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ble, in which a great king is represented as making | Keturah and Hagar, + Gen. xxv. 5, 6. The same a most magnificent entertainment at the marriage distinction prevails to this day in the East. of his son, we learn (observes the same author), 9. Upon the same ground that polygamy was that all the guests who were invited to the enter- tolerated by the Mosaic law, divorce was also tainment were expected to be dressed in a manner allowed (Deut. xxiv. 1-4; Matt. xix. 8), but suitable to the splendour of such an occasion, and as
was to be effected in such a manner as gave an a token of just respect to the newly-married couple; opportunity for the reform of many of those evils and that, after the procession in the evening from that were its necessary attendants where these the bride's house was concluded, the guests, before provisions were not known. It will be seen, upon they were admitted into the hall, where the enter- reference to the law above cited, that the husband tainment was served up, were taken into an apart had the power of dissolving the marriage without and viewed, that it might be known if any stranger any legal aid or recognition—“ If a man have had intruded, or if any of the comany were appa- taken a woman to wife, and she please him not, relled in raiment unsuitable to the genial solemnity because he findeth a defect in her, he shall write they were going to celebrate ; and such, if found, her a bill of divorce," &c. It is easy to conceive were expelled the house with every mark of igno- what abuses and disputes might ensue from such miny and disgrace. From the knowledge of this a dissolution of marriages; and to prevent these custom, the following passage receives great light to the utmost extent, Moses ordained—(1) That and lustre :
-“When the king came in to see the there should be some written evidence of the transguests, he discovered among them a person who action, actually delivered to the wife, by which had not on a wedding garment. He called him, she might be able to certify, on all occasions, the and said, “Friend, how came you to intrude into truth of her riddance from her first marriage, tomy palace in a dress so unsuitable to this occa-gether with her right to enter into a second. This sion ? The man was struck dumb_he had no process, no doubt, caused many hinderances, as but apology to offer for the disrespectful neglect. The few Israelites understood the art of writing; so king then called to his servants, and bade them that it became necessary to resort to some judge, bind him hand and foot to drag him out of the or literary person, in order to have the bill of room—and thrust him out into midnight dark- divorce written: but this delay was probably in
tended by the legislator. For in this way a mar8. In consequence of the universal prevalence riage could never be dissolved in the first heat of of polygamy in the East, we find the practice, from passion, and the husband might perhaps change prudential motives, tolerated, under certain restric- his mind; and the person employed to write the tions, by the Mosaic code of laws. See Deut. xxi. divorce, probably a priest or a Levite, was perhaps 15–17; Exod. xxi. 9, 10, &c. The secondary a man of principle, and would previously admonish wives of a man were termed concubines, and they the husband on the subject. A copy of the bill differed from the first wife, who was the principal
, of divorce may be seen in Lightfoot.f (2) But in two things—(1) Where they had been bond- even the delivery of the bill of divorce did not slaves, they still continued under subjection, and render the dissolution of the marriage altogether were at the disposal of their proprietors so long as complete. Thereto, by the Mosaic statute, this the husband continued to pay their matrimonial
further circumstance was requisite, that the wife duty
. If deprived of this, they obtained their free- had actually left the husband's house; which, if dom, Exod. xxi. 7–11. (2) Their children did we may judge from the nature of the case, and not inherit, if we may judge from the cases of the manners of the Arabs, must have occasioned
a delay of several months; and that man must
know nothing of the human mind, nor think how aad were unprepared, but it was then too late to seek them, and often the quarrels of married persons are made up the cavalcade moved forward to the house of the bride, at which on cool reflection, who can entertain a doubt, place the company entered a large and splendidly illuminated whether, by means of these delays, a multitude of area, before the house, covered with an awning, where a great multitude of friends, dressed in their best apparel, were seated intended divorces must not have been prevented. upon mats. The bridegroom was carried in the arms of a friend, (3) Even after the dissolution of the marriage was and placed in a superb seat in the midst of the company, where complete, if both parties were satisfied to renew be sat a short time, and then went into the house, the door of the connexion, Moses put no obstacle in the way, which was immediately shut, and guarded by sepoys. I and others expostulated with the door-keeper, but in vain. Never was I so struck with our Lord's beautiful parable as at this Doment-and the door was shut !” — View of the History, &c., of the Hindoos, vol. iij.,
† For an elaborate disquisition on the marriage laws of the pp. 171, 172.
Hebrews, see Michaelis on the laws of Moses, vol. ii., pp. * Harwood's Introd., vol. ii., p. 122. See also Macknight's 1-122. Harmony, p. 481, 2nd edition.
Hor. Heb., Valt. v. 31.
if only the wife had not married another husband. , sons of a very inferior station nugatory. To the For the maintenance of a divorced wife the law priests alone has Moses laid down any special rule makes no provision. This may seem to us a case with respect to their marriages; and even these of great hardship; but in a country where polygamy rules relate, not to what we call rank, but to other made females scarce, and where slavery was tole things. The statutes that contain them are found rated, it would not be so severely felt. We must in Lev. xxi. 7, 13, 44. Amidst all the restricnot omit to notice, that the husband forfeited his tions there laid down, however, there was nothing right to give a divorce, however, if he had seduced to hinder a priest, and even the high-priest, from a young woman, and been obliged, in obedience to marrying an Israelitess of the lowest rank, even the law, to marry her; as also, if he had falsely one that had from poverty been sold as a slave. accused his wife of not having had the signa vir- It has been a generally prevailing notion, that an ginitatis on the wedding-night, Deut. xxii. 19, 29. Israelite might not marry out of his tribe; but These provisions had a most beneficial effect. * this, as Michaëlis has shown, is a mistake, directly The wife was also allowed to sue, if she thought confuted by the Mosaic writings. It was only in herself aggrieved ; and especially if she disliked the single case of a daughter being the heiress of the person to whom she had been espoused at an her father's land, that she was prohibited from early age by her parents. Josephus mentions marrying out of her tribe, in order that the inthree instances of divorce by wives ; viz., Salome, heritance might not pass to another tribe, Numb. Herodias, and Drusilla.
xxxvi. This is placed beyond doubt in the case 10. The support of the wife after the husband's of Mary and Elizabeth, who were relations, but death was uniformly provided for, without the aid who had married into different tribes. It was even of any express regulations. If she had children, in the power of an Israelite to marry a woman that natural duty, which no statute needs to name, born a heathen, provided she renounced idolatry, obliged them to maintain her. If she had not, as is evident from Deut. xxi. 10–14; but all marthe nearest relation of her deceased husband was riage with Canaanitish women was expressly proobliged to marry her, or, if he declined so to do, hibited, Exod. xxxiv. 16.5 to resign her to the next more remote; and that so II. Among the Jews, children were much peremptorily, that, as we see from Ruth iv. 5, he coveted; both because the inheritances in the could not inherit the land of the deceased with tribes were dependant on it, and because each one, out taking his childless widow along with it. If especially of the house of David, was anxious to she were too old for marriage, still it would seem participate in the honour of being the progenitor to have been an incumbent duty on the heir of of the Messiah. the land to support her just as fully as if she was 1. From Ezek. xvi. 4-9, it is evident that his wife, # Deut. xxv. 5, 10; Matt. xxii
. 25. It infants newly born were washed in water, anointed is evident that this law was far more ancient than with oil, rubbed with salt, swaddled with a long the Jewish law (Gen. xxxviii. 8), but it was under bandage, and then wrapped in comfortable cloththis law that it became doubly binding; for it ing. The ingenious writer referred to belov, connected the love of preserving a brother's name explains Exod. i. 16, with reference to this custom. with the preservation of property in the several 2. On the eighth day from the birth of the families and tribes. In this case no betrothing child the rite of circumcision was performed. Of was required, nor were there any ceremonies, as the design of this ceremony we have spoken in at ordinary marriages. The husband's brother treating of the ceremonial law. It was the iniacquired his sister-in-law by a divine right, three tiatory sign and seal of the covenant of peculiarity. months after the husband's death.||
It only remains to notice the manner of its per11. No regard is paid to equality of rank in formance. The sponsors being chosen, and the marriages among the Orientals, and the meanest
assembled, either in the synagogue or in slave may be, not only the wife, but even the the house, the female employed by the mother, mother, of a king. Hence we find no law pro- brought the child to the door, and gave it to the hibiting an Israelite from marrying out of his rank, person who was appointed to hold it during the and still less one that made marriages with per- operation. On entering with the child, he was
hailed with “Blessed be he who comes!" He
then sat down, and the circumciser effected the See Michaëlis on the Laws of Moses, vol. ii., pp. 127 – 154. operation, blessed the child, and gave him the
+ Lightfoot, Hor. Heb., 1 Cor. vii. 10. Michaelis, Laws of Moses, vol. ii, p. 154 ; and Calinet's Bib. Encyclop., “Levirate."
Michnelis, Laws of Moses, pp. 36, 37. || Ibid., ubi sup., pp. 21-33.
See Fragments to Calmet, No. cccxii., &c.
name appointed (if it had not been already given, as in the case of Jacob and Esau, Reuben and see Ruth iv. 17; 1 Sam. iv. 21), at the same time Joseph, Adonijah and Solomon.+ repeating Ezek. xvi. 6, “I said unto thee, when 6. Adoption, strictly speaking, does not appear thou wast in thy blood, Live!" After this the to have been practised by the ancient Hebrews. company repeats Psalm cxxvii. If the child died Moses says nothing of it in his laws; and Jacob's before the eighth day, he was circumcised in the adoption of his two grandsons, Ephraim and Macemetery, for the purpose of securing his recog. nasseh (Gen. xlviii. 1), is rather a kind of subnition at the resurrection of the just. The girls stitution, by which he intended that they should were carried to the synagogue, generally, to be have each his lot in Israel, as if they had been his named. In both cases it was a time of festivity own sons—“ Ephraim and Manasseh are mine; as and rejoicing, though less so in the case of girls Reuben and Simeon, they shall be mine.” But as than in that of boys. Necessary, however, as cir- he gives no inheritance to their father Joseph, the cumcision was while the ceremonial law continued effect of this adoption extended only to their inobligatory, it became an indifferent thing after the crease of fortune and inheritance; that is, instead, death of Christ ; and was totally abrogated, with of one part, giving them, or Joseph, whom they the rest of the Mosaic ritual, at the destruction of represented, two parts. From Esther ii. 15, howthe temple. Till that time the apostles allowed ever, it is evident that adoption, strictly so called, the Jews converted to Christianity the use of it; was not unknown among the Jews; though we but they expressly forbade that this yoke should are uncertain how far the privileges of it extended. be put upon the necks of the Gentile converts. It is supposed they were much like those of the
3. As soon as the children had arrived at a Roman laws; that adopted children shared the proper age to receive instruction, they were taught parent's estate with his natural descendants; that select sentences from the law by their parents, in they assumed the name of the person who adopted conformity with Deut. iv. 9, vi. 7, &c.
them, and became subject to his paternal power. 4. It was a universal custom among the Jews to Another kind of adoption, among the Israelites, teach their children some trade, as appears from consisted in the obligation of a surviving brother the following passage from the Talmud, “What is to marry the widow of his brother, who had died a father commanded to do to his son ? To cir- without issue (Deut. xxv. 5, &c.); so that the cumcise him ; to redeem him; to teach him the children of this connexion were considered as law; to teach him a trade; and to take him a belonging to the deceased brother, and went by wife. Rabbi Judah saith, He who teacheth not his name. Among the Mahometans the ceremony his son a trade, does as if he taught him to be a of adoption is performed by causing the adopted thief. And Rabban Gamael saith, He who hath to pass through the shirt of the person who adopts a trade in his hand is like a vineyard that is him. Something like this appears among the Hefenced." +
brews. Elijah adopted Elisha by throwing his 5. Among the Hebrews, as indeed among most mantle over him (1 Kings xix. 19); and when he other nations, the first-born enjoyed particular was carried up in a fiery chariot, his mantle, which privileges; and wherever polygamy existed it was he let fall, was taken up by Elisha, his spiritual necessary to fix them. See Deut. xxi. 15–17. son and adopted successor in the office of prophet, These privileges consisted (1) in a right to the 2 Kings ii. 13, 15. It should be remarked, that priesthood, which before the law was in the eldest Elisha asks not merely to be adopted (for that he of the family; and (2) in a double portion of the had been already), but to be treated as the elder father's property. The double portion is explained son ; to have a double portion of the spirit contwo ways : some believe that half the entire in- ferred upon him. Did the gift of the mantle heritance was given to the elder brother, the other imply this also ? It would seem so, by the conduct half being shared in equal parts among the rest of Moses, who clothed Eleazar in Aaron's sacred But the rabbins inform us, that the first-born took vestments, when that high-priest was about to be for his share twice as much as any of his brethren. gathered to his fathers (Numb. xx. 26); intimating If the first-born died before the division of the thereby, that Eleazar succeeded in the functions father's inheritance, and left any children, his right of the priesthood, and was, as it were, adopted to devolved to his heirs. First-born daughters were exercise that dignity. The Lord told Shebna, not, however, invested with these privileges. The captain of the temple, that he would deprive him rights of the first-born could be transferred to any of his honourable station, and substitute Eliakim, other branch of the family, upon certain grounds ; son of Hilkiah: “I will clothe him with thy robe,
* Lightfoot, Har. of the New Test., Acts xviii.
+ Calmet's Bib. Encyclop., art.“ Birth-right.”
MODES OF TRAVELLING.
saith the Lord, and strengthen him with thy 4. A caravan is an assemblage of travellers, partly girdle, and I will commit thy government into his pilgrims, partly merchants, who collect together hand,” Isai. xxii. 21. Paul, in several parts of in order to consolidate a sufficient force to protect his writings, exhorts Christians to put on the Lord them, in travelling through the hideous wilds Jesus, and to put on the new man, to denote their and burning deserts over which they are conadoption as sons of God.*
strained to pass, for commercial and other purposes; those wilds being infested with Arabs, who
make a profession of pillage, and rob in most SECTION III.
formidable bodies, some almost as large as small armies. As the collection of such a number (i. e.,
to form the caravan) requires time, and the em1. Travelling Provisions, &c.—2. Hospitality shown to Tra- bodying of them is a serious concern, it is convellers—-3. Eastern Caravans-4. Illustration of the Exodus certed with great care and preparation, and is -5. Preparations for the Journeyings of Eastern Monarchs.
never attempted without the permission of the 1. When any of the Jews were going to travel prince in whose dominions it is formed, and of to a distance, they carried their provisions with those also, whose dominions it is to pass, expressed them, in a scrip slung over the shoulder; and in writing. The exact number of men and caralso provided themselves with a change of rai- riages, mules, horses, and other beasts of burden, ment, and sometimes with a bottle of water. Thus is specified in the license; and the merchants to provided, they commenced their journey, taking a whom the caravan belongs regulate and direct staff in their hand. It was not customary to every thing pertaining to its government and travel in the heat of the day, unless in cases of police, during the journey, and appoint the various urgent necessity; neither did they, when in haste, officers necessary for conducting it. Each caravan salute any one by the way, 2 Kings iv. 29. The has four principal officers: the first, the caravan first thing to which they attended, after reaching bachi, or head of the caravan ; the second, the their place of rest, was the washing of the feet, captain of the march ; the third, the captain of the which in eastern countries is a very great refresh- stop, or rest; and the fourth, the captain of the ment. In the houses of the superior classes this distribution. The first has the UNCONTROLLABLE is always performed by a servant, and is consi- AUTHORITY and command over all the others, dered as a mark of honour and respect. The and gives them his orders; the second is a BSOLLTE beasts upon which the Jews generally rode were during the march, but his authority immediately asses, of which white ones were in the greatest re- ceases on the stopping or encamping of the caraquest, and were used by the more honourable van, when the third assumes his share of the ranks of society, Judg. v. 10.
authority, and exerts it during the time of its re2. We must not omit to notice here, the hospi- maining at rest ; the fourth orders the disposition tality usually shown to travellers in eastern coun- of every part of the caravan, in case of an attack tries, and to which there are so many scriptural or battle. This last officer has, also, during the allusions. When a traveller had no friend to march, the inspection and direction of the distriresort to on his arrival at a town or village, he bution of provisions, which is conducted, under took his station at the city gate, or in the street, his management, by several inferior officers, who whence he was soon invited to enter some tent or are obliged to give security to the master of the house, and partake of the provisions of the table caravan ; each of them having the care of a cerand the comforts of the bedchamber, Gen. xix. 2; tain number of men, elephants, dromedaries
, Judg. xix. 15–21.
camels, &c., which they undertake to conduct, 3. In Gen. xxv. 2, there is mention of one of and to furnish with provisions, at their own risk, those commercial caravans, by which so much of according to an agreement stipulated between the traffic of the East is still carried on. The them. A fifth officer of the caravan is, the payfollowing description of one of these large com- MASTER or TREASURER, who has under him a great panies, from Colonel Campbell's Travels to India, many clerks and interpreters, appointed to kap has furnished the late ingenious editor of Calmet accurate journals of all the material incidents arhich with the materials for illustrating some circum- may occur on the journey; it is by these journals stances in the history of the exodus, which have signed by the superior officers, that the owners of been a source of much embarrassment to commen- the caravan judge whether they have been well or tators, both ancient and modern.
ill served or conducted. Another kind of officers are mathematicians, without whom no caravan
will presume to set out. There are commonly * Calmet's Bib. Ency. art. “Adoption."
three of them attached to a caravan of a large
size; and they perform the offices both of quarter- | Other Versions have the same difference. Mr. master and aid-de-camp, leading the troops when Harmer has some very ingenious thoughts on it; the caravan is attacked, and assigning the quarters and Mr. Taylor said he had once acquiesced so far where the caravan is appointed to encamp. There in the idea, as to think they might be illustrated are no less than five distinct kinds of caravans : by a print in Niebuhr, where your camels follow First, the heavy caravans, which are composed of in a train led by one man, apparently as the comelephants, dromedaries, camels, and horses; se- mon mode of conducting them. If Moses had condly, the light caravans, which have but few ordered that each man, instead of conducting four, elephants; thirdly, the common caravans, which should conduct five, or that the usual number of have none of those animals; fourthly, the horse drivers necessary to conduct the cattle of four caravans, where are neither dromedaries nor camels; families should conduct those of fire, it might have and, lastly, sea caravans, consisting of vessels ; afforded a sense, notwithstanding Mr. Harmer from whence we may observe, that the word cara- abandons the passage as much too difficult. But tan is not confined to the land, but extends to the the Hebrew word (chemooshim) occurs where that water also.
sense is inapplicable, as Josh. i. 14, “ Pass over be5. The proportion observed in the heavy caravan fore your brethren armed ;" chap. iv. 12, "passed is as follows: When there are 500 elephants, they over armed ;" Judg. vii. 11, “Gideon went down to add 1000 dromedaries, and 2000 horses, at the the outside of the armed men.” It should appear least ; and the escort is composed of 4000 men on that the margin, which in all these places reads, horseback. Two men are required for leading one five in a rank, errs; because we have no account elephant; five, for three dromedaries; and seven, of such a formation of any military body; and, in for eleven camels. This multitude of servants, the case of Gideon, five in a rank can never detogether with the officers and passengers, whose scribe an advanced guard, or a corps-de-garde, or number is uncertain, serve to support the escort any other; but if we accept the idea of embodied in case of a fight; and render the caravan more under the Five, i. e., the officers established by the formidable and secure. The passengers are not ordinary laws and usages of encampments, of absolutely obliged to fight; but, according to the military service, and of caravans, as conducted by laws and usages of the caravan, if they refuse to five chiefs, then every place where the word occurs do so, they are not entitled to any provisions what- agrees to this sense of it. That the Israelites ever from the caravan, even though they should were armed generally, is incredible; because (1) agree to pay an extravant price for them. The It would have been absolute folly in Pharaoh to day of the caravan setting out, being once fixed, trust them with arms, while under servitude ; (2) is never altered or postponed ; so that no disap- nor could they generally have procured them subpointment can possibly ensue to any one. Even sequently; (3) nor could Pharaoh, with his forces, these powerful and well-armed bodies are way-laid expect to subdue so great a multitude, just esand robbed by the Arabian princes, who keep caped into liberty, had they been armed to the spies in all parts to give notice when a caravan extent some have supposed. But the sense of the sets out: sometimes they plunder them, some- passage in Exodus, according to Mr. Taylor, is, times they make slaves of the whole convoy.*
that Moses arranged the Israelites while in Egypt, 6. This account will greatly assist in illustrating and conducted them out of it in the most orderly, the history of the exodus. In order to apply it regular, and even military manner; appointing to that event, we must premise, that the manners proper officers over the caravan generally, and over of the East, because resulting from the nature and every division or party, even to the least numethe peculiarities of the countries, have ever been rous party, composing it. so permanent, that what was anciently adopted (2) A caravan is too serious a concern to be into a custom, as appears by the earliest relations attempted without the permission of the king in which have reached us, is still conformed to, with whose dominions it is formed ; and of those scarcely any variation.
powers, also, through whose dominions it is to (1) The officers of a caravan appear to be FIVE. pass. This explains the urgency of Moses to obThis may explain the nature and use of the word, tain permission from Pharaoh, and the power of which signifies five in Exod. xiii. 18, and which Pharaoh to prevent the assemblage necessary for has embarrassed commentators, ancient and mo
of Israel's deliverance; it accounts, dern. Our translation renders it harnessed, i. e., also, for the attack made by Amalek (Exod. xvii.); in arms; but puts in the margin, five in a rank. which tribe, not having granted a free passage,
intended revenge and plunder for this omission,
in “ formidable body, as large as an army;" but * Campbell's Travels, p. j., p. 40.
Moses could not have previously negociated for