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born and brought up among themselves, that he 1. The Jewish people generally lived upon food was Elijah, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets, evi- of the plainest description. Boaz complimented dently presuppose it, Matt. xvi. 14; John ix. 2. Ruth, who was much his inferior in rank, by There is reason to believe, however, that this permitting her to partake of his meal, of the nature strange doctrine was not universal; and that after- of which we may judge from the passage : wards, when the doctrines of the Gospel concern- meal-time come thou hither, and eat of the bread, ing a future state became better known, the and dip thy morsel in the vinegar. And she sat opinions of the Talmudists had a much greater beside the reapers : and he reached her parched conformity to them, than the opinions of some of corn, and she did eat, and was sufficed, and left.” their predecessors in and before the days of our (Ruth ii. 14.) Of as plain and simple a descrip Saviour. Thus were life and immortality more tion was the supply of food brought to David and clearly brought to light by the Gospel. *

his companions in arms, when he had been obliged 12. In the Miscellaneous Works of Mr. Harmer to fly from Jerusalem. “Two hundred loaves of (8vo. London, 1823), there is a most valuable and bread, and an hundred bunches of raisins, and an interesting account of the Jewish doctrine of the hundred of summer-fruits, and a bottle of wine,” resurrection of the dead. That this fact was ad- 2 Sam. xvi. 1 :—also chap. xvii. 28, 29, mitted among the descendants of Abraham, Mr. they brought beds, and basons, and earthen vesHarmer satisfactorily proves, both from the sacred sels, and wheat, and barley, and flour, and parched Scriptures, and some of the most celebrated Jewish corn, and beans, and lentiles, and parched pulse, and writers. But although they agrec upon the fact, honey, and butter, and sheep, and cheese of kine, they differ materially as to the subjects of it. From for David, and for the people that were with him to a treatise, by Manasseh-ben-Israel, an eminent cat." The simplest and most ordinary diet of the Jew of Amsterdam, and from another, by Dasso- Jews, prepared by themselves, was bread, I which vius, a later German Jew, it appears to be the was commonly baked in a wooden bowl, or kneadgeneral opinion of this people, that the resurrec- ing-trough (Exod. viii. 3), in which the dough is tion will not extend to all dead men : but they mixed with leaven, or suffered to stand and ferfind it difficult to decide upon the persons who ment until it becomes sour.

r.|| Sometimes their will be excluded. Some of them have supposed bread was baked on the hearth (Gen. xvii. 6), that only the just of the Jewish nation will arise : which is still a common method in the East. S the famous Rabbi David Kimchi was of this Another kind of bread was baked in a shallow opinion. Rabbi Bechai, on the contrary, thought earthen vessel, like a frying-pan (Lev. ii. 7), and that the wicked as well as the good were to arise : some round the outside of a great stone pitcher, but still he limits the resurrection to the Israel- properly heated, on which was poured a thin paste ites. Others, among whom is the great Maimon- of meal and water. Parkhurst thinks this is ides, differ from both these classes, as they do not í alluded to in Exod. xvi. 31. Sometimes they exclude the Gentiles from the resurrection, but bake it in an oven in the ground, four or five feet suppose that some good people among them shall deep, well plastered with mortar, against the sides partake of their honour : among these they reckon of which they place the bread, where it is instantly Plato and Socrates. But neither of these collec- done. tions will enable us to determine, with sufficient 2. Wine appears to have been a beverage much clearness and precision, what was the opinion of in request amongst the Hebrews, and it was somethe Jews in the time of our Lord, as to the extent times drank to such an extent as to cause ebriety of the resurrection. This is only to be known by -a circumstance which has furnished the procarefully comparing the sentiments of the modern phets with many tropes. (See Isai. v. 11–22, Jews with the hints given by Paul of the opinions xxviii. 1–11, xlix. 26; Jer. viii. 14, ix. 14, xvi. of those in his time. †

48; Deut. xxxii. 42.)

(1) Wine was prescribed as part of the daily SECTION V.

offering to God, under the law, (Exod. xxix. 40; Numb. xxviii. 7), and it was also used by our

Saviour at the institution of the Last Supper. 1. Bread – 2. Wines—3. Milk, Butter, Butter-milk, &c.—4. (Mark xiv. 35.) That wine was drunk on sacraMeals, and Repasts of the Jews-5. Manner of Eating-6. Posture at Table-7. Portions sent to the absent-8. Grace


at Meals.

* Brown's Jewish Antiq., p. ix., sect. 14.
+ Harmer, ubi supra, pp. 223—226.

See Shaw, p. 236; Niebuhr, tom. i., p. 188,
|| Harmer's Observations, iv., Ob. 16.
$ See Harmer, vol, i., p. 232, &c.


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mental occasions by the disciples of Christ, at a part, means a wine diluted with water, which was subsequent period, appears from 1 Cor. xi. 21, given to the buyer instead of good wine, and was where the apostle sharply reproves some of the consequently used tropically for any kind of adulCorinthian professors of Christianity, because they teration, Isai. I. 22; 2 Cor. ii. 17. Wine was intoxicated themselves at the holy supper. In frequently diluted after it was bought. There is Deut. xiv. 22—26, the Hebrews are commanded a sort of wine called ov, sírega, or strong to tithe all their increase or productions, and to drink.” It was made of dates, and of various eat of this tithe before the Lord, in the place sorts of seeds and roots, and was sufficiently powerwhere he shall appoint. If the place where they ful at any time to occasion intoxication. It was lived should be too distant, however, to permit drunk mixed with water, and from this was made them to carry up their tithe with them, then they an artificial beverage (pon) which was taken at were to sell it, to carry the money with them, and meals, with vegetables and bread, Ruth ii. 14. It to purchase oxen or sheep, or wine, or strong was also a common drink (Numb. vi. 3), and was drink, or whatsoever their soul desireth ;" and to used by the Roman soldiers, Matt. xxvii. 48. eat and rejoice before the Lord. At the wedding- Further, there is a wine called by the Talmudists feast, in Cana of Galilee (John ii. 2, 11), Jesus vinegar, whence the passage in Matt. xxvii. 34, turned water into wine, for the accommodation of may be explained. the guests who were present; and Paul directs (4) The vessels used for drinking were, at first

, Timothy to drink a little wine, on account of his horns ; but the Hebrews used horns only for the frequent infirmities, 1 Tim. v. 23. On special occa- purpose of performing the ceremony of anointing. sions of feasting, such as weddings, thanksgivings, The other drinking vessels were, a cup of bras, and the like, the Jews were accustomed to drink covered with tin, in form resembling a lily (1 wine, and the Scriptures nowhere speak of the Kings vii. 26); and the bowl, resembling a lily custom with disapprobation. When wisdom in- also (Exod. xxv. 33), although it seems to have vites her guests to a feast (Prov. ix. 2–5), she varied in form, for it had many names, as $933. furnishes her table, and. “ mingles her wine,” | 01J, 153, and nyap. and cries, “ Come, eat of my bread, and drink of 3. In eastern countries, every preparation of the wine which I have mingled.” The wise man milk is in general request. Coagulated sour milk, directs that “strong drink” should be “ given to which is a most refreshing beverage, is prepared him that is ready to perish, and wine unto those by the infusion of a certain herb, which causes that be of heavy hearts,” Prov. xxxi. 6.

fermentation. Butter is generally procured by (2) Professor Stuart, to whom biblical litera- putting the milk into a goat's skin, which is so ture is so much indebted, has recently devoted his tied up as to prevent the milk from running out, attention to the subject of wines and strong drinks, and then hung between the poles of a tent or as mentioned and approved of in the Bible, and house, where it is agitated in one uniform direchas laboured to prove that the description of tion, till a separation is caused between the butter wine, the use of which was prescribed and sanc- and the milk. Butter-milk is a luxury, and the tioned by the Almighty and his people, was the chief dessert among the Moors; and when they unfermented juice of the grape, and not wine speak of the extraordinary agreeableness of any produced by the process of fermentation. The thing, they compare it to butter-milk. It is no inquiry is one that merits all the attention that wonder, then, that Jael gave it to Sisera (Judg. v. can be given to it; but it would be out of place 25). to enter upon it here. We will only remark, 4. The Orientals are in the habit of rising early, therefore, that the attempt to show that the ap- commonly with the dawn, that they may

have proved wine is always called onun tirosh, while leisure to rest or sleep in the middle of the day. the fermented, intoxicating, and denounced liquor As soon as they are up, they take breakfast, is as uniformly called po ayin, fails in its object; which consists of bread, fried eggs, cheese, hones, because in Prov. xxxi. 6, among other places, it and leban, or coagulated sour milk;* but someis directed that wine (po ayin) should be given times they begin with grapes and other fruits

, to those who are heavy of heart, or bitter of fresh gathered, and then have for breakfast, bread, soul.

coffee, and good wines, particularly one of an er(3) Although the wine used in eastern coun- quisite flavour, called muscadel.t About eleven tries is in general very rich in quality, it is at o'clock in the forenoon, in winter, they dine, and times mixed with spices, especially myrrh; and this mixture was sometimes denominated by the Hebrews from a word which signifies mixed. i., p. 57 ; Clarke, vol. iii., p. 419, 4to.

* Russel, vol. i., p. 166; D'Arvieux, p. 24; Pococke, vol But the word in question (500), for the most

+ Chandler, p. 18.

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rather earlier in summer. A piece of red cloth, with tears, and did wipe them with the hairs of cut in a round form, is spread upon the divan her head; and kissed his feet, and anointed them under the table, to prevent it from being soiled, with the ointment,” Luke vii. 36. According to and a long piece of cloth is laid round, to cover our notions, a person sitting at meat would, of the knees of such as sit at table ; but the table necessity, have his feet on the floor under the itself has no covering except the victuals. The table, and consequently BEFORE him, not behind dishes, &c. are disposed in proper order around him: and the impossibility of one standing at his the edges, and in the centre. Among the great, feet behind him-standing, and while standing, the dishes are brought in one by one, and after kissing his feet, wiping them, &c., is glaring. By each person has eaten a little, they are changed.* this explanation, however, the narration becomes The pottage of which we read in Scripture, was intelligible: the feet of the person recumbent, made by cutting boiled meat into small pieces, | being outermost, are most exposed to salutation, with rice, flour, and parsley; but sometimes of or to any other treatment, from one standing meal and herbs alone, for they eat but little ani- behind him. The same observations apply to mal food in the East. When they intend to John xii. 3: “Lazarus was one who reclined at honour any person at table, the master sends him table with Jesus; and Mary anointed the feet of a larger portion, as Joseph did to Benjamin, Gen. Jesus,” &c.$ It is only necessary to add, that at xliii. 34. In general, they sup about five o'clock these times the people commonly throw off their in winter, and about six in summer. I As this sandals, and are therefore barefoot. much resembles their dinner, it is unnecessary to

7., In former times, portions were sent to those describe it.

who were absent, Neh. viii. 10, 12; Esth. ix. 22. 5. Their mode of eating must not be over

It should ever be recollected, too, that the men looked. The thick meats they take up with the and the women in higher life had separate tables thumb and the two fore-fingers; and their milk (Esth. i. 9), as is the case in the East at the and pottage is eaten by dipping bread into it. present day. The custom of the Arabs, also, When they drink water at table, it is usually out who never preserve fragments of their meals, but of shells, horns, or cups; but if from a river, they invite the poor to partake of them, may explain take it from the palm of the hands; or if from a

the reason why Tobit sent for the poor to partake pitcher, or the ground, they suck it through their of his dinner (chap. ii. 2); and why the poor, sleeve, for fear of leeches. Wines were formerly the maimed, and the blind, were invited to the very common among the Jews, being kept in lea- rich man's supper, in Luke xiv. 21. thern bottles (Matt. ix. 17), and cooled by the 8. From the Mishna it appears that the Jews snow of Lebanon.

had forms of thanksgiving, not only at the eating 6. Sitting at meals (till near the end of the times of the passover, but before and after ordinary of the Old Testament) appears to have been uni- meals, and even on the introduction of many of versal, Gen. xlii. 33; Exod. xxxii. 6; 1 Sam. the dishes. The duty of Christians on this sub11. 5; Prov. xxiii. 1; Ezek. xliv. 3, &c. We ject is enforced, not only by the reason of the have the first indications of the change of posture thing, and the practice of the Greeks, Romans, from sitting to lying, in Amos vi. 4, and Judith and Jews, but by the example of our Saviour, in xii. 15, Groek. In our Saviour's days the re

Mark viii. 6; John vi. 11, 23; and of Paul, in

In the end of the fifth book of clining posture at meals had become universal; Acts xxvii. 35. and every time that sitting at meat is mentioned the Apostolical Constitutions, is a form of grace in the New Testament, it ought to have been or prayer for Christians. ** rendered “lying,” to make it accord with the universal practice. For want of proper discri

SECTION VI. mination and description, with regard to this attitude at table, several passages in the Gospels are not merely injured in our translation, but are

1. FORMS OP POLITENESS: 1. Salutations-2. Prostration

3. Presents made to Superiors-4. Manner of conducting rendered unintelligible. Thus, “A woman in the

visits. II. MARKS OF HONOUR : Presentation of raiment. city, who was a sinner, when she knew that Jesus

III. Marks of Disgrace: 1. Cutting the beard-2. Clapsat at meat in the Pharisee's house, brought an ping the hands and hissing.-3. Refusing the rites of sepulalabaster-box of ointment, and stood at his feet

ture-4. Disinterment of the dead, &c. BEHIND HIM, weeping; and began to wash his feet

Fragments to Calmet, No. 104; and Critica Biblica, vol.

ii., pp. 481-487. * Russel, vol. i., p. 172. + La Roque, p. 199.

Murray's Acconnt of Discov. and Trav. in Asia, book ii., Russel, vol. i., p. 166.

ch. 8; Burckhardt's Trav. in Syria, &c., pp. 484-488. | Campbell on the Gospels, Diss. viii.,

** Brown's Jewish Antiq., pt. ix., sect. 5.




I. The modes of address and politeness, which leave of each other, there is a beautiful allusion custom has established in different nations, are the following expression of our Lord, in his last various. In Judea, as in the East generally, they and consolatory discourse with his disciples, when were very ceremonious and exact in their outward he assured them he would soon leave them and decorum; and in their mutual behaviour they go to the Father : “ Peace I leave with you; my scrupulously observed all the rules and forms in peace I give unto you: not as the world giceth which civility was usually expressed.

give I unto you,” John xiv. 27.-Since I must 1. We collect from several passages in the Old shortly be torn from you, I now bid you adieu, Testament, that their salutations and expressions sincerely wishing you every happiness : not as the of affection, on meeting each other, were extremely world giveth give I unto you--not in the unmeantedious and tiresome, containing many particular ing, ceremonial manner the world repeats this inquiries after the person's welfare, and the welfare salutation : for my wishes of peace and happiness of his family and friends; and, when they parted, to you are sincere, and my blessing and beneconcluding with many reciprocal wishes of happi- diction will devolve upon you every substantial ness and benediction on each other. Much time felicity. This throws light upon one of the most was spent in the rigid observance of these cere- beautiful pieces of imagery which the genius and monious forms: when our Lord, therefore, in his judgment of a writer ever created. In the Epistle commission to the Seventy, whom he dispatched to the Hebrews (chap. xi.), the author informis us into the towns and villages of Judea to publish with what warm, anticipating hopes of the Mesthe gospel, strictly ordered them to “salute no siah's future kingdom those great and good wen, man by the way” (Luke x. 4), he designed only, who adorn the annals of former ages, were aniby this prohibition, that they should suffer nothing mated. These all, says he, died in faiththey to retard and impede them in their progress from closed their eyes upon the world, but they closed one place to another; and that they should not them in the transporting assurance that God would lavish those precious moments, which ought to be accomplish his promises. They had the firmest devoted to the sacred and arduous duties of their persuasion that the Messiah would bless the world

. office, in observing the irksome and unmeaning By faith they antedated these happy times, and modes of life. Not that our Lord intended his placed themselves, in idea, in the midst of all their disciples should studiously violate all common fancied blessedness. They hailed this most auscivility and decency, and industriously offend picious period—saluted it, as one salutes a friend against the rules of courteousness and decorum ; whose person we recognize, at a distance. Th* on the contrary, he commanded them, upon their all died in faithdied in the firm persuasion that entrance into any house, to salute it (Matt. x. 12), God would accomplish these magnificent promises and observe the customary form of civility in though they themselves had not enjoyed them, but wishing it peace, or universal happiness, Luke only had seen them afar off: God had only blessed x. 5. This injunction, to salute no one on the them with a remote prospect of them. They were road, means only that they should urge their course therefore persualed of themthey had the strongest with speed, and advert to nothing so much as the conviction of their realitythey embraced them, duties of their commission. There is a parallel with transport saluted + them at a distance-conpassage in the Old Testament, and which beauti- fessing that they were but strangers and pilgrima fully illustrates this. Elisha, dispatching his ser- upon earth, but were all travelling towards a city vant Gehazi to recover the son of the Shunamite, which had foundations, whose builder and maker strictly enjoins him to make all the expedition is God ! possible: “Gird up thy loins, and take my staff 2. Among the eastern nations, it was ever cusin thine hand, and go thy way. If thou meet tomary for the common people, whenever they any man, salute him not; and if any salute thee, approached their prince, or any person of dignity, answer him not again,” 2 Kings iv. 29.* Though to prostrate themselves. This mode of address the terms of these modes of address and politeness obtained also among the Jews. When honoured are expressive of the profoundest respect and ho- with admittance to their sovereign, or introduced mage, they soon degenerate, through constant use

to illustrious personages, they fell down at their and frequency of repetition, into mere verbal forms feet, and continued in this servile posture till they and words of course, in which the heart has no were raised. There occur many instances of this share. To those empty, insignificant forms which custom in the Scriptures. The wise men who men mechanically repeat at meeting or taking

* See Fragments to Calmet, No. 40.

+ The word in the origival is the same as is always ased in salutations.

came from the east, when they saw the child you, either standing at the edge of the duan, or Jesus with his mother Mary, fell down and wor- else lying down at one corner of it, according as shipped him; as did great numbers in after times. he thinks it proper to maintain a greater or less It was also customary to kiss the hand or the feet distinction. Being come to the side of the duan, of the person approached; to kiss the hem of his you slip off your shoes, and stepping up, take garment; or to embrace his feet, Luke vii. 38, 45; your place, which you must do, first, at some disMatt. xxviii, 9.

tance, and upon your knees, laying your hand 3. From time immemorial it has also been the very formally before you. Thus you must remain universal custom in the East to send presents one till the man of quality invites you to draw nearer, to another. No one waits upon a prince, or any and to put yourself in an easier posture, leaning person of distinction, without a present. This is

upon the bolster. Being thus fixed, he discourses a token of respect never dispensed with. Let the with you as the occasion offers, the servants standpresent be ever so mean and inconsiderable, yet ing round all the while in a great number, and the intention of the giver is accepted. Plutarch with the profoundest respect, silence, and order informs us, that a peasant happening to fall in the imaginable. When you have talked over your way of Artaxerxes, the Persian monarch, in one business, or compliments, or whatever other conof his excursions, having nothing to present to his cern brought you thither, he makes a sign to have sovereign, according to the oriental custom, the things brought in for the entertainment, which is countryman immediately ran to an adjacent stream, generally a little sweetmeat, a dish of sherbet, and filled both his hands, and offered it to his prince. another of coffee; all which are immediately The monarch smiled, and graciously received it, brought in by the servants, and tendered to all highly pleased with the good disposition the act the guests in order, with the greatest care and manifested.* All modern books of travels into awfulness imaginable. And they have reason to the East abound with examples of this universally look well to it; for should any servant make but prevailing custom. “It is accounted uncivil," the least slip or mistake, either in delivering or says Maundrell, “ to visit in Syria without an receiving his dish, it might cost him fifty, perhaps offering in hand. All great men expect it, as a a hundred, drubs on his bare feet, to atone for the kimd of tribute to their character and authority; crime. At last comes the finishing part of your and look upon themselves as affronted, and even entertainment, which is, perfuming the beards of defrauded, when this compliment is omitted. Even the company; a ceremony which is performed in in familiar visits among inferiors, you will seldom this manner. They have for this purpose a small see them come without bringing a flower, or an silver chafing-dish, covered with a lid full of orange, or some other token of respect, to the holes, and fixed upon a handsome plate. In this person visited; the Turks, in this point, keeping they put some fresh coals, and upon them a piece up the ancient oriental custom, as hinted, 1 Sam. of lignum aloes, and then shutting it up, the ix. 7, 8: 'If we go,' says Saul, “what shall we smoke immediately ascends, with a grateful odour, bring the man of God ? there is not a present,' through the holes of the cover. It is held under &c.: which words are unquestionably to be un- every one's chin, and offered, as it were, a sacrifice derstood in conformity to this eastern custom, as

to his beard. The bristly idol soon perceives the relating to a token of respect, and not a price of reverence done to it, and so greedily takes in and divination.”+

incorporates the gummy steam, that it retains the 4. The same writer thus describes the mode of savour of it, and may serve for a nosegay a good visiting in the East :

you would make

while after. This ceremony may, perhaps, seem visit to a person of quality, you must send one ridiculous at first hearing; but it passes among before with a present, to bespeak your admission, the Turks for a high gratification. And I will and to know at what hour your coming may be say this, in its vindication, that its design is very most seasonable. Being come to the house, the wise and useful. For it is understood to give a servants meet you at the outermost gate, and con

civil dismissal to the visitants, intimating to them, duct you toward their lord's or master's apartment; that the master of the house has business to do, or other servants (I suppose of better rank) meeting some other avocation, that permits them to go you in the way, at their several stations, as you away as soon as they please ; and the sooner after draw nearer to the person you visit. Coming this ceremony the better. By this means you into his room, you find him prepared to receive may, at any time, without offence, deliver yourself

from being detained from your affairs by tedious

and unseasonable visits, and from being con * Harwood's Introduction, vol. ii., 279-287.

strained to use that piece of hypocrisy, so comf Journey, March 11.


mon in the world, of pressing those to stay longer


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