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acacia in full blossom, large white arums geraniums and myrtles grew in profusion, while the garden of Lord Napier's house was a wilderness of China roses. We climbed the steep path up to the flag-staff and gazed on the once familiar view so very lovely now in the summer brightness.

The sweet waters of Asia are situated just below Anatoli Hissar, and thus exactly opposite to Humeli Hissar; these two fortresses are called by Europeans the Castles of Europe and Asia, being built as defences for the narrowest part of the Bosphorus. Here Darius crossed with his army, with horses, elephants, and camels, on his expedition against the Scythians. On a stone pillar on each shore were inscribed the names of the nations who crossed with him. Here was also the rock cut into the form of a throne, where Darius sat and contemplated the march of his army from Asia to Europe; to the building of the walls of this fortress



were applied the pillars and altars of the Church of St. Michael which had been built at Koulali. The Castle of Europe was built 1451, two years before the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople; the Castle of Asia had been erected some time previously. This latter was once called Guzel Hissar, i. е.,

the beautiful castle ; but terrible tales would be told could those ruined walls find a tongue, for afterwards they named the beautiful castle the Black Tower, for many

hundreds here met their death from torture and cruelty. Strange that in a spot which God has made fair beyond the power of language to describe, man has delighted in the cry of agony. Many other armies have followed the example of Darius, and crossed the Bosphorus at this point,-Persians, Goths, Latins, and Turks.

The Castle of Asia is entirely in ruins, but the Castle of Europe is still standing. It was built intending to form the Turkish



characters of M H MD, which make the name of the founder Mahomet II.

After rowing three miles down we came to the narrow creek leading to the sweet waters, about a quarter of a mile in length; the name of this creek or small river is Göhsu, i.e., the heavenly water. It is considered the most lovely spot in Asia—the water has rather a sweet taste, from whence has arisen its name—it is always called sweet waters. Each side is hung with trees bending down to the water's edge. At the end of the creek we generally landed and walked in the green fields beyond. The pleasure of this excursion principally consisted in our being able to say, we could fancy ourselves in England. The scenery rather reminded some of us of that in the south of Devonshire.

On Friday (the Turkish Sabbath), the valley of the sweet waters is the favourite rendezvous of the Turkish ladies. They



assemble beneath some large green trees in a field on the banks of the sweet waters; close by rises a new palace the Sultan is building. The windings of the Bosphorus, and its hills crowned with kiosks, and its banks crowded with houses can be seen for some distance as one stands in the valley of sweet waters. The white and ivy covered towers of the Castle of Europe form a striking picture in the landscape; near the banks is a marble fountain, richly ornamented with carving ; but on a Friday the scene in the valley itself almost distracted one's attention from the landscape.

Under the trees are spread carpets and cushions of various colours, upon these recline the Turkish ladies sitting in groups clothed in dresses of every bright hue green, blue, red, pink, yellow, orange,

Some are smoking, some are drinking coffee out of their tiny cups, some buying sweatmeats and toys-vendors of

violet, &c.



these are straying about in all directionschildren in their quaint Turkish dresses, miniatures of their elders, are playing about -heavy Turkish carriages containing the Sultanas and other ladies of high rank, drive slowly round the field-Greek ladies and gentlemen, and children, and French ditto. Here and there an Albanian diversifies the


We here observed one of the most beautiful women we had seen since we came to Turkey. She was seated on a pile of cushions under a large tree, and was dressed in a pale lavender cashmere, a white yashmac, feridjee, and yellow gloves—these latter articles being only worn by ladies of high rank; and from the number of slaves which surrounded her we guessed her to be a person of distinction. It was her perfect grace of attitude which struck us; for although one may often see a beautiful face in Turkey, it is generally accompanied by an awkward, ungraceful

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