.

Inconsiderable as this stream and these gardens may appear, yet they contain almost the only water and trees that are to be met with for twenty or thirty miles round; for the villages are all destitute of trees, and most of them only supplied with water by what rain they can save in cisterns.' It is worthy notice what our Author observes, p. 11. • In all Syria there is but one river, (the Orontes) that having its rise on the land-side of the high mountains, finds its way to the sea; the rest, which indeed are but few and in

considerable, being soon absorbed by the thirsty plains through • which they run, more especially as they receive but very

few supplies in their passage: and even the Orontes, tho ' • it be swelled by a number of little brooks from the high « mountains behind which it runs, and derives a farther supply from the lake of Antioch, yet seems as considerable

a great many miles above Antioch, as where it empties itself o into the Mediterranean.'

Concerning the seasons, Dr. Ruffel says, in general, they are exceeding regular at Aleppo, where the air is usually healthy, and so pure and free from damps, that all the inhabitants, of whatever rank they may be, sup and sleep in their court

# The antient Singas.


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