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MUSIC.

SECTION IV.

mentspulsatile, wind, and stringed. Of the former kind are the tabret or tabor, the cymbal and

the sistrum, called cornet in our translation of Antiquity of the Art-Civil and Sacred Music-Instruments of 2 Sam. vi. 5. Of wind instruments we have " the

Music mentioned iu the Bible-Various kinds of the Harp, &c.
-The Levites.

organ,” more properly the ougrož, or pipe of Pan,

used by the Greeks, now known as the pandean 1. The art of music is obviously amongst those pipes," the flute or hautboy; the dulcimer or to which mankind have been led by the appoint-Oum burn of the Greeks; the horn, and the trumment of nature itself. Endowed with a flexible pet; but as stringed instruments only appear to organ of voice for the prolongation and gradation have formed part of the sacred music, they are of sound, with an ear capable of distinguishing more particularly spoken of in the Old Testament. those gradations in their nicest modulations, it 4. The harp seems specially to have been may fairly be presumed that these powers were not honoured in religious services, and was generally, suffered to remain unemployed, but that, from the if not always, accompanied by the voice: “Unto first, they contributed to the enjoyment of their thee will I sing with the harp, 0 thou Holy One possessors, and, no doubt, were engaged in the of Israel. My lips shall greatly rejoice when I solemnities addressed to their all-bounteous Maker sing to thee.-Sing to the Lord with the harp; and Benefactor. But exertions of the voice, how with the harp, and the voice of a psalm (Ps. lxxi. ever mellifluous that voice might be, were not long 22 ; xcviii. 5; cxlvii. 7; cxlix. 3). The psalmist practised without discovering that tones equally also mentions his opening a dark saying upon the musical, and much more sonorous, might be ob- harp (xlix. 4), which intimates the accompanitained from instruments; and these, being heard ! ment of the voice; and Solomon made harps and more extensively, could regulate a much greater psalteries for the singers, 1 Kings x. 12. number of performers, in the open air, especially,

(1) Admitting, now, that the harp was thus emthan any voice whose exertions preserved its mu- ployed, a question arises : Were there more kinds sical intonation. This engaged musical instru- of harps than one? In attempting to answer this ments in religious worship; and this has been question, we must first endeavour to dismiss whattheir office, not only in the earliest ages with which ever instruments have been unjustly denominated we are acquainted, but among all nations whose by this title ; and we are under the necessity of manners are known to us. Jubal

“ the father directly contradicting Calmet, who reckons among of all such as handle the harp and the organ”. harps the cithara or kitara, called by Daniel onis, the kinnur and the ougib-generic names, pro- kitros, or kitaros (Dan. iii. 5, 7, 10); whereas the bably, including all stringed and wind instruments. kitara has still its representative, both in name and

2. Music may be considered under a two-fold nature, in our guitar, which, though a stringed aspect—as civil and sacred. Civil music was used instrument, yet differs from harps of every kind. anciently on public occasions ; for so we find Laban Calmet says, “ All the Fathers describe it as of a hints, at sending away Jacob “with mirth, with triangular figure: its cords strung from the top to songs, with tabret, and with harp," Gen. xxxi. 27. the bottom. The belly of it, which gave the sound, The first clear mention of sacred music is in Exod. was hollow, and at the bottom; but it was touched xv. 20 : “And Miriam the prophetess took a tim- in the upper part, either with the finger or with brel in her hand, and all the women went out the bow." The author of the Commentary on the after her with timbrels and with dances.” Here Psalms, under the name of St. Jerome, says the musical instruments are mentioned, not as any cithara has six cords. The author of the Epistle thing new, but as customary; not as confined to to Dardamus, in the works of the same Father, one, but as employed by many; and, indeed, had mentions twenty-four.* That the kinaros was it been a novelty, “ all the women” could not have different from the kitaros, appears from 1 Macc. been provided with instruments. The employment iv. 54, xiii. 51, where they are mentioned to of instruments, then, was no innovation in wor- gether. ship; it was found as a custom by Moses, and he

(2) Beside the kitaros, we have, in Hebrew, adopted it as a matter ofcourse. There can be no three names for stringed instruments

. The 533 question that their services were continued to the nebel, the Ivy oshur, and the niua kinnur. Of time of David, who regulated the more extensive these we select at present the kinnur, or barp, exercise of them, with a view to the temple so- It was certainly the most ancient instrument of lemnities ; in which solemnities Solomon engaged and embodied them. 3. The instruments mentioned in the sacred tion, may be seen in the Fragments to Calmet's Dictionary,

A Tarkish instrument, answering closely to this descripwritings comprise the three descriptions of instru- No. ccxxxiii., new edition.

was

the kind, being invented and used before the (6) Having restricted the number of strings in deluge. (Gen. iv. 21.) It was made of wood ; | the harp to seven, we come now to the mowy, for we are expressly told that Solomon employed oshur, which word signifies ten ; and accordingly, part of the almuggin wood, brought by the queen when denoting an instrument of music, it is renof Sheba, in making harps, 1 Kings x. 12. It was dered by the Seventy dezagogów; by the Vulgate light of carriage, since it was carried about by dedacordo, and decem chordarum; and by our women ; for so Isaiah addresses Tyre : “Take a English translators ten-stringed. After these auharp; go about the city; make sweet melody; thorities, it might be thought unnecessary to say sing many songs,” xxiii. 16. With this agrees more on this article: but it seems that there is a Ezek. xxvi. 13. The captives at Babylon carried peculiarity in the application of this word which this instrument with them; and it was the harp no commentator has yet pointed out. In Psalm which they “hanged on the willows," Ps.cxxxvii.2. xcii. 3, we read, "To sing praises—on the wy, The harp was also the instrument with which oshur, and on the bas, nebel on the harp with a David, when a shepherd's boy, was familiar, 1 Sam. solemn sound." Here the two instruments, niwy, xvi. 3, 23. From these instances we infer that oshur, and 533, nebel, are clearly distinguished, the harp was not large, but of small dimensions, and the qiwy, oshur, is placed first. But in Psalm as well as of light weight. Moreover,

xxxiii. 2, we read, “ Praise the Lord with harp; (3) The sound of the harp was soothing and con- with the 53, nebel, ten-stringed (10y, oshur), sing doling, or rather solemn. Isaiah compares the com- unto him.” And so Psalm clxiv. 9, “ O God, a passionate snunding of his bowels over Moab to the new song will I sing to thee: on a nebel, tensound of this instrument; and this character was stringed (910y, oshur), will I sing to thee!" These peculiarly adapted to counteract the boisterous pas- passages certainly import, ‘On a baj nebel, of the sions of the maniac Saul; sometimes by sympa- kind called vy, oshur (ten, from its having ten thizing with his gloomy malignity, sometimes by strings), will I sing :' and this fixes the 100 oshur moderating his feverish paroxysms, by gradually to be of the bou nebel kind, and differing from the soothing them down to the standard of health : and perfect 593 nebel only in the number of its strings in this tone of the harp we see the propriety of in- being limited to ten. So that, as we have seen troducing it in devotion. Accordingly the psalmist seven strings formed a harp, we now see ten thus characterizes it: “ It is good to sing praises strings form an 110v oshur: the Targum and

... on the harp with solemn sound,” Ps. xcii. Syriac agree with this explanation. When JoseIt should appear, then, that the harp contributed phus says (Ant. lib. vii., cap. 12), that i jev to calm the mind, to tranquillize, to compose, to xovuga, dexa zogoais e nusevn, TUTTITAI TAXTOW, harmonize the spirit, as it were, to calm unplea- “the kinyra was furnished with ten strings, and sant passions; and that this was its duty in acts was played on with a plectrum,” he clearly means of devotion.

the 910 y oshur ; and his associating it with the (4) The word xrvugos, kinyros (the kinnur of nabla, shows beyond dispute the nature of the the Hebrews), in Greek signifies mournful ; and instrument, as it was extant in his days; and that Horace calls the harp, from its solemnity, “the it was the same as in the days of David, and confriend of the temple,” lib. iii., ode 11.

tinued in the temple worship. When, therefore,

David says he would sing praises with the 99099
Nec loquax olim, neque grata : nunc et
Divitum mensis, et amica templis.

oshur, it was on a sacred instrument that he pro

posed to play. (5) The number of strings in the harp was at (7) There remains the Saj nebel, which the first three; but afterwards they were increased to Seventy render sometimes Yantngrov, psalterion, four, and at last to seven. (Diod. Sic., lib. i.) and sometimes vaßra, nabla ; our translation Pindar gives seven strings to his harp (Pyth., usually renders psaltery. Josephus attributes to Ode 2; vide 27 Enund., Nem., Ode 5), and the nabla, or nablum, owosza çdoyyous exound, Horace the same :

τους δακτυλιους κρουεται, “ twelve note or sounding Tuque testudo resonare septem callida nervis.

strings; it is struck, or played on (says he), with

the fingers." (Ant. lib. vii., cap. 12) This we This maintains a determinate distinction between take to be the very lowest psaltery, the next in the harp and any instrument of ten strings; and degree of power and extent of musical scale above à fortiori between the harp and any instrument of the niwy oshur of ten strings: and from this numtwenty or twenty-four strings. The harp was ber up to twenty, and probably more, were comtouched either by the finger, or by the bow; or posed into the psaltery. Mr. Taylor, to whom we rather, perhaps, by the plectrum, a small piece of are indebted for this disquisition, thinks that we wood, or ivory, or quill, &c.

have in the Welsh harp the representative of the

from a passage

ancient psaltery, or nablum. From the number of the people, and gave the signal for battle, and for strings in this instrument, we may certainly sup- retreat (Numb. i. 1-10). David, in order to pose it to be of considerable magnitude; and give the best effect to the music of the tabernacle, though we occasionally read of the psaltery as divided the four thousand Levites into twentyaccompanying religious processions, yet it does not four classes, who sang psalms, and accompanied seem to have been carried about so customarily them with music. Each of these classes was or so conveniently as the harp. Our Welsh harps superintended by a leader (nyur) placed over it; are usually carried by a servant to the bard who and they performed the duties which devolved plays them. The psaltery appears to have been upon them, each class a week at a time, in sucfirst mentioned in the days of David (2 Sam. vi. cession. (See 1 Chron. xvi. 5; xxiii. 4, 5; XXV. 5); and we know that prince was a collector of 1–31. Comp. 2 Chron. v. 12, 13.) The classes musical instruments. Atheneus (lib. iv., cap. 23), collectively, as a united body, were superintended says, vaßra Borvinw ervai įvgnce, the nabla was by three directors. This arrangement was subinvented by the Phænicians, [but observe, these sequently continued by Solomon after the erection were a colony from Assyria, and probably only of the temple, and was transmitted till the time communicated the instruments to Greece] which of the overthrow of Jerusalem. It was, indeed, he proves of Sopater :

sometimes interrupted during the reign of the

idolatrous kings, but was restored by their succesουτε το Σιδωνιου Ναβλα

sors. (See 2 Chron. v. 12–14; xxix. 27; XXXV. Λαρυγγοφονος. .

15.) It was even continued after the captivity And the Sidonian nabla

(Ezra ii. 10; Neh. xii. 45–47; 1 Macc. iv. 54; Loud sounding every cord.”

xiii. 51). It should be remarked, however, that

neither music nor poetry attained to the same erThis author describes it as made of wood, hollow, cellence after the captivity, as before that period.+ placed along-side and above and below its wellbraced cords, which yielded an agreeable harmony. It appears, also, that it was, like our ancient

SECTION V. British harp, played on by both hands, as we learn

MEDICINE AND CHIRURGERY. from Ooid de Arte Amandi, lib. iii. Disce etiam duplici genialia nablia palma

Physicians amongst the Hebrews—Modes of treating the sick

-Diseases mentioned in Scripture.
Plectere : conveniunt dulcibus illa modis.
And its character for sweetness of note seems

1. The theory of physic seems never to have to have been general ; for so says one in the made any considerable advances among the HeAdulterer of Philemon,

brews. Physicians (D'899 rephaim) are first men

tioned in Gen. 1. 2; Exod. xxi. 19; Job xiii. 4. Ουκ οισθα ναβλα; ουδεν ουν οισθ' αλαθον.

Some acquaintance with chirurgical operations is “ Not know the nabla ! Then thou knowest no-implied in the rite of circumcision ; and there is thing good.”

ample evidence that the Israelites had some acThe Fathers, as referred to by Calmet, compare quaintance with the internal structure of the human its general shape to a triangle, and such, no doubt, system, although it does not appear that dissecwas the form of many; but to restrict its form to tions of the human body for medical purposes this only seems improper.

were made till as late as the time of Ptolemy. (8) Thus we have seen that there was a grada- That physicians sometimes undertook to exercise tion in this kind of stringed instrument: (1) the their skill in removing diseases of an internal harp, of three, four, and seven strings; (2) the nature, is evident, from the circumstance of David oshur, of ten strings, (3) the psaltery, of twelve playing upon the harp, to cure the malady of Saul strings, and all above. *

(1 Sam. xvi. 16). 5. In the tabernacle and the temple, the Le- 2. The art of healing was committed among the vites were the lawful musicians, but on other Hebrews, as well as among the Egyptians, to the occasions, any one who chose might use musical priests ; who, indeed, were obliged, by a law of instruments. There was, however, this exception, the state, to take cognizance of leprosies (Lev. xii. the holy silver trumpets were to be blown only by 1–14, 57; Deut. xxiv. 8, 9). Reference is made the priests, who, by the sounding of them pro- to physicians who were not priests, and to inclaimed the festival days, assembled the leaders of stances of sickness, disease, healing, &c., in the

Critica Biblica, vol. iii., p. 1, &c.

+ Jahn's Biblical Archæology, by Upham, $ 93.

following passages : 1 Sam. xvi. 16; 1 Kings i. ; as a striking external sign to the sick person, and 2–4, xv. 23; 2 Kings viii. 29, ix. 15; Isai. i. 6; to every spectator, to raise and engage the attenJer. viii. 22; Ezek. xxx. 21 ; Prov. iii. 18, xi. tion, and to impress the mind with the deepest 30, xii. 18, xvi. 15, xxix. 1. The probable reason conviction that the miracle was wrought to attest of king Asa not seeking help from God, but from the divine authority and truth of the Gospel. physicians, as mentioned in 2 Chron. xvi. 12, was, The balm of Gilead was celebrated as a medicine that they had not at that period recourse to the (Jer. viii. 22, xlvi. 11, li. 8), and mineral baths simple medicines which nature offered, but to cer- were deemed worthy of notice, as appears from tain superstitious, rites and incantations; and this, Gen. xxxvi. 24. no doubt, was the ground of the reflection that 4. The Hebrews, like other of the ancients, was cast upon him. About the time of Christ attributed the origin of diseases, particularly of the Hebrew physicians made advancements in those whose natural cause they did not underscience, and increased in numbers (See Mark v. stand, to the immediate interference of God. 26; Luke iv. 23, v. 31, viii. 43; Joseph. Ant., The ancient Greeks called them dotiyes, the vii. 6, 5). It appears from the Talmud,* that scourges of God,—a word which is employed in the Hebrew physicians were accustomed to salute the New Testament by the physician Luke himthe sick, by saying, “ Arise from your disease;" self (chap. vii. 21), and also by Mark (chap. v. a salutation adopted by our Lord (Mark v. 41). 29, 34). According to the Jerusalem Talmud, a sick man 5. In the primitive ages of the world, diseases, was judged to be in a way of recovery when he in consequence of the great simplicity in the tegan to take his usual food. Comp. Mark v. 43.+ mode of living, were but few in number. I At a

3. With regard to the treatment of the sick subsequent period the number was increased, by and indisposed, and the expedients they employed the accession of diseases that had been previously to assuage or expel disease, the Hebrews appear unknown. Epidemics, also,—diseases somewhat to have proceeded by an invariable system, and peculiar in their character, and still more fearful uniformly to have practised certain rules and in their consequences,—soon made their appearmethods of cure, which had nothing to recom- ance; some infesting one period of life, and some mend them but the sacred prescription and sanc- another; some limiting their ravages to one countion of antiquity. They seem to have regarded try, and some to another. The propriety of this oil as a more efficacious remedy than any other statement, in regard to the original extent and discovery for mitigating or extirpating the various subsequent increase of diseases in general, and to disorders of the human frame. The sick, what- epidemics, will recommend itself to every mind ever the distemper might be, they appear to have that makes even but small pretensions to attainanointed with oil, as the most powerful preserva- ments in knowledge. PROSPER Alpinus** mentive they knew from the further progress of the tions the diseases which are prevalent in Egypt, disease, and the most effectual remedy for the re- and in other countries in the same climate. They covery and re-establishment of health. We have are ophthalmies, leprosies, inflammations of the one of the medical prescriptions which is in this brain, pains in the joints, the hernia, the stone in form.

“He who is afflicted with pains in his the reins and bladder, the phthisic, hectic, pestihead, or eruptions in his body, let him anoint lential, and tertian fevers, weakness of the stohimself with oil ;"|| and this was deemed of such mach, obstructions in the liver, and the spleen. supreme efficacy, that one of the rabbins gave his Of these diseases, ophthalmies, pestilential fevers, dispensation for anointing the sick, even on the and inflammations of the brain are epidemics; sabbath. To this common custom of treating the others are of a different character. Every sick persons, reference is made in Mark vi. 13, region, and every age of the world, has been in and James v. 14. Not that this unction, either the habit of attributing certain diseases to certain in the former or latter case, contributed any thing causes, and of assigning names to those diseases to the miraculous cure, which the immediate derived from the supposed origin or cause, whepower of God alone could effect: it served only ther it were a real or only an imaginary one. The

names thus given have been in many instances

retained, both by the vulgar and by men of mediShabbath, p. 110

+ Jahn, Arch. Bib., $ 105. + Thus Diodorus Siculus informs us that the Egyptian physicians administered medicines by a certain practised old for

What follows on the diseases mentioned in Scriptare is mulary, from which they were not to depart, on pain of death. abridged from Upham’s translation of Jahn's Biblical Archæcal science, after different causes had been deve- | venomous, they were the means of destroying loped and assigned to the diseases in question. many individuals. In respect to this subject, we know that there are (2) THE DISEASE OF KING JENORAM. This certain words of very ancient standing, which are king, who was clothed with the double infamy of used to express diseases of some kind or other; being at once an idolater and the murderer of his it will, therefore, be a prominent inquiry with us brethren, was diseased internally for two years, to learn what the diseases are that were designed as had been predicted by the prophet Elijah; and to be expressed by those words.

ology, chap. xii. | Wetstein in Marc. vi. 13. $ Ibid.

** Book de Medicina Ægyptiaca, lib. i., c. 1.3, p. 13.

Vol. i., p. 93.

his bowels are said to have fallen out by reason of (1) THE DISEASE OF THE PHILISTINES, which is his sickness. 2 Chron. xxi. 12–15, 18, 19. This mentioned in 1 Sam. v. 6, 12, vi. 18, is denomi- disease, beyond all doubt, was the dysentery; and nated in the IIebrew b'boy ophelim. This word though its continuance so long a time was very occurs likewise in Deut. xxviii. 27, and it is uncommon, it is by no means a thing unheard of worthy of remark, that it is every where ex- The intestines in time become ulcerated by the plained, in the Keri or marginal readings, by the operation of this disease. Not only is blood disAramean word duino techerim, an expression charged from them, but a sort of mucous excrewhich in the Syriac dialect means the fundament, ment likewise is thrown off, and sometimes and likewise the effort which is made in an eva- small pieces of the flesh itself; so that appacuation of the system. The authors, therefore, rently the intestines are emitted or fall out, which of the reading in the Keri appear to have assented is sufficient to account for the expressions that to the opinion of Josephus, expressed in Ant. vi., are used in the statement of king Jehoram's dis1, 1; and to have understood by this word the ease. dysentery. The corresponding Arabic words mean (3) False CONCEPTION, or

PREGNANCY,

in a swelling on the anterior part of the VERENDA Greek, svrvEU/A Twois, in Latin, mola centosa, does in females, answering somewhat in its nature to not appear to have been so unfrequent among

the the hernia in men ; a disease, consequently, very Hebrew women, as among those of Europe. I different from the hemorrhoids, which some per- it had been so, it probably would not have made sons understand to be meant by the word diboy. its appearance on the pages of Hebrew writers in Among other objections, it may also be observed, the shape of a figure of speech. The fact to that the mice, which are mentioned not only in which allusion is made is this. The Hebrews the Hebrew text (1 Sam. vi. 5, 12, xvi. 18), but were accustomed to expect after calamities a state also in the Alexandrine and Vulgate Versions (1 of things quite the reverse, viz., a scason of prosSam. v. 6, vi. 5, 11, 18), are an objection to un- perity and joy. They accordingly compared a derstanding the hemorrhoids by the word under season of misfortune and calamity to the pains of consideration, since, if that were in fact the dis- a woman in travail ; but the better destiny which ease, we see no reason why mice should have been followed, they compared to the joy which compresented as an offering to avert the anger of the monly succeeds childbirth, Isai. xiii. 8, xxvi. 17; God of Israel. Lichtenstein, a writer in Eich- 2 Kings xix. 3; Jer. iv. 31, xii. 21, xxii. 23, horn's Bibliothek, * has given a solution, which is xxx. 6; Micah iv. 9, 10; John xvi. 21, 22. But free from the difficulties that attended all pre- they carry the comparison still further. Those ceding ones. The word 09939, which is ren- days of adversity which were succeeded by addered mice, he supposes to mean VENOMOUS SOL-versity still,—those scenes of sorrow which were PUGAS, which belong to the spider class, and yet followed only by additional sorrow,—were likened are so large, and so similar in their form to mice, to women who laboured under that disease of the as to admit of their being denominated by the system, which caused them to exhibit the appearsame word. These venomous animals destroy and ance and endure the pains of a state of preg. live upon scorpions. They also bite men, when-nancy, when that apparent state of pregnancy ever they can have an opportunity, particularly in resulted either in nothing, or in the parturition the fundament and the verenda. Their bite of a monster, Isai. xxvi. 18; Ps. vii. 14. causes swellings, fatal in their consequences,

which (4) The leprosy prevails in Egypt, in the are called in Hebrew b'gby ophelim. The pro- southern part of Upper Asia, and in fact may be bable supposition then is, that soLPUGAS were at considered a disease endemic in warm climates this time multiplied among the Philistines by the generally. Accordingly, it is not at all surprising, special providence of God, and that, being very if many of the Hebrews, when they left Egypt,

*

were infected with it; but the assertion of Mane

* Band vi., pp. 407 — 466. + See Pliny, llist. Nat. lib. xxix. 4,

Mead, Medic, Sacr., c. 4.

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