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tho, that they were all thus infected, and were infected person, at the period when the disease shows consequence of the infection driven out by force, itself externally, happens to be in great fear, or to in which he is precipitately and carelessly followed be intoxicated with anger, Numb. xii. 10; 2 Chron. by Strabo, by Tacitus, by Justin Trogus, and by xxvi. 19. They commonly exhibit themselves in others more recent, is a mere dream, without any the first instance, on the face, about the nose and adequate foundation. The disease, it is true, was eyes; they gradually increase in size for a numa very severe and a very repulsive one, and was ber of years, till they become, as respects the exregarded by the ancients as a marked exhibition tent of surface which they embrace on the skin, of the justice and the wrath of God. It was de- as large as a pea or bean. They are then called nominated by the Hebrews the stroke or round, new. The white spot or pustule, nona, MORPIIFA i. e., by supplying the ellipsis, the stroke or wound ALBA, and also the dark spot, Onod, MORPHEA of the Lord, Numb. xii. 1-10; 2 Kings v. 1, NIGRA, are indications of the existence of the real et seq., xv. 5; 2 Chron. xxvi. 16,

seq.*

But leprosy, Lev. xiii. 2, 39, xiv. 56. From these it certainly the kings of Egypt, who, according to is necessary to distinguish the spot, which, whatthe unanimous testimony of the ancients, could ever resemblance there may be in form, is so correctly estimate the value of a numerous popu- different in its effects, called Bohak, png, and also lation, acted a strange and unaccountable part, if the harmless sort of scab, which occurs under the it be a fact, that on account of a disease, which word, nnpon, Lev. xii. 6—8, 29. Moses, in the might be called one of the attributes of the country thirteenth chapter of Leviticus, lays down very and climate, they expelled from the very heart of explicit rules for the purpose of distinguishing the nation more than two millions of people. The between those spots which are proofs of the leprosy is, without doubt, a frightful disease. It actual existence of the leprosy, and those spots exhibits itself on the exterior surface of the skin, which are harmless, and result from some other but it infects, at the same time, the marrow and cause. Those spots which are the genuine effects the bones; so much so that the furthest joints in and marks of the leprosy, gradually dilate themthe system gradually lose their powers, and the selves, till at length they cover the whole body. members fall together in such a manner as to give Not only the skin is subject to a total destruction, the body a mutilated and dreadful appearance. but the whole body is affected in every part. The From these circumstances, there can be no doubt pain, it is true, is not very great; but there is a that the disease originates and spreads its ravages great debility of the system, and great uneasiness internally, before it makes its appearance on the and grief, so much so, as almost to drive the victim external parts of the body. Indeed we have reason of the disease to self-destruction, Job vii. 15. to believe that it is concealed in the internal parts There are four kinds of the real leprosy. The of the system a number of years : for instance, in first kind is of so virulent and powerful a nature, infants commonly till they arrive at the age of that it separates the joints and limbs, and mutipuberty; and in adults, as many as three or four lates the body in the most awful manner. The years, till at last it gives the fearful indications on second is the white leprosy, nyrs. The third is the skin of having already gained a deep-rooted the black leprosy, or Psora, no Inu on, nobi, and permanent existence. Its progress subse- 279, yunu niyadx, Deut. xxviii. 27, 35; Lev. xxi. quently to its appearance on the external surface 20_22. The fourth description of leprosy is the of the body is far from being rapid ; in a number alopecia, or red leprosy. The person who is inof years it arrives at its middle, and in a number fected with the leprosy, however long the disease after to its final state. A person who is leprous may be in passing through its several stages, is at from his nativity may live fifty years; one, who last taken away suddenly, and for the most part in after life is infected with it, may live twenty unexpectedly. But the evils which fall upon

the years; but they will be such years of dreadful living leper are not terminated by the event of misery as rarely fall to the lot of man in any other his death. The disease is to a certain extent hesituation. The appearance of the disease exter- reditary, and is transmitted down to the third and nally, is not always the same. The spot is com- fourth generation ; to this fact there seems to be monly small, resembling in its appearance the an allusion in Exod. xx. 4–6, iii. 7; Deut. v. 9, small red spot that would be the consequence of xxiv. 8, 9. If any one should undertake to say,

that a puncture from a needle, or the pustules of a in the fourth generation it is not the real leprosy, ringworm. The spots for the most part make their still it will not be denied, there is something which appearance very suddenly, especially if the in- bears no little resemblance to it in the shape of

defective teeth, of fetid breath, and a diseased hue.

Leprous persons, notwithstanding the deformities * Herodot. I., 138

and mutilation of their bodies, give no special

ever.

evidence of a liberation from the strength of the angel whom they denominate 785e meluch. We sensual passions, and cannot be influenced to are not, however, to suppose that the Hebrews, in abstain from the procreation of children, when at using these expressions, mean to attribute the the same time they clearly foresee the misery of pestilence to the immediate agency of God; nor which their offspring will be the inheritors. The would they permit us to understand by the mesdisease of leprosy is communicated not only by senger, who, they assure is the agent in busitransmission from the parents to the children, and ness of so disastrous a nature, the true and appronot only by sexual cohabitation, but also by much priate angel or legate of Jehovah. It is true, they intercourse with a leprous person in any way what- tell us, that God sends forth the pestilence, and

Whence Moses acted the part of a wise that the angel goes with it and smites the people legislator* in making those laws, which have come with its power; but let it not be forgotten, that down to us, concerning the inspection and separa- every angel is the creature of God, and that, in a tion of leprous persons. The object of these laws certain sense, God is the author of all things and will appear peculiarly worthy, when it is consi- all events, whether prosperous or afflictive, whe dered that they were designed, not wantonly to ther good or bad. When they make God the fix the charge of being a leper upon an innocent author of the pestilence, it is clear they do not person, and thus to impose upon him those re- mean to say he is the immediate cause in so fearful straints and inconveniences which the truth of a calamity, from the fact, that in other places they such a charge naturally implies; but to ascertain represent God as the author of moral evil, where in the fairest and most satisfactory manner, and they certainly do not mean to say he is the imme to separate those, and those only, who were truly diate author of such evil. In a somewhat recent and really leprous. As this was the prominent period of their history, it cannot be denied, that object of his laws that have come down to us on instead of making God the author of evil, they this subject, viz., to secure a fair and impartial attribute it to a malignant spirit of high origin, decision on a question of this kind, he has not viz., Satan; but still they were aware of the origin mentioned those signs of leprosy which admitted of this being, that he was the creature of God, of no doubt, but those only which might be the and acted beneath his superintendence. The subject of contention; and left it to the priests, difficulty, then, in regard to their representations, who also fulfilled the office of physicians, to dis- arises from this source. God, in a certain sense, tinguish between the really leprous, and those is the author of all things. This is true. But who had only the appearance of being such. In the ancient Hebrews do not appear to have distinthe opinion of Hensler,+ Moses, in the laws to guished with sufficient accuracy that liberty or which we have alluded, discovers a great know- permission which is given us, in the course of ledge of the disease. Every species of leprosy is Divine Providence, to do or not to do, to do good not equally malignant; the most virulent species or evil, from the direct and immediate agency of defies the skill and power of physicians. That God himself, Deut. iv. 19; Josh. xi. 20; 2 Sam. which is less so, if taken at its commencement, xvi. 10, xxiv. 1; comp. 1 Chron. xxi. 1 ; 2 Kings can be healed. But in the latter case also, if the xvii. 14; Ps. Ixxviii. 49–51. In consequence

of disease has been of long continuance, there is no this disposition to identify the agency of God with remedy.

the actions of his creatures, and to confound the (5) THE PESTILENCE, in its effects, is equally original with second and subsidiary causes, we terrible with the leprosy, and is much more rapid find, by consulting the Scriptures, that they somein its progress ; for it terminates the existence of times represent men, and sometimes animals or those who are infected with it almost immediately, inanimate existences, as o'sabo, the messengers op and, at the farthest, within three or four days. the angels of God: and this not only in poetry, but The Gentiles were in the habit of referring back likewise in prose, Ps. xxxiv. 7, civ. 4; Heb. i. 2; the pestilence to the agency and interference of Acts vii. 53, xii. 23; Gal. iii. 19; comp. Josephus, that being, whatever it might be, whether idol or Antiq. xv. 5. 3. This mode of speech was so spirit, whom they regarded as the divinity. The common, that the Sadducees of a more recent age, Hebrews also every where attribute it to the who, although they received the Scriptures with agency, either of God himself, or of that legate or veneration, denied the existence of any spirits,

interpreted all the passages (where mention is

made of angels) of other existences, which were • Moses rather acted the part of a faithful servant, as Paul employed by God as instruments, and, as they says, in promulgating those laws which were communicated to supposed, were, from that circumstance merdy, him from Jehovah hinself.-Ep.

denominated the messengers or angels of God. + Geschichte der abendlandischen Aussatzes, p. 273. The Samaritans, likewise, as has been shown by

sane.

Reland,* gave the same perverted interpretation | marked, that no one ever recovered from the pesto the word which is rendered angel. This mode tilence, unless the boil of the pestilence came out of speaking found its way also among the Syrians, upon him. And even then, he could not always who were in the habit of calling diseases angels, be cured, 2 Kings xx. 7; Isai. xxxviii. 21. i. e., messengers, that were sent to inflict punish- (6) THE DISEASE OF SAUL AND OF NEBUCHADment upon men ; and were accustomed to deno- NEZZAR. — The position which we have endeaminate a sick man, one tempted or tried of God, voured to defend in the preceding section, that or of his angel.+ It is in this way that the PESTI- diseases and events of rare occurrence, and, we LENCE (the secondary cause of it being overlooked) may add here, events likewise of daily occurrence is attributed directly to God (Exod. xi. 4—7, xii. were attributed by the ancient Hebrews to God 23, 29; comp. Ps. lxxviii. 49, 50); also to an or to some angel as his messenger, throws light angel (2 Sam. xxiv. 15, 16), who is represented upon many passages of Scripture. A person who as slaying men with a sword; and in 1 Chron. understands the extent and the proper bearing of xxi. 16 is described with the additional circum- that principle will readily see that the spirit of God stance of being elevated between heaven and earth. which departed from Saul was no other than an But that God, or the angel in these instances, is upright and a generous tendency of mind; and merely the PESTILENCE itself, the original cause that the evil spirit from the Lord, which beset and being put for the effect, and being identified with filled him with terror (1 Sam. xvi. 14, 15, xviii. it in a way which is not common among us, seems 10, xix. 9), was a sort of madness, which had the to be sufficiently clear from 2 Sam. xxiv. 12, 15, effect of deceiving him into the idea that he was where a pestilence, with its ordinary and natural a prophet; for it seems that he prophesied, and, attributes, is the prominent subject of discourse. in all probability, predicted the loss of his own This view of the subject gives a reason why the kingdom. The Targum of Jonathan accordingly Septuagint renders the word 197 deber, or pesti- renders the word #ginithneba, he reas mad or inince, in Ps. xci. 6, by δαιμόνιον μεσημβρινόν, i. e., This evil spirit, in a word, was not more a the demon of noon-day; and why Jonathan ren- spirit or messenger from God than the evil spirit ders the same word in the Chaldee Targum, Hab. which, in Judg. ix. 23, is said to have been sent iii. 5, by the Chaldee word 785a melach, angel or by him among the Shechemites; and which, cermessenger. We lay it down, then, as a general tainly, as was evident even to the ancient interprinciple, that wherever we are told an angel preters, and has been since to every body else, scatters abroad a pestilence, the pestilence merely was nothing more than the spirit of strife and is meant by such expressions. Apply it, for in- dissension. In the same way, the spirit of fornistance, to the destruction of Sennacherib's army, cation, c'3133 719 ruach zenunim, in Ilos. iv. 12, 2 Kings xix. 35; comp. 2 Kings xviii. 23, xix. is merely lust; comp. 1 Sam. xi. 6, xvi. 14; 6_8. In this destruction, a hundred and eighty- Judg. iii. 10, vi. 34, xi. 29, xiv. 6; Ps. li. 11 ; five thousand men perished. We are told it was Ezek. xi. 19, xviii. 31. This representation, more done by an angel; but we know this was a com- than any other, is suitable to the fact that Saul mon mode of speech, and that all natural events was benefited by music; for the charms of music, and effects were frequently described as the mes- however great its efficacy in any

other sengers or angels of God. If we seek, then, for have been very incompetent to the task of suba natural cause for so wide a destruction, we fix duing the untractable spirit of a real demon. This immediately upon

the PESTILENCE, which is most mode of speaking did not originate, as some have violent in its first attack, and might well have supposed, in the time of the captivity, from the destroyed the hundred and eighty-five thousand doctrine held by the Mehestani, although it unAssyrians, if the spoils of Egypt, infected with its doubtedly at that time became more common, and contagious properties, had been scattered through was used with greater latitude than at any previous

camp. The idea, that Sennacherib's army pe- period. For agreeably to this mode of speech, and rished by means of the PESTILENCE, communicated to the belief on which it is founded, viz., the sub

way

above alluded to, or some other, agrees ordinate agency of angels, we find mention made better than any other hypothesis with the fact, in Dan. iv. 10, 14, 20|| of o'quy or star-realchers. that the survivors in that army were not aware, The designs or the decrees of these “holy watchtill the return of the morning light, of the im-ers,” as they are termed, which are made known mense number that had died. I It

may

to Nebuchadnezzar in his vision, and are stated in

the verses above mentioned, are referred by Daniel * De Samaritanis, 7-9. † Assemani Bibl. Orient. T. I., p. 215; comp. 2 Cor. xii. 7. See Calmet's Dict., 8vo., art.“ Angel."

|| Consult Michaëlis' edition of the Hebrew Bible.

case, would

the

in the

be re

in the twenty-eighth verse of the same chapter to (4) The CATALEPSY, which is caused by a contracthe immediate agency of God himself; a circum- tion of the muscles in the whole or part of the stance which is altogether conformable to what body (e. g. in the hands), and is very dangerous. has been already stated, in this and the preceding The effects upon the parts seized are very violent section, on this subject. The disease of Nebuchad- and deadly. For instance, when a person is struck nezzar, mentioned in this chapter, was that of with it, if his hand happens to be extended, he is insanity or madness. His mind was in such a unable to draw it back. If the hand is not exstate, his reasoning powers were so perverted and tended, when he is struck with the disease, he is deranged, that it appeared to him as if he heard a unable to extend it. It appears diminished in voice from heaven, declaring his expulsion from size, and dried up. Hence the Hebrews were in the kingdom; and he imagined that he was really the habit of calling it a neithered hand, 1 Kings transformed into a beast. Accordingly he acknow- xiii. 46; Zech. xi. 17; Matt. xii. 10–13; ledges, in the fourth chapter (verses 31, 33), that John v. 3. (5) The CRAMP, which in oriental he had again received the use of his reason; which countries is a fearful malady, and is by no means is an evidence, that he understood the disease from unfrequent. It originates from the chills of the which he had recovered to have been insanity. night. The limbs, when seized with it, remain

(7) DEMONIACS.—The inquiry respecting the immoveable, sometimes turned in, and sometimes DEMONIACS, who are so often introduced in the out, in the same position as when they were first New Testament, and likewise in the writings of seized. The person afflicted resembles a man unprofane authors of antiquity, is a very intricate dergoing the torture, Baoan louévw, and experiences and a very difficult one. There are some persons nearly the same exquisite sufferings. Death folwho contend that the demoniacs were all of them lows this disease in a few days, Matt. viii. 9, 10; either madmen, epileptics, or persons subject to comp. Luke vii. 2, 1 Macc. ix. 55–58. (6) The melancholy; and they make their appeal in behalf disease, denominated in Matt. ix. 20, Mark v. 25, of their opinions to physicians. They accordingly, and Luke viii. 43, AN ISSUE OF BLOOD, is too well in their interpretation of those expressions which known to require any particular explanation. It are employed in reference to demoniacs, go on the may be well, however, to make this single observaprinciple, that the sacred writers meant by them tion, that physicians themselves acknowledge, that the same and nothing more than would be natu- it is a disorder which is difficult to be cured, Mark rally meant, in case the possessed persons were merely the subjects of those diseases. Other per- (9) THE DISEASE OF HEROD AGRIPPA. Josesons, both theologians and physicians, have strong phus* and Luke (Acts xii. 23) attribute the disease objections to this view of the subject. In their with which Herod died to the immediate agency estimation, the expressions in the New Testament of God, because he so readily received the idolaclearly imply that the demoniacs were possessed trous acclamations of the people, who hailed and by an evil spirit; and this state of things, they honoured him as a divinity. Josephus says, suppose, was permitted in the providence of God, disease was in the intestines. But he perverts his in order to give to the Saviour an opportunity to statement by the intermixture of certain superstiexhibit his miraculous powers. This, however, is tious and incredible notions. Luke, who was a too purely a questio hermeneutica to be discussed physician, says, more definitely and accurately, here. Those who desire satisfaction may refer to that Herod was consumed with worms, which in Hewlett's Commentary; Townsend’s New Test., eastern countries frequently prey upon the intesvol. i., p. 157; Carlisle's Essay on Evil Spirits

, tines. Josephus observes, that he died on the fifth passim ; or to the Critica Biblica, vol. ij., where day after the attack. the substance of the arguments employed by these writers is given. Jahn has also devoted some

SECTION VI. space to the discussion, in his Archæologia, $ 192

AGRICULTURE. -197.

Importance and Value of Agriculture - Mosaic Regulations for (8) THE PALSY of the New Testament is a dis- pursuing it- Estination in which it was held – Means used to ease that is of very wide import. Many infirmities,

increase Fertility Implements used in coltivating the Sailas Richter has demonstrated, were comprehended

Animals used in Agriculture-Preparation of the Land, and

sowing of Grain- The Harvest - Threshing and preparing of under the word which is rendered palsy in the Corn--Vines and Vineyards - The Vintage - l'arious descrip New Testament (1) The APOPLEXY, a paralytic

tions of Gardens—The Fallow or Sabbatical Year. shock which affected the whole body. (2) The 1. In the primitive ages of the world, agriculHEMIPLEGY, which affects and paralyses only one ture, as well as the keeping of flocks, was a prinside of the body. (3) The PARAPLEGY,

which

paralyses all the parts of the system below the neck.

Antiq. lib. xix., c. 8, 2.

v. 26.

*

cipal employment among men, Gen. ii. 15, iii. | the time of Moses, by an express law; and a curse 17—19, iv. 2. It is an art which has ever been was pronounced against him who without authoa prominent source both of the necessaries and rity removed them. These regulations having the conveniences of life. Those nations, which been made in respect to the tenure, incumbrances, practised it at an early period, learned its value, &c., of landed property, Joshua divided the whole not only from their own experience, but also from country, which he had occupied, first, among the observing the condition of the neighbouring coun- respective tribes, and, then, among individual Hetries that were destitute of a knowledge of it.* brews, running it out with the aid of a measuring Impressed with the importance of agriculture, line, Josh. xvii. 5, 14; comp. Amos vii. 17; Noah, after he had escaped from the deluge, once Micah ii. 5; Ps. lxxviii. 55 ; Ezek. xl. 3. The more bestowed upon it his attention ; and there word ban, a line, is accordingly used by a figure were some of the Nomades, who were far from of speech for the heritage itself, Ps. xi. 6; Josh. neglecting it, Gen. xxvi. 12–14; xxv. 34 ; xxxvii. xvii. 5, 14; xix. 9. 7; Job i. 3.+

4. The occupation of the husbandman was held 2. Those states and nations, especially Babylon in honour, not only for the profits which it brought, and Egypt, which made the cultivation of the soil but from the circumstance, that it was supported their chief business, arose in a short period to and protected by the fundamental laws of the state. wealth and power. To these communities just All who were not set apart for religious duties, mentioned, which excelled in this particular all such as the priests and the Lecites, whether inthe others of antiquity, may be added that of the habitants of the country, or of towns and cities, Hebrews, who learned the value of the art while were considered by the laws, and were in fact, remaining in Egypt, and ever after that time were agriculturists. The rich and the noble, it is true, famous for their industry in the cultivation of the in the cultivation of the soil, did not always put earth.

themselves on a level with their servants; but none 3. Moses, following the example of the Egyp- were so rich or so noble, as to disdain to put their tians, made agriculture the basis of the state. He, hand to the plough, 1 Sam. xi.7; 1 Kings xix. accordingly, apportioned to every citizen a certain 19; comp. 2 Chron. xxvi. 10. The priests and quantity of land, and gave him the right of tilling Levites were indeed engaged in other employit himself, and of transmitting it to his heirs. The ments, yet they could not withhold their honour person who had thus come into possession, could from an occupation which supplied them with not alienate the property for any longer period their income. The esteem in which agriculture than the year of the coming jubilee; a regulation was held diminished as luxury increased; but it which prevented the rich from coming into pos- never wholly came to an end. Even after the session of large tracts of land, and then leasing captivity, when many of the Jews had become them out in small parcels to the poor ; a practice merchants and mechanics, the esteem and honour which anciently prevailed, and does to this day, attached to this occupation still continued, espein the East. It was another law of Moses, that cially under the dynasty of the Persians, who were the vender of a piece of land, or his nearest rela- agriculturists from motives of religion. tive, had a right to redeem the land sold, when- 5. The soil of Palestine, as we have stated in a ever they chose, by paying the amount of profits previous section, is very fruitful, if the dews and

year of jubilee, Ruth iv. 4 ; Jer. xxxii. 7. vernal and autumnal rains are not withheld. The Another law enacted by Moses on this subject country, in opposition to Egypt, is eulogized for its was, that the Hebrews, as was the case among rains in Deut. xi. 10; but the Hebrews, notwiththe Egyptians after the time of Joseph (Gen. standing the richness of the soil, endeavoured to Ixxvii. 18, et seq.), should pay a tax of two- increase its fertility in various ways. They not tenths of their income to God, whose servants only divested it of stones, but watered it by means they were to consider themselves, and whom they of canals, communicating with the rivers or brooks; were to obey as their king, Lev. xxvii. 30; Deut. and thereby imparted to their fields the richness xii

. 17–19; xiv. 22—29; comp. Gen. xxviii. 22. of gardens, Ps. i. 3, lxv. 10; Prov. xxi. 1; Isai. The custom of marking the boundaries of lands xxx. 25, xxxii. 2, 20; Hos. xii. 11. Springs, by stones, although it prevailed a long time before therefore, fountains, and rivulets, were held in as (Job xxiv. 2), was confirmed and perpetuated, in much honour and worth by husbandmen as by

shepherds (Josh. xv. 9; Judg. i. 15); and we

accordingly find that the land of Canaan was * See Xenophon's Oikovojl.,

sects. i.-XX., pp.

extolled for those fountains of water, of which 299–305. T. iv., ed. Thieme.

Egypt was destitute. The soil was enriched also, † This section is from Jahn's Biblical Archæologia, chap. iv. I in addition to the method just mentioned, by means

up to the

1.

V.,

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