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guage in which the sacred books were written | subjects on which they taught were numerous, was no longer vernacular. Hence arose the need commonly intricate, and of no great consequence ; of interpreters, in order to make the people un- of which there are abundant examples in the derstand what was read. These interpreters learnt Talmud.* the Hebrew language at the schools. The teachers 5. Upon the authority of Philo, and other of these schools, who for the two generations pre- Jewish writers, it has been asserted by Clemens ceding the birth of Christ had maintained some Alexandrinus, Justin Martyr, and other of the acquaintance with the Greek philosophy, were not Christian Fathers, that Moses reached the summit satisfied with a simple interpretation of the He- of human learning; and he is represented as brew idiom, as it stood, but shaped the inter having been a perfect master of astronomy, geopretation so as to render it conformable to their metry, music, medicine, occult philosophy, and, philosophy. Thus arose contentions, which gave in short, of the whole circle of the arts and sciences, occasion for the various sects of Pharisees, Sad- which were at that time known. Similar claims ducees, and Essenes. In the time of our Saviour, are made for Solomon and Daniel, and, in a lower divisions had arisen among the Pharisees them- degree, for several of the Hebrew judges and proselves. No less than eighteen nice questions, if phets. The proofs adduced for these claims, howwe may believe the Jewish rabbins, were contested ever, are fallacious and unsatisfactory, resolving at that period between the schools of Hillel and themselves either into the mere opinions of some of of Shammai.

the Fathers, and especially of Philo the Jew, or into 4. Anciently, learned men among the Hebrews facts and circumstances that will not bear out the were denominated dipun chachemim, as among conclusion. It is admitted that the Hebrews the Greeks they were called 00poi ; i. e., wise men. became renowned for their intellectual culture in In the time of Christ, the common appellative for the time of David, and especially of Solomon, who men of that description was ygaujateús, in the is-said to have surpassed all others in wisdom Hebrew 1910, a scribe. They were addressed by | (see 1 Kings v. 9—14); but their literature was the honorary title of Rabbi; great, or master. limited chiefly to ethics, religion, the history of The Jews, in imitation of the Greeks, had their their nation, and natural history. After this time, seven wise men, who were Rabboni. Gamaliel the Hebrews made little progress in science and was one of the number. They called themselves literature. The elements of arithmetic, mathethe children of Wisdom; an expression which matics, geography, and astronomy, formed, as we corresponds very nearly to the Greek pinóropos have already intimated, the boundaries of their Matt. xi. 19; Luke vii. 35. The heads of sects scientific knowledge. were called Fathers, Matt. xii. 27, xxii. 1–9. The disciples were denominated sons, or children. The Jewish teachers, at least some of them, had

SECTION I. private lecture-rooms, but they also taught and

ARITHMETIC, MATHEMATICS, AND ASTROLOGY. disputed in synagogues, in temples, and, in fact, wherever they could find an audience. The

1. The more simple methods of arithmetical method of these teachers was the same with that calculation are spoken of in the Pentateuch, as if which prevailed among the Greeks. Any disciple they were well known. The merchants of that who chose might propose questions, upon which it early period must, for their own convenience, have was the duty of the teachers to remark and give been possessed of some method of operating by their opinions, Luke ii. 46. The teachers were numbers. And that they were able to do it, to not invested with their functions by any formal some considerable extent, may be argued from the act of the church, or of the civil authority ; they fact, that they had separate words, viz., 139, 1937, were self-constituted. They received no other for so large a number as 10,000, Gen. xxiv. 60; salary than some voluntary present from the dis- Lev. xxvi. 8; Deut. xxxii. 30. Among the leadciples, which was called 'an honorary,' tuń, HONO- ing terms arithmetically employed, there are parRARIUM, 1 Tim. v. 17. They acquired a subsist- ticularly these : sapher, which simply denotes the ence, in the main, by the exercise of some art or act of cyphering or calculation ; chezib, a reckonhandicraft. That they took a higher seat than ing, or finished computation (Lev. xxv. 2); kas, to their auditors, although it was probably the case, count, to make a contrasted account (Exod. xii. does not follow, as is sometimes supposed, from 4); and mene, a distribution or division (Gen. xiii. Luke ii. 46. According to the Talmudists, they were bound to hold no conversation with women,

Jahn, Archæol. Bih., 106, Upham's Trans. and to refuse to sit at table with the lower classes + They may be seen in Enfield's Hist. of Phil., vol. i., pp. 38, 39. of the people, John iv. 27 ; Matt. ix. 11. The

Jahn, Archæol. $ 98.

some

16); besides one Greek word, arithrios, number. the gloss which he adds, "A mountain of the May these probably express the fundamental rules East,” which is, in fact, the signification of the of arithmetic ?*

word. I Sephar is applied in general to the East

, 2. By mathematics we understand geometry, while Ophir, on the other hand, means the West, mensuration, navigation, &c. As far as a know- or Africa. Some, indeed, have imagined the Ophir ledge of them was absolutely required by the con- of Scripture to mean Peru; and the Tarshish dition and employments of the people, we may from which the fleets of Solomon returned every well suppose that knowledge to have actually ex- three years, “bringing gold, and silver, ivory, apes

, isted ; although no express mention is made of and peacocks,” has given rise to innumerable them.

learned disquisitions. Tarsus in Cilicia (which 3. Of the astronomical knowledge of the He- by the way was not a sea-port), as well as Tarbrews, and the biblical references to the science, tessus in Spain, are out of the question ; for the we have already treated in Part IV., chap. 1. ships of Solomon were launched from Eziongeber,

in the Red Sea, and ivory, apes, and peacocks

are obviously Indian produce. The most ingenious SECTION II.

of the conjectures, offered to clear up the diffGEOGRAPHY.

culties in the way of most of the hypotheses, is

that which explains the name Tarshish as an Limited Extent of Geographical Knowledge among the Hebrews

epithet derived from the Sanscrit language, in -Cosmological Notions of the Hebrews. 1. We have already seent that a geographical The languages of India, owing to the great trade

which Tar-désa, signifies “the silver-country." division of the land of promise amongst the twelve and civilization of the people who spoke them, tribes was made by Joshua soon after they had

are known to have contributed many terms to the obtained a footing in the country ; and the accu- Arabic and Hebrew tongues; and as the Indian racy with which this division is described shows legends make frequent mention of a silver country that at least the writer had made attainments in geographical science. See Josh. xviii. It is Arabians adopted from them this vague and wan

beyond the sea, it is not very improbable, that the not to be pretended, however, that the Hebrews dering appellation. Tarshish, then, to the Phapossessed any very enlarged or accurate know-nicians (who received the language as well as ledge of the earth and its various countries. Their institutions were designedly calculated to discourage was an expression of extreme latitude, and appli

merchandise of the East through the Arabians) an intercourse with strangers. The brilliant com

cable with equal justice to opposite quarters of the mercial enterprises in which Solomon engaged were discontinued by his successors,

globe.ll and even the

3. Towards the north, the geographical knowfleets of that prince were navigated by the servants of the king of Tyre. This restricted inter- Caucasus; and in the north-east it was confined

ledge of the Hebrews never extended beyond the course with foreign nations rendered it, of course,

The Chaldeans,

within equally narrow limits. impossible to acquire any enlarged or correct who appear to have descended from the further knowledge of the earth ; and we do not find in shores of the Caspian Sea, are described by the the prophetic writings any trace of geographical information much exceeding that which was pos

prophet Jeremiah as coming from the ends of the sessed by Moses, who has left us a precious record north, and the sides of the earth. With Egypt of the manner in which the knowledge of the

and Arabia the early Hebrews were well acearth was enlarged by the dispersion of the human quainted ; but towards the West, their knowledge

hardly reached so far as the shores of Greece. species. See Gen. x.

4. The cosmological ideas scattered through the 2. It is impossible to fix, with precision, the eastern limit of Moses' geographical knowledge. Scriptures are few in number, and of extreme “The dwellings of the sons of Joktan,” he says,

from Mesha, as thou goest unto Sephar, a mount of the East." This Sephar may possibly It has been thought that by the go sinim of Isaiah, xlix. 12, be the first range of the snowy mountains of Paro- the Chinese are intended ; and the opinion was adopted and depamisus, called also Sepyrrus by the ancients. fended by the late eminent Chinese scholar, Dr. Morrison. The But that the accurate knowledge of Moses did verbal opposition of the text requires that as the land of the

Sinim is geographically opposed to the • yam, "west," it not extend to the confines of India is evident from must lie very far east; and this agrees perfectly with the site

tion of China, at the eastern extremity of Asis,-See Critua

Biblica, vol. ii., p. 115. * Critica Biblica, vol. iii., p. 201.

|| Maritime Discoveries, vol. i., p. 7. Lardner's Cabinet + Part IV., chap. iv., sect. 1, § 4.

Cyclopa dia.

were

simplicity. In the prophetic writings many traces when it brake forth, as if it had issued out of the may be found of an opinion that “heaven,” or womb; when I made the cloud the garment " the mount of the Lord," was in the north (Isai. thereof?” chap. xxvi., xxxviii. The general alluxiv.). The earth was evidently considered to be sions which occur in Scripture to the earth and its a plain, surrounded, perhaps, by the ocean, which creation are not more remarkable for the sublime was again inclosed by the clouds of heaven. Such language in which they are conveyed, than for are the opinions expressed by Job, the sublimest their perfect freedom from fanciful and subtle of all poets: "He hath compassed the waters speculations.* At the same time, it may be with bounds, until [in the places where] the day thought probable that Isai. xl. 22, and Job xxii. and night come to an end." And again he says : 14, hint at the globular form of our world. “Whereupon are the foundations of the earth fostered? or who laid the corner-stone thereof? or who shut up the sea with doors [boundaries]

• Maritime Discovery, vol. i., pp. 7, 8.

CHAPTER III.

SOCIAL CUSTOMS.

We have already had occasion to notice the dress, was, in all likelihood, a sort of felt-cloth, permanency of eastern customs; and hence the manufactured out of these materials. Later still, assistance which may be derived from an acquaint- the art of weaving was discovered, and a web was ance with the various manners and characters of formed by combining the hair of animals with the Orientals, as they at present exist, in the illus- threads drawn from wool, cotton, or flax. (Sec Gen. tration of the sacred Scriptures. This has been xiv. 23, xxxi. 18, 19, xxxvii. 3, xxxviii. 28, xli. 42, noticed by many writers, and has engaged the at- xlv. 22; Job vii. 6, xxxi. 20.) The Egyptians tention of some of our most intelligent travellers. were very celebrated for such manufactures. The “ The manners of the East,” says Mr. Morier, Israelites, while living among them, learned the " amidst all the changes of government and reli- art, and even excelled their teachers. (1 Chron. gion, are still the same : they are living impres- iv. 21.) While wandering in the Arabian wilsions from an original mould; and at every step derness, they prepared the materials for covering some object, some idiom, some dress, or some cus- the tabernacle, and wrought some of them with tom of common life, reminds the traveller of an embroidery. Cotton cloth was esteemed most cient times, and confirms, above all, the beauty, valuable; next to that, woollen and linen. That the accuracy, and the propriety of the language which was manufactured from the hair of animals and the history of the Bible. * In the following was esteemed of least value. Of silk there is no sections we shall notice such of these usages, cus- mention made at a very early period, unless, pertoms, or habits, as bear upon the illustration of chance, it be in Ezek. xvi. 10, 13, under the word the Bible.

. This, however, is clear, that Alexander found silks in Persia ; and it is more than proba

ble, that the Median dress, which we find was SECTION I.

adopted by the Persians under Cyrus, was silk.

2. White was esteemed the most appropriate

colour for cotton cloth, and purple for the others. Materials used for Clothing-Coloured Clothes- Various parts The fullers, who had discovered the art of com

of the Oriental Dress: the Upper Garment; Head-dress; Tunic ; Girdles ; Shirts ; Veils; Painting of the Eyes ;-municating a very splendid white to cloth, by the Treatment of the Hair and Beard-Phylacteries-Nose-rings aid of alkali and urine, lived out of the city (Isai. and Ear-rings- Bracelets, &c

vii. 3), lest their shops should communicate a

fætidness to the atmosphere. The purple cotton 1. The earliest improvement upon the employment of the mere skins of animals as an article of cloth, which was essentially the same with the

celebrated Tyrian purple, was highly esteemed. (See Luke xvi. 19; Rev. xviii. 12.) It was cal

, • Preface to Second Journey, &c., Lond. 1818.

blood taken from a vein in the throat of a certain

.משי

CLOTHING AND PERSONAL ORNAMENTS.

and was produced by the ,רקמה and ,ארגמן led

shell-fish. * The scarlet colour, first mentioned for coverlids to the beds, should induce us to take in Gen. xxxviii. 28, and occurring frequently the finer sorts of them at least, such as are worn afterwards, was very much admired. It was a by the ladies and persons of distinction, to be the different colour from the shell-fish purple, and peplus of the ancients. Ruth's veil, which held was extracted from the insects, or their eggs, six measures of barley (Ruth iii. 15), might be of found on a species of oak; and thence in He- the like fashion, and have served, extraordinarily, brew it is called shr, which means a worm or for the same use ; as were also the clothes (the insect. The cotton cloth was dipped into this upper garments) of the Israelites (Exod. xii. 34), colour twice; hence the application of the He- in which they folded up their kneading-troughs, brew words y, and usu nuhin, twice-dyed. This and other cumbrous things; as the Moors, Arahs colour is sometimes called byna (2 Chron. ii. 14). and Kabyles do to this day. Instead of the fibula, The hyacinth or dark blue colour was extracted from used by the Romans, the Arabs join together either the cuttle-fish, which bears in Hebrew the same by thread or by a wooden bodkin, the two upper name with the colour itself, and was highly esteem- corners of this garment; and after having placed ed, especially among the Assyrians. (Ezek. xxiii. these over one of their shoulders, they fold the 6.) Black colour was used for common wear, rest of it about their bodies. The outer fold serves and particularly on occasions of mourning. Party- instead of an apron; in which they carry herbs, coloured cloths were highly esteemed. (Gen. loaves, corn, &c., and may illustrate several alluxxxvii. 3, 23; 2 Sam. xiii. 18.) As far back as sions in Scripture; as, gathering the lap full of the time of Moses we find that cloths were em- wild gourds (2 Kings iv. 39); rendering sevenbroidered, sometimes with the coloured threads of fold; giving good measure into the bosom (Ps cotton and linen, and sometimes with threads of | lxxix. 12; Luke vi. 38); “shaking the lap," Neh. gold. When the work was embroidered on both v. 13, &c. The burnoose, which answers to our sides, the Hebrew word for fabrics of that kind cloak, is often, for warmth, worn over the hyke. appears in the dual form ; viz., Sinops. Some It is woven in one piece straight about the neck, of the passages in relation to embroiderers and with a cape or Hippocrates' sleeve, for a cover to embroidery are as follows: Exod. xxxv. 36, xxxv. the head, and wide below, like a cloak. Some of 35; Judg. v. 30; Ps. xlv. 9; Ezek. xvi. 10.+ them are fringed round the bottom, like Parthe

3. In describing the several parts of the Israel- naspa's and Trajan's garment upon the basso reites' dress, we cannot do better than give Dr. lievos of Constantine's arch. The burnoose, withShaw's account of the Oriental costume, which out the cape, seems to answer to the Roman occurs in his description of the manufactories of pallium; and, with it, to the bardocucullus. Barbary.

(2) If we except the cape of the burnoose, which (1) The hykes, or blankets, as we should call is only occasionally used during a shower of rain, or them, are of different sizes, and of different quali- in very cold weather, several Arabs and Kabyles go ties and degrees of fineness. The usual size of bare-headed, binding their temples only with a them is six yards long, and five or six feet broad, narrow fillet, to prevent their locks from being serving the Arab for a complete dress in the day, troublesome. The turban, as they call a long and, as

they sleep in their raiment," as the Is- narrow web of linen, silk, or muslin, is folded raelites did of old (Deut. xxiv. 13), it serves also round the bottom of these caps, and very properly for his bed and covering by night. It is a loose, distinguishes, by the number and fashion of the but troublesome garment, being frequently dis- folds, the several orders and degrees of soldiers concerted and falling upon the ground; so that and sometimes of citizens. We find the same the person who wears it is every moment obliged dress and ornament of the head, the tiara as it to tuck it up, and fold it about his body. This was called, upon a number of medals, statutes, shows the great use of a girdle, whenever those and basso relievos of the ancients. wearing the hyke are concerned in any active 3. Under the hyke, some wear a close-bodied employment; and in consequence thereof, the force frock or tunic (a jillebba they call it), with or of the Scripture injunction, “ of having our loins without sleeves, which differs little, probably, from girded,” in order to set about it. See Luke xvii. the coat of our Saviour, which“ was woven with 8; Acts xii. 8; Eph. vi. 14; Rev. i. 13, and xv. out seam from the top throughout” (John xix. 23), 6. The method of wearing these garments, with and with which he is said to have been clothed, the use they are at other times put to, in serving when he is said to lay aside his garments (imatia,

burnoose and hyke, John xiii. 4), and to take a

towel and gird himself. The fisher's coat (John * See Harris's Natural History of the Bible, art. purple.

xxi. 7) which Peter girded about him, when he + Jahn, Archæol. $ 119.

is said to be naked : or what he, at the command

of the angel (Acts xii. 8), might have girded upon occasional alterations, as would be required him, before he is enjoined to cast his garment amongst us. about him was, no doubt, the same thing. The (4) The girdles are usually of worsted, very hyke, or burnoose, or both, being at that time, as artfully woven into a variety of figures, such as now, the proper dress or habit of the eastern the rich girdles of the virtuous virgins may be dations, when a person laid them aside, or ap- supposed to have been, Prov. xxxi. 24. They are peared without one or the other, he might very made to foid several times about the body; and properly be said to be undressed, or naked, one end, being doubled back, and sewed along the according to the eastern manner of expression. edges, serves for a purse, agreeably to the accepDr. Harwood very properly remarks, that a pas- tation of the zone in the Scriptures. The Turks sage in the Acts of the Apostles clearly fixes the make a further use of these girdles, by tucking in difference between the upper garment and the them their knives and poniards ; † whilst the tunic. During Peter's stay at Joppa, one Dorcas, hojias, i. e., the writers and secretaries, suspend in a Christian, who is recorded to be a person of a them their inkhorns; a custom as old as the protruly amiable and beneficent disposition, fell sick phet Ezekiel. See chap. ix. 2. and died. The Christians, in Joppa having re. (5) It is customary for the Turks and Moors to ceived information that Peter was at Lydda, dis- wear shirts of linen, or cotton, or gauze, underpatched two messengers to him, entreating he neath the tunic; but the Arabs wear nothing but would come to them without delay. On Peter's woollen. The sleeves of these shirts are wide and arrival, they took him into an upper room, where open, without folds at the neck or wrist, as ours the corpse lay, and around which a number of have. I Those of the women are oftentimes of indigent widows stood bathed in tears, deploring the richest gauze, adorned with different coloured the irreparable loss they had sustained, and show- ribbons, interchangeably sewed to each other. ing Peter a variety of under and upper garments,

(6) The virgins are distinguished from the mawhich Dorcas had charitably made to clothe poor trons, by having their drawers made of needlenecessitous objects. It was these imatia, or upper work, striped silk, or linen, just as Tamar’s gargarments, consisting of a loose square piece of ment is described, 2 Sam. xiii. 18. But when the cloth wrapped round the body, which that vast women are at home and in private, then their multitude who escorted Jesus in the triumphant hykes are laid aside, and sometimes their tunics ; procession into the capitol, spread in the public and instead of drawers, they bind only a towel road by way of carpet. Plutarch informs us that about their loins. A Barbary matron, in her unthe same affectionate respect and reverence was dress, appears like Silanus in the Admiranda. paid to Cato. When Jesus was seized, we read (7) When these ladies appear in public, they that a young man, excited by the tumult and disturbance that was made in the dead of night, hastily threw about him a linen garment, issued

+ The poniard of the Arab is made crooked, like the copis

or harp of the ancients. from the house to learn the occasion of this con

# The figure in Isaiah (lii. 10), “The Lord hath made bare fusion, and followed the crowd for some time. his holy arm,” is most lively: for the loose sleeve of the Arab But the officers who apprehended Jesus, thinking shirt, as well as that of the outer garment, leaves the arm so him one of his companions, immediately seized completely free, that, in an instant, the left hand passing up the him : upon which he left his garment in their right arm makes it bare; and this is done when a persona

soldier, for example, about to strike with his sword-intends to hands, fled away naked, and thus narrowly made give his right arm full play. The image represents Jehovah as his escape from them.* The convenient and uni- suddenly prepared to inflict some tremendous yet righteous form shape of the garments made to fit all persons judgment—so effectual, that all the ends of the world shall

see the salvation of God.”—Jowett's Christian Researches in may illustrate a variety of expressions and occur- Syria, p. 282. To the same effect writes Mr. Roberts : “The rences in Scripture, which, to persons misled by right arm or shoulder is always alluded to as the place of our own fashions, are difficult. Thus we read strength : with that the warrior wields his sword, and slays his

foes. The metaphor appears to allude to a man who is prethat the goodly raiment of Esau was put upon paring for the battle ; he takes the robe from his right arm, that, Jacob; that Jonathan stripped himself of his being thus uncovered, “made bare,' it may the more easily garments; that the best robe was brought out, perform its office. Tell your boasting master to get ready his and put upon the prodigal son; and that raiment, army, for our king has shown his shoulder,' i. e., uncovered it.

* Alas! I have heard that the mighty sovereign of the neighand changes of raiment, were often given, and bouring kingdom has pointed to his shoulder,' i. e., he is ready immediately put on (as they still continue to be to come against us. See two men disputing ; should one of in eastern nations) without such previous and them point to his right arm and shoulder

, the other will immediately fall into a rage, as he knows it amounts to a challenge, and says, in effect, 'I am thy superior.' Thus may be seen

men at a distance, when defying each other, slapping each his * Harwood's Introduction, vol. ii., p. 97.

right hand or shoulder.”-Oriental Illustrations, p. 448.

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