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frequently support a variety of characters, the Let it be further observed, for the elucidation prince and the beggar, the young and the old- of a very striking passage in 1 Cor. iv. 9, that in change their dress according to the characters in the Roman amphitheatre the bestiarii, who in the which they respectively appear, by turns laying morning combated with wild beasts, had armour aside one habit and assuming another, agreeably with which to defend themselves, and to annoy to every condition and age. The apostle seems to and slay their antagonist. But the LAST who allude to this custom; and his expressions, regarded were brought upon the stage, which was about in this light, have a peculiar beauty and energy, noon, were a miserable number, quite naked, withwhen he exhorts Christians to put off the old man, out any weapons to assail their adversary, with with his deeds," and to “put on the new man

immediate and inevitable death before them in all (Coloss. iii. 9, 10); to “put of concerning the its horrors, and destined to be mangled and butchformer conversation the old man, which is corrupt ered in the direst manner. In allusion to this according to the deceitful lusts; and be renewed custom, with what sublimity and energy are the in the spirit of your minds, and put on the new man, apostles represented to be brought out Last upon which after God is created in righteousness and the stage, as being devoted to certain death, and true holiness,” Eph. iv. 22–24.

being made a PUBLIC SPECTACLE to the world, to 3. It is also well known that, in the Roman angels and men !—“ For I think that God hath theatres and amphitheatres, malefactors and cri- set forth us the apostles last, as it were, appointed minals were condemned to fight with lions, bears, to death : for we are made a spectacle to the world, elephants, and tigers, for which all parts of the to angels and men.” Dr. Whitby's illustration of Roman dominions were industriously ransacked, this distinguished passage is accurate and judito afford this very polite and elegant amusement cious. “Here the apostle seems to allude to the to this most refined and civilized people! The Roman spectacles, that of the bestiarii and the wretched miscreant was brought upon the stage, gladiators, where in the morning men were brought regarded with the last ignominy and contempt by upon the theatre to fight with wild beasts, and to the assembled multitudes, made a gazing-stock to the them was allowed armour to defend themselves, world, as the apostle expresses it; and a wild and smite the beasts that assailed them : but in beast, instigated to madness by the shouts and the meridian spectacle were brought forth the light missive darts of the spectators, was let loose gladiators naked, and without any thing to defend upon him, to tear and worry him in a miserable them from the sword of the assailant, and he that manner. To this sanguinary and brutal custom the then escaped was only reserved for slaughter anfollowing expressions allude :-“ Ye endured a other day ; so that these men might well be called, great fight of afflictions, partly whilst you were men appointed for death ; and this being the last made a gazing-stock, both by reproaches and aftlic- appearance on the theatre for that day, they are tions," Heb. x. 32, 33. The original is very em- said here to be set forth the last." + phatic: being openly exposed, as on a public theatre, to ignominious insults and to the last cruelties. In another passage, also, Paul, speaking of the de- and mercenary preachers are styled wolves, that will enter and termined fierceness and bigotry with which the phor to denote the malice and rage of his adversaries.

ravage the fold, Acts xx. 29. The apostle uses a harsh metacitizens of Ephesus opposed him, uses a strong ware of dogs,” Phil. iii. 2. Had Paul been tbus engaged, says metaphorical expression taken from the theatre. Dr. Ward, it is difficult to apprebend how he could have escaped * If after the manner of men I have fought with without a miracle. For those who conquered the beasts were

afterwards obliged to fight with men, till they were killed thembeasts at Ephesus," 1 Cor. xv. 32. Not that the selves.— It seems most reasonable, therefore, to understand the apostle appears to have been actually condemned expression as metaphorical, and that he alludes to the tuinult by his enemies to combat with wild beasts in the raised by Demetrius. He uses the like metaphor, and with retheatre : he seems only to have employed this spect to the same thing, 1 Cor. iv. 9, and again, ver. 13, allud

ing to another custom. As to the expression, after the manner strong phraseology to denote the violence and of men, the sense seems to be, speaking after the manner of ferocity of his adversaries, which resembled the men. -- Dissertations on Scripture, Diss. xlix. pp. 200, 201. The rage and fury of beasts; and to compare his con- very sanie word which the apostle here employs, to denote the tention with these fierce pagan zealots and fana- fury and violence of his adversaries, is used by Ignatius in the

“ Be

like metaphorical sense.—“All the way from Syria to Rome, tics, to the common theatrical conflicts of men by sea and by land, by night and by day, do I fight with wild with wild beasts. *

beasts.”—“I advise you to beware of beasts in the shape of men.” So also the Psalmist, “ My soul is aniong lions, even the sons of men, whose teeth are spears and arrows,” Ps. Ivii.

4. “Break their teeth, O God, in their mouths : break out the * The same metaphors are of frequent occurrence in the New great teeth of the young lions, O Lord,” lviii. 6. Testament; Herod is called a fox, Luke xiii. 32. Hypocrites + Comment, in loc.--Harwood's Introduction, vol. ii., are called wolves in sheep's clothing, Matt. vii. 15. Rapacious 36–46.





religiously inspected, that the combatants might acquit themselves in the conflict in a manner

worthy the Grecian name, worthy the sacred so1. Various Exercises in the Olympic Games-2. Qualifications lemnity of the occasion, and worthy those crowds

of the Candidates—3. Preparatory Discipline - 4. Introduc- of illustrious spectators by whom they would be tion into the Stadium-5. The Foot-race-6. Boxing—7. surrounded. Manner of contending-8. Rewards of the Victors-9. Record of the Victors-10. Allusions to these Games in the

3. Many passages in the Greek and Roman New Testament.*

classics mention the extreme strictness, temper

ance, and continence which the candidates were The most splendid and celebrated solemnities obliged to observe. Those who taught the gymwhich ancient history has transmitted to us, were nastic art, prescribed to their disciples the kind the Olympic games. Historians, orators, and of meat that was proper, the quantity they were poets abound with references to them, and their to eat, and the hours at which they were to take sublimest imagery is borrowed from these cele- it

. (This was called avayxo$aysıv.) They prebrated exercises. They were celebrated every scribed to them likewise the hours of their exerfifth year by a great concourse of people from cise and rest. They forbade them the use of wine almost all parts of the world, with the greatest and women ;t as Horace tells us (Art. Poet, pomp and magnificence. Elis was a scene of uni- line 412). versal festivity and joy, and hecatombs of victims were slain in honour of the immortal gods. We A youth who hopes th' Olympic prize to gain, find that the most formidable and opulent sove- All arts must try, and every toil sustain ; reigns of those times were competitors for the

Th' extremes of heat and cold must often prore, Olympic crown: judging their felicity completed,

And shun the weak’ning joys of wine and love. and the career of all human greatness and glory

FRANCIS happily terminated, if they could but interweave the Olympic garland with the laurels they had But the following passage in Epictetus is purchased in fields of blood. Hence Horace says, perhaps, most full and in point: “Do you Ode 1:

to gain the prize at the Olympic games? Con

sider the requisite preparations, and the conseIn clouds the Olympic dust to roll,

quences, and then, if it be for your advantage, To turn with kindling wheels the goal,

engage in the affair : you must conform to rules; And gain the palm, victorious prize, Exalt a mortal to the skies.

olserve a strict regimen; must live on food which Francis.

you dislike; you must abstain from all delicacies; 1. The Olympic exercises principally consisted must exercise yourself at the necessary and proin running, wrestling, and the chariot-race ; for scribed times both in heat and in cold; you must leaping, throwing the dart and discus, were parts drink nothing cooling ; take no wine as formerly: of what they called the Pentathlon.

in a word, you must put yourself under the direr2. The candidates were to be freemen, and per- tions of a pugilist, as you would under those of a sons of unexceptionable character. A defect in physician; and afterwards enter the lists. Here legitimacy, or in personal character, totally dis- you may dislocate your arm, put your foot out of qualified them. It was indispensably necessary joint, swallow abundance of dust, receive many for them previously to submit to a severe regimen, stripes, and after all, be conquered. When you and preparatory exercises. They prescribed them have reckoned up all this, if your inclination still selves a particular course of diet; and they were holds, set about the combat."I Thus the borcls required, when they had given in their names as was to be purified and lightened by strict temcandidates to be enrolled in the list of competi-perance

, braced by exercise, and hardened by tors, to resort to Elis, and reside there thirty days being inured to the changes of the atmosphere. before the games commenced ; where their regi- 4. After this preparatory discipline, on the day men and exercises were regulated and directed by appointed for the celebration of the gaines, a a number of illustrious persons, who were appointed every day to superintend them. This form of diet was authoritatively prescribed and

+ This whole course, which lasted for many years, Aornous, exercise. Hence the ancient monks, who imateu

and even outstripped the Athletes in their rules of temperane, * The materials composing this section have been derived and in the laboriousness of their exercises, were cailed from Harwood's Introd., vol. ii., pp. 1-22 ; West's Disserta

Aorytat, Ascetics. fiom ou the Olympic Games; and Drs. A. Clarke and Mac- Mrs. Carter's translation of Arian, pp. 268, 209, Louie knight on the passages cited.

1758, 4to,


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herald, or crier, publiely proclaimed the names of The barrier when he quits the dazzled sight the combatants, and the combat in which they In vain essays to catch him in his flight. were to engage, agreeably to a register kept for

Lost is the racer through the whole career,

'Till victor at the goal he re-appear. that purpose by the judges, who were called Hellanodics. When their names were published, the Of the manner of boxing at these games, Virgil's combatants appeared, and were examined, whether account of the match between Entellus and Dares they were free men, and Grecians, and of an un-|(Æneid v. ver. 426, &c.) will give us a lively spotted character. No person who was not of picture. We give Dryden's translation : respectable family and connexions was permitted to be a competitor at the Olympic games. Chry- Both on the tiptoe stand, at full extent; sostom, in whose time these games were still cele- Their arms aloft

, their bodies inly bent'; brated, assures us that no man was suffered to With dashing gauntlets then provoke the war.

Their heads from aiming blows, they bear afar, enter the lists who was either a servant or a slave. One [Dares) on his youth and pliant limbs relies ; And if any

such was found after he had been in- One [Entellus] on his sinews, and his giant-size. serted on the military list, his name was erased, The last is stiff with age, his motions slow; and he was expelled and punished. To prevent He heaves for breath; he staggers to and fro. any person of bad character from entering the Yet, equal in success, they ward, they strike; lists, the kerux or herald was accustomed, after Their ways are different, but their art alike. the examination of the candidates, to proclaim

Before, behind, the blows are dealt; around silence, and then, laying his hand on the head of Their hollow sides the rattling thumps resound.

A storm of strokes well meant, with fury flies, each combatant, led him in that manner along the And errs about their temples, ears, and eyes : stadium, demanding, with a loud voice, of all the Nor always errs; for oft the gauntlet draws assembly, “ Is there any one who can accuse this A sweeping stroke along the crackling jaws. man of any crime? Is he a robber, or a slave, or Hoary with age Entellus stands his ground, wicked and depraved in his life and manners ?" But with his warping body wards the wound; For which Chrysostom gives this reason : That, His head and watchful eye keep even pace, being free from all suspicion of being in a state of While Dares traverses and shifts his place ; slavery (and elsewhere he says of being a thief, or And, like a captain who beleaguers round of corrupt morals), he might enter the lists with Some strong-built castle, on a rising ground, credit.” Having passed through this public in- Views all the approaches with observing eyes,

This and that other part in vain he tries, quiry into their life and character with honour, and more on industry than force relies. the combatants were led to the altar of Jupiter, with hands on high, Entellus threats the foe; and there, with their relations, sworn that they But Dares watched the motion from below, would not be guilty of any fraud, or action tending And slips aside, and shuns the long-descending blow. to the breach of the laws of the sacred games; Entellus wastes his forces on the wind : but that they would observe the strictest honour And, thus deluded of the stroke designed, in the contention.

Headlong and heavy fell; his ample breast, 5. Those who were to engage in the foot-race And weighty limbs, his ancient mother pressed. Were next brought to the barrier, along which So falls a hollow pine that long has stood they were arranged, and waited, in all the excess

On Ida's height, or Erymanthus' wood.

Dauntless he rose, and to the fight returned ; of ardour and impatience, for the signal. The With shame his cheeks, his eyes with fury, burned : cord being dropped, they all at once sprang for- Disdain and conscious virtue fired his breast, ward, fired with the love of glory, conscious that And with redoubled force his foe he pressed. the

eyes of all assembled Greece were upon them, He lays on loads with either hand amain, and that the envied palm, if they won it, would And headlong drives the Trojan o'er the plain, secure them the highest honours and immortalize Nor stops, nor stays, nor rest nor breath allows; their

memory. It is natural to imagine with what But storms of strokes descend about his brows; rapidity they would urge their course, and, emu

A rattling tempest, and a hail of blows. lous of glory, stretch every nerve to reach the goal. No man who had not seen such a fight, could have This is beautifully represented in the following given such a description of one as that we have pigram (translated by Mr. West) on Arius of here. It is painted from nature. Tarsus, victor in the stadium:

7. In all the athletic exercises the combatants

contended naked ;* and their bodies were rubbed The speed of Arius, victor in the race, Brings to thy founder, Tarsus, no disgrace;

* Thucydides, lib. i., sect. vi., tom. i., pp. 16, 17, edit. Glasg. For able in the course with him to vie,

The Athletes at first wore a scarf round the waist; but in the Like him, he seems on feathered feet to fly. xivth Olympiad, one Orsippus, a racer, happened to be thrown well from the spectators in general, as from their down by his scarf tangling abont his feet, and was killed; own countrymen, friends, and relations in parthough others that he only lost the victory by the fall; whichever way it was, occasion was taken from thence to make a law, that all the Athletes for the future should contend naked. West's Pindar, vol. i., p. 72, 12mo.

over with oil, or with a certain ointment composed says Plutarch, of the insuppressible vigour of their of a due proportion of oil, wax, and dust, mixed body and minds. Near the goal was erected a up together, and called ceroma. These unctions tribunal, on which sat the presidents of the games, were, as some say, peculiar to the wrestlers and called Hellanodics, personages venerable for their pancratiasts, whose combats were thereby rendered years and characters, who were the sovereign armore toilsome and various ; while each combatant biters and judges of these arduous contentions, and endeavoured to seize upon the other, whose efforts impartial witnesses of the respective merits and preto escape or break the hold of his antagonist were tensions of each combatant, and with the strictest assisted by the slipperiness, as well as by the force justice conferred the crown. and agility of his body. But in order to qualify 9. But though the conquerors, immediately on a little the extreme lubricity of the skin, thus their gaining the victory, were entitled to the chapoccasioned, the Athletes were accustomed, before let and the palm, yet Pet. Faber (Agonis., lib. i., they came to an engagement, either to roll them- c. 30) conjectures, from a passage of Chrysostom, selves in the mud of the Palæstra, or in the sand that they who contended in the morning exercises, kept for that purpose in a place called Kwvoregios, did not receive their crowns till noon ; at which or that with which the place of combat seems to time it may also be inferred from the same passage have been covered, as well for this use as to that the spectators, as well as the candidates, were prevent the combatants from bruising or injuring dismissed in order to take some refreshment before themselves in falling ; which, were it not for this the afternoon exercises came on; the conquerors bed or covering of sand, they would have been in which were, in like manner, obliged to wait for liable to do.

their reward till the evening. To this custom 8. The victory in these contests was adjudged the apostle is supposed to allude, Heb. xi. 40. to him who gave his adversary three falls; as is The following is the manner, according to Mr. evident from the following famous epigram upon West, in which this ceremony was performed Milo, translated by Mr. West :

The conquerors, being summoned by proclamation,

marched in order to the tribunal of the HellanoWhen none adventured in th’Olympic sand dics, where a kerux, taking the crowns of olive The might of boisterous Milo to withstand; from the table, placed one upon the head of each The unrivalled chief advanced to seize the crown, of the conquerors; and giving into their hands But ʼmid his triumph slipped unwary down. branches of palm, led them in that equipage along The people shouted, and forbade bestow

the stadium, preceded by trumpets, proclaiming at The wreath on him who fell without a foe. But rising, in the midst he stood and cried,

the same time, with a loud voice, their names, the Do not three falls the victory decide ?

names of their fathers, and their countries; and Fortune indeed hath given me one, but who

specifying the particular exercise in which each of WiH undertake to throw me th' other two?

them had gained the victory. The form made use

of in the proclamation seems to have been conTo excite the ardour and emulation of the com-ceived in these or similar terms; viz., “ Diagoras petitors by placing in their view the object of the son of Damagetus, of Rhodes, conqueror their ambition, the crowons, the rewards of victory, the cæstus in the class of men;" and so of the were laid open upon a tripod or table, which rest, whether men or boys, mutatis mutandis. during the solemnity was brought out, and placed 10. That different degrees of merit were rewarded in the middle of the stadium.

with different degrees of honour, and consequently

with different crowns, is inferred from the words The crowns, whose blooming honours grace of Basil: “No president of the games," says he, The coursers in th’ Olympic race,

“ is so devoid of judgment, as to think a man Tempestuous rushing to the goal,

who, for want of an adversary, hath not contended, With rapture fill the victor's soul.

deserves the same crown as one who hath conDunkin's Pindar.

tended and overcome.”+

11. Though the chaplet seems to have been There were also branches of palm exposed, which the only reward which the Hellanodics conferred the victors were to receive along with the crowns, upon the conquerors, there were many other reand which they carried in their hands as emblems, compences attending their victories, received as

* Apud Fab. Agon, I. iii., cap. i.


every side.

ticular. Some of these, indeed, they received even though evergreens, soon withered ; and the hobefore they were put in possession of the crown; nours of which they were the pledges, by length such were the acclamations and applauses of the of time lost their agreeableness, and at last penumerous assembly, the warm congratulations of rished, being all confined to the present life. But their friends, and even the faint and extorted salu- the crown for which Christians contend, being a tations of their maligners and opponents. As they crown of righteousness (2 Tim. iv. 8), and a crown passed along the stadium, after they had received of life (James i. 12; Rev. ii. 10), it never fades, the crown, they were again saluted with the accla- as the apostle observes in the next clause ; that is, mations of the spectators, accompanied with a there shall never be any period put to the honours shower of herbs and flowers poured forth from and advantages of which this crown is the pledge.

It was farther customary for the “I therefore run, not as uncertainly."*_The refriends of the conquerors to express their parti- ward being so great, I do not exert myself with cular respect, by personally accosting them, and just so much agility and strength as is sufficient presenting them with chaplets of herbs, &c. to secure the prize ; but I exert myself to the

12. To perpetuate the glory of these victories, utmost, as one who is sensible that the object is the Hellanodics entered in a public register the worthy the greatest exertion, and that he is always names of the conquerors; specifying the particular in the view of his Judge. “So I box, as not exercise and class, whether of men or boys, in beating the air."-I engage as a combatant, but which each had been victorious ; together with deal not my blows in empty air. Kypke observes, the number of the Olympiad. They then set up that there are three ways in which persons were their statues in the altis or sacred grove of Ju- said to beat the air. (1) When, in practising for piter at Olympia

the combat, they throw their arms and legs about 13. These particulars respecting the sacred in different ways, thus practising the attitudes of games of the Grecians, which were held in the offence and defence. This was termed orianaria, highest renown in the days of the apostles, explain fighting with a shadow; and Virgil alludes to it and illustrate various passages in the sacred writ- when representing Dares swinging his arms about, ings, the beauty, energy, and sublimity of which to challenge a competitor in the boxing-match, consist in metaphorical allusions to the various Æn. v., ver. 375:gymnastic exercises, from which much of their elegant and expressive imagery is borrowed.

Thus, glorying in his strength, in open view (1) In 1 Cor. ix. 24-27, the apostle asks, “Do

His arms around the towering Dares threw; ye not know, that they who run in the stadium, run,

Stalked high, and laid his brawny shoulders bare,

And dealt his whistling blows in empty air. indeed, all, but one only receiveth the prize ? So

Pitt. ye may lay hold on the prize.”—Know you not, that in the Grecian stadium great num

(2) Sometimes boxers were to aim blows at bers

with the utmost contention, to secure the their adversaries which they did not intend to prize, but that only one person wins and receives? With the same ardour and perseverance do you run, that you may receive the garland of celestial

*“The word aồniws, which we translate uncertainly, has glory. You must observe all the rules prescribed

other meanings. 1. Jt signifies ignorantly. I do not run like

one ignorant of what he is about, or of the laws of the course: by Christ, otherwise you cannot hope to receive the I know that there is an eternal life ; I know the way that leads prize; “so run, that ye may lay hold on the prize." to it; and I know and feel the power of it. 2. It signifies Here it is evident the apostle places the Christian without observation; the eyes of all the spectators were fixed on race in contrast with the Grecian games; in them, multitude, they stretched every perve. The apostle knew that

those who ran in these races; and to gain the applause of the one only received the prize, though all ran; in the eyes of all were fixed upon him. (1) His false brethren this, if all run, all will receive the prize. “ Now waited for his halting. (2) The persecuting Jews and Gentiles every one who contendeth for the mastery is tem- longed for his downfal

. (3) The church of Christ looked on perate in all things.”—Every one who enters the him with anxiety. (4) And he acted in all things as under the

immediate of God.”—Dr. A. Clarke, in loco. "The Greek lists as a combatant submits to the most rigid and adverb aònăws,” says Dr. Macknight, comes from αδηλα, , severe regimen. “They, indeed, that they may re- a word which signifies a thing not manifest or apparent, Luke ceive a fading crown; but we, one that does not

x. 44: Ye are wg ta uvnjela ta aènia, as graves which

And he paraphrases the passage as follows: "I fade."--They do this to obtain a fading chaplet,

run according to all the rules prescribed, and with the greatest that is only composed of the decaying leaves of a activity; knowing that in no part of the course I am out of the wild olive; but in our view is hung up the un

view of my Judge, and of a great concourse of spectators.' fading wreath of immortality. The crowns for Christ, the Judge of the world, observes how every man behaves which the Greeks contended in the games were

in the station assigned to him, and that with as much attention

as the judges and spectators observed the manner in which the for the most part of the leaves of trees, which, I athletes contended.”—Dr. Macknight, in loco.

run, that



appear not.”

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