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of ashes; to which the straw, the stubble, the later period wicker-drags came into use, which husks, the brambles, and the grass, that overspread Pliny mentions. The modern Orientals, except the land during the sabbatical year, were reduced in India, are unacquainted with the cart; but forby fire. The burning over the surface of the land merly not only wagons (Gen. xlv. 19, Numb. had also another good effect, viz., that of destroy- vii. 3, 6, 7; 1 Sam. ix. 7, 8, 10, 11, 14; Amos ii. ing the seeds of the noxious herbs, Isai. vii 23, 13; Isai. v. *18, xxviii. 28), and warlike chariots, xxxii. 13; Prov. xxiv. 31. Finally, the soil was but also pleasure carriages, were used, Gen. xli. manured with dung, Ps. lxxxiii. 10; 2 Kings ix. 43, xlv. 19, 21 ; 2 Kings v. 9; 2 Sam. xv. 1; 37; Isai. xxv. 10; Jer. viii. 2, ix. 22, xvi. 4, xxv. Acts viïi. 28. All the ancient vehicles were moved 33; Luke xiv. 34, 35.
upon two wheels only. Covered coaches are 6. The culture of the soil was at first very known to have been used by ladies of distinction; simple, being performed by no other instruments though this circumstance is not mentioned in the than sharp sticks. By these the ground was Bible. loosened, until spades and shovels, and not long 7. The beasts of burden that endured the toils after ploughs, were invented. All these imple- of agriculture, were bulls and cows, he-asses and ments were well known in the time of Moses, she-asses. Job i. 14; 1 Sam. vi. 7; Isai. xxx. 24, Deut. xxii. 13; Gen. xlv. 6; Job i. 14. The xxxii. 20. But it was forbidden to yoke an ass first plough was doubtless nothing more than a with an ox, Deut. xxii. 10. Those animals, which stout limb of a tree, from which projected another in the Scriptures are called oxen, were bulls, for shortened and pointed limb. This being turned the Hebrews were prohibited from castrating, alinto the ground made the furrows; while at the though the law was sometimes violated, Mal i. further end of the longer branch was fastened a | 14. Bulls in the warmer climates, especially if transverse yoke, to which the oxen.were harnessed. they are not greatly pampered, are not so unAt last a handle was added, by which the plough governable, but that they may be harnessed to the might be guided. So that the plough was com- plough. If, indeed, any became obstinate by rich posed of four parts; the beam, the yoke which pasturage, their nostrils were perforated, and a was attached to the beam, the handle, and what ring, made of iron or twisted corn, was thrust ne should call the coulter, 1 Sam. xiii. 20, 21 ; through, to which was fastened a rope, which Micah iv. 3.* It was necessary for the plough- impeded his respiration to such a degree, that the man constantly and firmly to hold the handle of most turbulent one might easily be managed, 2 the plough, which had no wheels; and, that no Kings xix. 28; Isai. xxxvii. 29; Ezek. xix. 4; spot might remain untouched, to lean forward and Job xl. 24. By this ring also camels, elephants, fix his eyes steadily upon it, Luke ix. 62. The and lions, taken alive, were rendered manageable. staff by which the coulter was cleared, served for When bulls became old, their flesh was unsuitable an ox-goad. In the east, at the present day, they for aliment; for which reason they were left to
a pole about eight feet in length; at the die a natural death ; for the old age of these anilargest end of which is fixed a flat piece of iron mals, which had been their companions in labour, for clearing the plough, and at the other end a was treated by the Hebrews with kindness. spike (1977, névsgow) for spurring the oxen. Hence Whence it is said, that, in the golden age, the
that a goad might answer the purpose slaughter of an ox will be equally criminal with of a spear, which indeed had the same name 7997, the slaughter of a man, Isai. Ixvi. 3. || Hence, too, 1 Sam. xiii. 21 ; Judg. iii. 31. Sometimes a among the Hebrews, bulls possessed their approscourge was applied to the oxen, Isai. x. 26; Nah. priate dignity, so that tropes were drawn from ii. 2. There seems to have been no other harrow them, by no means destitute of elegance, Numb. than a thick clump of wood, borne down by a xxii. 4; Deut. xxiii. 17. weight, or a man sitting upon it, and drawn over 8. Sowing commenced in the latter part of the ploughed field by oxen ; the same which the October; at which time, as well as in the months Egyptians use at the present time. In this way of November and December following, the wheat the turfs were broken in pieces, and the field was committed to the earth. Barley was sown in levelled ; an operation which the word 970 seems January and February. The land was ploughed, properly to signify, viz., to level, since, in Isai. and the quantity which was ploughed by & yoke xxviii. 24, 25, it is interchanged with nw. At a of oxen, in one day, was called a yoke, or an acre,
1 Sam. xiv. 14. The yoke, was laid upon the
* Pliny, N. H., xvii. 47, speaks of ploughs constructed with wheels, which in his day were of recent invention.
+ Ibid., xviii. 49, No. 2.
1 Ibid., xvij. 43. || Ibid., vü. 45, 56.
necks and shoulders of the labouring animals, and they do not become ripe, till three weeks after, with ropes, was made fast to the beam of the even later. The cultivated fields are guarded by plough. The ox beneath the yoke afforded meta- watchmen, who sit upon a seat hung in a tree, or phors expressive of subjugation, Hos. x. ll; Isai. on a 'watch-tower made of planks, and keep off ix. 4, x. 27; Jer. v. 5, xxvii. 2, 8–12, xxx. 8; birds, quadrupeds, and thieves, Jer. iv. 16, 17; Nah. i. 13; Ps. cxxix. 3, 4; Matt. xi. 29, 30. Isai. xxiv. 20. It was lawful for travellers, Deut. The Syrians, according to Pliny, xviii. 3, ploughed xxiii. 25, to strip ears from anothers field, and to shallow. The furrows, and the ridges between eat; but they were not to use a sickle. The second them, were harrowed and levelled, Job xxxix. 10; day of the passover, i. e., the sixteenth from the Isai. xxviii. 24, 25; Hos. x. 11. The seed was first new moon of April, the first handful of ripe most probably committed to the soil in the har-barley was carried to the altar, and then the harrowing, as Pliny relates. Yet it seems to have vest commenced, comp. Jon. iv. 35. The barley been customary in some cases, formerly, as it is at was first gathered; then the wheat, spelt, millet, present, to scatter the seed upon the field once &c., Exod. ix. 31, 32; Ruth i. 22, ii. 23. The ploughed, and cover it by a cross furrow. When time of harvest was a festival, which continued it was prohibited by law to sow, either in field or from the passover until Pentecost, seven weeks ; vineyard, seed of a mixed kind, and crops of this Deut. xvi. 9—12; Jer. v. 24. The reapers were nature became sacred, i. e., were given to the masters, children, men-servants, maidens and merpriests, without doubt the seed-grain was carefully cenaries, Ruth ii. 4, 8, 21, 23; John iv. 36; cleansed from all mixture of tares so often spoken James v. 4. Merry and cheerful, they were inof, and which we find denominated in the New tent upon their labour, and the song of joy might Testament 3 cánov, and in Hebrew ux9 and win be heard on every side, Isai. ix. 3, lxi. 7; Ps. This law by no means referred to a poorer sort of cxxvi. 6. Travellers congratulated them on the grain, as the Talmudic writers suppose, but what rich harvest ; which was attributed to the benemay be called the intoxicating tare, from which ficence of the Deity, and considered a great honour; the bread and the water in which it was boiled while, on the other hand, sterility of the soil was received an inebriating quality, and became very supposed to be a divine punishment, and a dis‘injurious to soundness of mind. The beverage grace, Lev. xxvi. 4; Deut. xi. 14, xxviii. 12—24; formed by boiling tares and water, was called Isai. iv. 2; Hag. i. 5—11; Mal. iii. 10, 11. Anwater of tares, also poison-water, Deut. xxix. 18, ciently the ears were plucked off, or the stalks 19; Ps. Ixix. 21 ; Jer. viii. 14, xxiii. 15; Hos. x. pulled up by the roots, which is still the custom 4. The tares, then, such were their injurious in some eastern countries. It was esteemed serqualities, are very properly said to have been sown vile labour by the Pharisees, and a profanation of by an enemy, while the labourers were indulging the sabbath, when done on that day, Matt. xii. sleep at noon, Matt. xiii. 25—40. Consult, in 1–5. The Hebrews used the sickle (Deut. xvi. reference to the law here mentioned, Lev. xix. 19; 9; Joel iii. 13; Jer. 1. 16); so that the stubble and Deut. xxii. 9.
remained in the earth. The crops when reaped 9. In Palestine, the crops are as far advanced in were gathered up by the arms, and bound in bunthe month of February, as they are in this country dles, Gen. xxxvii. 7; Lev. xxiii. 10–15 ; Job in the month of May. At that time, when the xxiv. 10; Ruth ii. 7, 15, 16; Amos ii. 13; Mic. grain has reached about a cubit in height, it is iv. 12; Jer. ix. 21, 22. At length the bundles frequently so injured by cold winds and frost, that were collected into a heap, or conveyed away on a it does not ear.
The effect thus produced upon wagon, Amos ii. 13; Ps. cxxvi. 6. But the corthe grain is called blasting, Gen. xli. 6; Deut. ners of the field, and the gleanings, were required xxviii. 22; 2 Kings xix. 26. Sometimes, even to be left for the poor, Lev. xix. 9 ; Deut. xxiv. in November, the crops are so annoyed by easterly 19; Ruth ii. 2, 23. The land in the East genewinds, as to turn yellow, and never to come to rally yields ten-fold ; rarely, twenty or thirty ; but maturity. This calamity is denominated mildere Matt. xiii. 8 says, the land yielded thirty, sixty, (Deut. xxviii. 22; Amos iv. 9; Hag. ii. 17; and an hundred-fold, and Gen. xxvi. 12 says, an 1 Kings viii. 37; 2 Chron. vi. 28 ); but whether hundred-fold. Ilerodotus, Strabo, and Pliny menthe opinion of the Orientals, that these effects are tioned the increase of crops at the rate of one occasioned by the winds, is founded in truth, can- hundred and fifty, two hundred, and even three not, as it seems, be determined. The crops, in hundred-fold. This great increase is owing to the sordhern parts of Palestine and in the plains, the circumstance of the kernels being put into the corne to maturity about the middle of April; but soil at a distance from each other, so as to send in the northern and the mountainous sectionsout several stalks (Gen. xli. 5, 47). some of which,
according to Pliny,* have from three to four hun- supported by trees, grow to a great height and dred ears; and in Africa, at the present time, they magnitude ; of such are made the staves and bear at least ten and fifteen.
sceptres of kings. The vine growing sponta10. The bundles were transported into the neously, of which we have spoken, is not that threshing-floor either by hand, or by beasts of which in 2 Kings iv. 39 is called the “wild vine," burden, or in wagons, Amos ii. 13; and piled in for that (as the Vulgate rightly translates) is the a heap, Exod. xxii, 6; Judg. xv. 5. A bundle colocyntis, or wild gourd, which in Jer. ii. 21 is left in the field, even though discovered, was not called the degenerate or strange rine. The vine of to be taken up, but left to the poor, Deut. xxiv. Sodom is the solanum mclangenæ, the fruit of 19. The threshing-floor was in the field, in some which, as was said above, is called the poisonous elevated part of it; it was destitute of walls and clusters. covering ; and, indeed, was nothing more than a 13. Vineyards were generally planted on the circular space thirty or forty paces in diameter, declivity of hills and mountains, sometimes in where the ground had been levelled and beaten places where the soil had been heaped by art down, Gen. l. 10; 2 Sam. xxiv. 16, 24; Judg. vi. upon the naked rocks, being supported there 37, &c. The assemblage of bundles in the floor merely by a wall, Isa. v. 1; Jer. xxxi. 5; Joel for threshing, was used figuratively to denote re- iii
. 18; Amos ix. 13; Micah i. 6. According to servation for future destruction, Mic. iv. 13; Isai. Strabo and Pliny, there were also very fine vinexxi. 10; Jer. li. 33. We have already spoken of yards in moors and wet lands, in which the vines the mode of threshing out the corn, and also of its grew to a very great height. Of the vines that preparation for food. +
grew upon such a kind of soil were fabricated the 12. Among other objects of agriculture, the sceptre, &c., spoken of above; whilst the branches vine may justly be considered worthy of particular of other vines were destined to be fuel for the attention. In some parts of the East, for instance, flames, Ezek. xvii. 1–8; xix. 10, 11, 12; IV. on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea, these 1–5. Vines were commonly propagated by means trees grow spontaneously, producing grapes of a of suckers. Pliny|| says, vines were of four kinds, pleasant taste, which, in the very first ages of the viz., those that ran on the ground; those that world, could not but have invited the attention of grew upright of themselves; those that adhered men to their cultivation. Hence mention is made to a single prop; and those that covered a square of wine at an early period, Gen. ix. 21 ; xiv. 18; frame. It is not our design to treat of all these : xix. 32–35; xxvii. 25; xlix. 11, 12. The He- it may suffice merely to mention, that Pliny is by brews were no less diligent in the culture of vine- no means correct, when he says, the custom preyards, than of fields for grain; and the soil of vailed in Syria and all Asia, of letting the vines Palestine yielded in great quantities the best of run on the ground. This, indeed, accords with wine. The mountains of Engedi in particular, the Ezekiel xvii. 6, 7; but that vines frequently grew valley of salt-pits, and the valleys of Eshcol and to a great height, being supported by trees and Sorek, were celebrated for their grapes. Sorek, props, or standing upright of themselves, the proindeed, was not only the proper name of a valley, verbial phrase, which so often occurs, of sitting but also of a very fruitful vine, which bore small under one's own vine and fig-tree, i. e., enjoying but uncommonly sweet and pleasant grapes. In a prosperous and happy life, is sufficient prook
, the kingdom of Morocco, at the present time, the Jer. v. 17, viii. 13; Hos. ii. 12; Micah iv. 4; same vine is called Serki, the name being slightly Zech. iii. 10. The prohibition (Deut. xxii. 9) to altered. I In a few instances, the wine of Mount sow vineyards with divers seeds, and the comLibanus and Helbon is extolled in the Scriptures, mand, that what was thus sown should be given Ilos. xiv. 7; Ezek. xxvii. 18. In Palestine, even to the priests, are not to be understood of the at the present day, the clusters of the vine grow vines, but of herbs, which were sown in the interto the weight of twelve pounds; they have large vals between them. Vineyards were defended by grapes, and cannot be carried far by one man a hedge or wall (Numb. xxi. 24; Ps. lxxxvii without being injured, Numb. xiii. 24, 25. The 12; Prov. xxiv. 31; Isa. v. 5; xxvii. 2, 3; Jer. grapes of Palestine are mostly red or black ; xlix. 3 ; Neh. iv. 3; Matt. xxi. 33), and in them whence originated the phrase, “ blood of grapes,” were erected towers (Isa. v. 2; Matt. xxi. 33). DIIJY 07, Gen. xlix. 11; Deut. xxxii. 14; Isa. which, at the present time in eastern countries, xxvii. 2. Some vines in eastern countries, when are thirty feet square, and eighty feet high. These
towers were for keepers, who defended the vinedogs and foxes, Cant. i. 6; ii. 15. By the law in juice flows out into the lower receptacle, called Deut. xxiii. 25, the keeper was commanded not ap: ikeb, through a grated aperture, which is made to prohibit the passing traveller from plucking the in the side near the bottom of the upper one. The grapes, which he wished to eat on his way, pro- treading of the wine-press was laborious, and not vided he did not carry them off in a vessel. very favourable to cleanliness; the garments of
yards from thieves, and from animals, especially * N. H. xviii, 21, 55. + See page 536, ante. See Pliny, xvii. 35, No. 5.
|| N. H. xvii. 36, No. 6.
14. The manner of trimming the vine, and also the persons thus employed were stained with red the singular instrument of the vine-dresser, were juice, and yet the employment was a joyful one. well known even in the time of Moses, Lev. xxv. It was performed with singing, accompanied with 3, 4; compare Isa. ii. 4, v. 6, xvii. 5; Micah iv. musical instruments ; and the treaders, as they 3; Joel iii. 10. A vintage from new vineyards jumped, exclaimed, 7797 (ho up), Isa. xvi. 9, 10; was forbidden for the first three years (Exod. Jer. xxv. 30 ; xlviii. 32, 33. Figuratively, vintage, xxxiv. 26, and Numb. xviii. 11), and the grapes gleaning, and treading the wine-press, signified also of the fourth year were consecrated to sacred battles and great slaughters, Isa. xvii. 6; lxiii. purposes ; the vines, therefore, without doubt, 1–3; Jer. xlix. 9; Lam. i. 15. during these first years, were so pruned as that 16. Culinary plants and fruit-trees were among few sprouts remained. On the fifth year, when the first objects of agriculture. Gardens, accordthey were first profaned, i. e., put to common use, ingly, were very ancient, and have always been they had become sturdy and exuberant. Pruning numerous. By the Hebrews they were called at three several times, viz., in March, April, and 73 711, 71, Duga ; afterwards, the Persian name May, is mentioned not only by Bochart, but by 0775, Fagáðs1006, paradise, was introduced. The Pliny; and Homer speaks of it as a thing well later Hebrews were invited the more to the cultiknown.* The Hebrews dug their vineyards, and vation of gardens by the example of the Syrians, gathered out the stones. The young vines, unless whom Pliny extols for this species of agriculture, trees were at hand, were wound around stakes ; above all other nations. Trees were multiplied and around those vines which ran on the ground by seeds and shoots; they were transplanted, dug were dug narrow trenches in a circular form, to around, manured, and pruned, Job viii. 16; Isai. prevent the wandering shoots from mingling with xvii. 10. Grafting occurs figuratively in Rom. each other. These practices in the cultivation of xi. 17, 24. The gardens in Persia, at the present the vine are to be duly considered in those allego- day, are disposed in good order; those in the Ottories which are drawn from vineyards, Isa. v. 1–7; man empire are very rude, displaying hardly any xxvii. 2–6; Ps. lxxx. 9_13; Matt. xxi. 33–46. indications of art, except a fountain or receptacle
15. The vintage in Syria commences about of waters, which is never wanting. In the Scripthe middle of September, and continues till the tures, gardens are denominated from the prevamiddle of November. But grapes, we are in- lence of certain trees; as the garden of nuts, nga formed, were ripe sometimes even in June and max, and the garden of Carthaginian apples or July; which arose, perhaps from a triple pruning; pomegranates, D'199 0773, Cant. vi. 11. The in which case there was also a third vintage. The forest of palms, also, in the plain of Jericho, was first vintage was in August, the second in Septem- only a large garden, in which other trees were ber, and the third in October. The grapes, when interspersed among the palms. The modern not gathered, were sometimes found on the vines Orientals are no less fond of gardens than were the until November and December. The Hebrews ancient Hebrews; not only because they yield the were required to leave gleanings for the poor, richest fruits, but because the shade is
refreshLev. xix. 10. The season of vintage was a joyful ing, and the air is cooled by the waters, of which one, Judges ix. 27; Isa. xvi. 10; Jer. xxv. 30; their gardens are never allowed to be destitute, xlviii. 33. With shoutings on all sides, the grapes 1 Kings xxi. 2; 2 Kings xxv. 4; Hos. ix. 13; were plucked off, and carried to the wine-press, Cant. iv. 13, vi. 11 ; Eccles. ii. 5; John xviii. 1, which was in the vineyard, Isa. v. 2; Zech. xiv. xix. 41, xx. 15. The Hebrews had an attach10; Hag. ii. 16; Matt. xxi. 33 ; Rev. xiv. 19, 20. ment to gardens as a place of burial; hence they The presses consisted of two receptacles, which frequently built sepulchres in them, 2 Kings ix. were either built of stones and covered with plas- 27, xxi. 11; Mark xv. 46; Matt. xxvi. 36 ; John ter, or hewn out of a large rock. The upper xviii. 1, 2. A pleasant region is called “a garreceptacle, called na geth, as it is constructed at den of God,” i. e., a region extremely pleasant. the present time in Persia, is nearly eight feet The trees which the gardens constantly displayed square and four feet high. Into this the grapes are often used figuratively for men. Those which are thrown, and trodden out by five men. The are flourishing and fruitful denote good men ; the
unfruitful and barren, wicked men, and lofty cedars the vines and the olives were not pruned ; there in particular are the emblems of kings, Job xxix. was no vintage, and no gathering of fruits, even of 19; Ps. i. 3, xcii. 12–14; Hos. xiv. 6, 7; Jer. what grew wild; but whatever spontaneous proxvii. 8; Dan iv. 10–16; Luke xxiii. 31 ; Matt. ductions there were, were left to the poor, the iii. 10, vii. 17–20, xii. 33; Ezek. xvii. 3, 4, traveller, and the wild beast, Lev. xxv. 1–7; xxxi. 3, 13. Indeed, an assembly of men is com- Deut. xv. l-10. The object of this regulation pared to a forest, and a multitude of wicked men seems to have been, to secure the preservation of to briars, Isai. ix. 10, x. 19, 33, 34, xi. 1. Seve- wild beasts, to let the ground recover its strength, ral trees, which are often mentioned in the Scrip- and to teach the Hebrews to be provident of their tures, but not very well known, we shall now income, and to look out for the future. It is true, describe in a few words.
that extraordinary fruitfulness was promised on 17. Agriculture on every seventh year came to the sixth year, but in such a way as not to exclude an end. Nothing was sown, and nothing reaped ; care and foresight, Lev. xxv. 20—24.
PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICAL SCIENCE.
Errors relative to the learning of the Hebrews – Teachers of truth as their guide in the conduct of life
. In Religion - Philosophy of the Hebrews – Wise men, or Teachers-State of the Sciences among the Hebrews.
practical and moral wisdom, it cannot be doubted
that they held a place of high distinction. Their 1. Different writers have been guilty of great wisdom, however, must not be confounded with exaggeration, in opposite ways, in their estimates philosophy, in the strict acceptation of the term. of the state of science amongst the ancient He- Blessed with a divine revelation, they have transbrews. While some, in the spirit of Apollonarius, mitted to posterity rays of sacred truth, which have pronounced them to be “the most stupid have been spread through the world, and they barbarians, and the only people who never pro- have hence obtained an immortal name in an duced a single invention," others have exhibited order of higher dignity than that of philosophers them as profoundly learned in all philosophy, and Under the direction of genuine principles of reas equal in the extent and diversity of their ligion, they pursued the plain path of simple knowledge to the wise men of Greece and Rome. virtue, without being led astray by vain curiosity A better or more certain judgment concerning the into fruitless speculations. Among the Hebrews, wisdom of the ancient Hebrews cannot be formed, we are therefore to look for prudent statesmen, as Dr. Enfield suggests, * than from the monuments upright judges, and priests learned in the law; which they themselves, or their descendants, have but not for philosophers, in the limited sense in left in the sacred Scriptures. Much greater credit, which we understand that term.+ particularly in this instance, is due to domestic 3. Traces of philosophy, strictly so called, i. c., than to foreign testimony. For the Jewish his- the system of prevailing moral opinions, may
be torians had their information concerning the an- found in the book of Job, in the 37th, 39th, and cient state of their nation, from records preserved 73rd Psalms ; also in the books of Proverbs and with the utmost care by their ancestors; whereas Ecclesiastes; but chiefly in the Apocryphal other writers, in speaking of a people who had book of Wisdom, and the writings of the Son of little intercourse with their neighbours
, for want Sirach. During the captivity, the Jews acquired of a better guide than vague report, must neces- many new notions, particularly from the Mebessarily have given a precipitate
, and often an erro- tani, and appropriated them, as occasion offered, neous, judgment.
to their own purposes. They at length became 2. We learn from the Scriptures, that amongst acquainted with the philosophy of the Greeks the ancient Hebrews there were many eminent which makes its appearance abundantly in the men, who made use of the clear light of divine book of Wisdom. After the captivity, the lan
* Hist. of Philosophy, vol. i., chap. 2.
+ Enfield, vol. i., p. 38.