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of those divinities which they were taught to be-| lated “groves,” cannot always mean a plantation lieve were present in such sacred places. “If you of trees, since we read of setting up groves “ under find,” says Seneca, a grove thick set with ancient every green tree” (2 Kings xvii. 1, &c.); but it oaks, that have shot up to a vast height, the tall- is also certain that it cannot always denote an ness of the wood, the retirement of the place, and image, for we read that the people made them the pleasantness of the shade, immediately make molten images, and made a groce, and worshipped you think it to be the residence of some god.”* all the host of heaven," and used divination, ver. The prophet Hosea also intimates this to have 16, 17 (See also Judg. vi. 25, 26, 28, 30). Selden been the reason for selecting these places for idol- supposes that the term was used to denote the atrous ceremonies: “They sacrifice upon the tops images worshipped in the groves, especially Astarte of the mountains, and burn incense upon the hills, or Venus; and with him agrees Dr. A. Clarke. under oaks, and poplars, and elms, because the Others have conjectured, that as by Baal was shadow thereof is good,” chap. iv. 13.
meant the sun, so by ashre or “groves” was meant (3) As these groves were more particularly the the moon, worshipped as “the queen of heaven."; scenes of those impure and obscene rites which We incline to think that the term is used with formed the leading feature of most of the systems considerable latitude of meaning, sometimes de of idolatrous worship, the Jewish legislator pro- noting the image of Astarte, and at other times hibited his people from planting trees around or any of the symbols of her worship. near the altar of God: “Thou shalt not plant thee 6. To cut down the sacred groves, or to waste
of any trees near unto the altar of the them, was considered an act of sacrilege, perhaps Lord thy God,” Deut. xvi. 21. From the prone- the most unpardonable of all others. Lucan, ness of the Hebrews to imitate the customs of speaking of the trees which Cæsar caused to be surrounding nations, however, they became guilty felled near Marreile, to construct engines of war, of sacrificing in high places and consecrated groves; well describes the consternation of the soldiers, and one of their kings carried his impiety so far who refused to be instrumental in the work, till as to plant one of these groves at Jerusalem. See the general had taken the axe and felled one of 2 Kings xxi.
them himself. “Struck with a religious awe for (4) Landseer has attempted to prove that the the sanctity of the grove, they were full of the word ashreh, rendered “groves” in the English belief, that if they had presumptuously attempted Bible, does not denote a plantation of trees, but a to cut down any of its trees, the axe would have kind of orrery or armillary machine used for the recoiled upon themselves."|| The prevalence of purposes of divination ; and which he supposes to such an opinion may have furnished an additional have been about the height of a man, with small reason for the injunctions to “cut down” the balls branching off curvedly from the sustaining groves that had been polluted by the idolatrous rod or axis ; and referring to 2 Kings xxi., he says, Canaanites (Exod. xxiv. 13; Deut. vii. 5); and “ The Sabæan ashre appears to have been erected the promptness with which Josiah destroyed those within the precincts of the temple, where the on the Mount of Olives, that had been consealtars also were built; but beside this, perhaps crated to Ashtoreth, Chemosh, and Milcom, during immoveable armillary machines, for the purpose the awful period of Solomon's apostasy, exhibits of divination, which Manessh had constructed in in a striking light the freedom of his own mind the courts of the temple, he had also a small copy, from those debasing superstitions, and the strength or 'graven image' of the ashre within ; doubtless of his faith in the God of Israel, while thus opto assist in the celebration of those Sabæan rites posing himself to what was, perhaps, a too popuwhich were performed in the interior during his lar sentiment among the people over whom he idolatrous reign, and which are described by Eze- reigned. kiel ; for there can be no reasonable doubt that the idolatries which the prophet saw in vision on the banks of the Chebar, were those with which
De diis Syris, syntag. 2. the temple at Jerusalem had really been polluted." + || See Borlases' Antiq. of Cornwall, chap. xvii.; Banier's It must be allowed that the Hebrew word, trans- Mythology, vol. i., b. iii.
, chap. 7; Young on Idolatroos Cor ruptions in Religion, vol. ii., pp. 26-29; and Dr. Townley's
translation of the More Nevochim of Maimonides, notes pp Epistle Ixi.
339, 340. + Sabæan Researches, pp. 285-287, et al.
$ Carpenter's Scripture Natural History, art.“ Trees."
Scriptore Arrangements of Moses and Solomon-Clean and which even men of great learning have not been
unclean Beasts—Structure, Functions, &c., of Man-Animals wholly exempt, instantly vanish. The word unhabiting Palestine-Ichthyology of the Bible - Reptiles clean, applied to animals, is no epithet of degrada
tion. Of all animals man was the most unclean ;
that is, human flesh was least of all things to be I. We have particularly noticed the order in
and such is the case in every nation not which Moses disposes the several classes of animated nature, in his narrative of the creation ; horse are unclean beasts, but were to the Hebrews
reckoned among cannibals. The lion and the but there is another passage in his writings demanding attention, as exhibiting the same orderly just as little objects of contempt as they are to us. manding attention, as exhibiting the same orderly The passage that has given rise to these remarks and systematic arrangement. It is Deut. iv. 16
is in Lev. xi. 4, &c., where the line of permission 18, where his system takes this form :
and exclusion of animals is drawn by means of MAN-BEASTS—BIRDS/REPTILES_FISHES ; those divisions which nature has appointed to and to this order, Solomon, in the zoographical their feet. Solipedes, or animals of one hoof, such part of his natural history, mentioned in 1 Kings as the horse and the ass, are unclean. Fissipedes, iv. 33, conforms. We are not able further to trace or animals having hoofs divided into two parts, the system of this celebrated naturalist; but, as are clean. But then this division must be entire, Mr. Charles Taylor remarks, it is reasonable to not partial ; effective, not apparent only; and, as conclude, that the outlines, which are so scientifi- well as its external construction, its internal or cally laid down, were filled up with equal judg- anatomical construction must be strictly analogous ment and skill. If so, we are led to the conclusion, with this formation. Moreover, animals having that Aristotle was not the first philosopher who feet divided into more than two parts are unclean; perceived the necessity and accomplished the task so that the number of their toes, as three, four, or of methodically arranging the animal creation. five, is cause sufficient for the entire rejection of
II. But there is another arrangement in the them, whatever other quality they may possess. writings of Moses, too deeply interwoven with the Such appears to be the principle of the Levitical Jewish ritual to be passed over in silence—the distinction of animals, into clean and unclean, division of animals into clean and unclean. Mi- derived from the conformation of their feet : their chaëlis judiciously remarks, that we are too apt to rumination is a distinct character, but a character consider the terms clean and unclean as implying absolutely unavailing without the more obvious division of animals with which we are wholly and evident marks derivable from the construction unacquainted; and then wonder that Moses, as a we have noticed. To inquire into the reasons upon historian, in describing the circumstances of the which these distinctions were founded, forms no deluge, which took place many centuries before part of our present business. That they were of a the era of his own laws, should mention clean and mixed nature there is every reason to think; but unclean beasts, and by so doing, pre-suppose that be this as it may, it is certain that they were there was such a distinction made at that early founded upon a correct knowledge of the nature period. But the fact is, that we ourselves, and, of the animal creation, and were induced, to some indeed, almost all nations, make this very dis- extent, by dietical and moral considerations. Of tinction, although we do not express it in the the division of animals itself, Michaëlis remarks same terms. The phrase " clean and unclean” as follows: “That in so early an age of the world, beasts, is precisely tantamount to “ beasts usual we should find a systematic division of quadruand not usual for food.” And how many animals peds, so excellent as never yet, after all the imare there not poisonous, but perfectly edible, which provements in natural history, to have become yet we do not eat, and at the flesh of which many obsolete, but, on the contrary, to be still consiamong us would feel a strong repugnance, just dered as useful by the greatest masters of science, because we have not been accustomed to it from cannot but be looked upon as truly wonderful” infancy? As soon as we know, therefore, what is Upon these principles, too, has been founded, the real meaning of “ clean and unclean beasts,” | more or less, almost every methodical arrangemany errors, some of them ludicrous, and from ment subsequently made in natural science. Of
these, the systems of Ray, Linnæus, and Cuvier | Thou hast put all things under bis feet. are the most celebrated.*
O Jehovah our Lord, how excellent is thy name in
all the earth! III. The object of divine revelation being rather
Psalm viii. to prepare man's spiritual and moral nature for a holier and higher state of existence, than to com- The animal and intellectual lives of man are supmunicate a philosophical knowledge of those in- posed to be intimated in Gen. ii. 7: tellectual and physical properties that at once identify him with and distinguish him from the And Jehovah God formed man of the dust of the rest of the animal creation, we should be wasting
ground, our time were we to search there for such dis- And breathed into liis nostrils the BREATH OF LIVES ;
And man became a living soul. coveries as these. But there are, notwithstanding, a number of interesting particulars as to the nature 3. That active and energetic power which aniof man scattered throughout the sacred volume, mates in some way every form of organized matter, that will repay the student for any trouble or but more decidedly and palpably sensitive beings labour he may undertake to collect them and in- | (upon which the identity and individuality of the vestigate their import. From these we make the beings depends, upon a failure of which the infollowing selection, as collected in a work to which dividual frame ceases, the organs lose their relawe have more than once referred in this part of tive connexion, the laws of chemistry, which had our book. +
previously been controlled by its superior authority, 1. The primitive designations of man demand assume their action, and the whole system becomes some notice. ADAM, which was the appellative decomposed and resolved into its primary ele. name of the human nature, is usually derived from ments)—bas engaged the research of the wisest a word signifying oegetable earth, or mould, because and best of mankind in all ages of the world man was formed of the dust of the ground. In But it is not necessary that we should advert to Gen. iv. 26, the believing Seth calls his first-born, the numerous theories that have been started on Enoch (a wretch), because of the infirm and this subject; our object is rather to trace out if wretched state of man in the world, by reason of possible, any scriptural intimations, and, when we his sin. It is deserving of notice, too, that this is have found them, to show their conformity with the term by which the human species is most com- the discoveries of science. It will be recollected monly called in Scripture ; and attention to its by every reader of the Bible, that in the Mosaic import will place in a striking light some passages writings, the life is uniformly represented as being otherwise not fully understood; as the following :,“ in the blood," on which account it was peremp“Put them in fear, O Lord, that the nations may torily forbidden to the Israelites to eat this Huid, know themselves to be but men ;" that is, weak, under any form; and it was, moreover, on this frail, noretched beings.
account, appointed as the medium of atonement: 2. The testimony of Scripture is decisive as to 6 And whatsoever man of the house of Israel, or the origin and complex character of man. Created of the strangers that sojourn among you, cateth in the glorious image of his Maker (Gen. i. 27), any manner of blood, I will even set my face which consisted pre-eminently in righteousness and against that soul that eateth blood, and will cut true holiness (Ephes. iv. 24), and secondarily in him off from among his people. FOR THE LIFE i his intellectual endowments (Col. iii. 10), and OF THE FLESH IS IN THE BLOOD ; and I have giren delegated authority over inferior animals (Gen. i. it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for 28, 29, ix. 2, 3), man stood forth the noblest your souls; for it is the blood that maketh an monument of creative power. While connected atonement for your soul,” Lev. xvii. 10, 11. with the various classes of animals by his cor- But the doctrine was not new; it had a place in poreal organization, he was infinitely removed from the ritual of the patriarchs (Gen. ix. 4), whence them by the possession of an intelligent and it has, without doubt, been derived by the Parsers, immortal spirit
Hindoos, and other eastern nations of very remote
antiquity. Among the Greeks and Romans, were Thou hast made him a little lower than the angels, the authority of the poets to be of any avail, we And crowned him with glory and honour. Thou hast given him dominion over the works of tlıy to be in reputation ; for the purple death of Homer,
should imagine that this hypothesis never ceased hands;
and the purple life of Virgil, are common-place
terms among all of them. In modern times, this * Carpenter's Scripture Natural History, Introd; Harris's hypothesis has agrin dawned forth, and risen even Natural History of the Bible, Dissert. iii.
to meridian splendour, under auspices that entitle + Carpenter's Scripture Natural History.
it to our most attentive consideration. Harvey, to
whom we are indebted for a full knowledge of the traced it in the chyle ; and there are evicirculation of the blood, may be regarded as the dent proofs of its accompanying several of those phosphor of its uprising; Hoffman speedily became which are eliminated from the body. In the a convert to the revived doctrine; Huxam not blood it exists, as we have already said, in a high only adopted it, but pursued it with so much degree of activity, and probably in a still higher in ardour, as, in his own belief, to trace the immediate the nervous fluid. In the solids it varies equally. part of the blood in which the principle of life is There are some in which it can scarcely be traced distinctly seated, and which he supposed to be its at all
, except from their increasing growth, as the red particles. But it is to that truly original phy- cellular membrane and the bones ; in others we siologist, John Hunter, only, that we can look for find a perpetual internal activity, or susceptibility a fair restoration of this system to the favour of to external impressions. But it is in those irrithe present day, or for its erection upon any thing table threads or fibres, that constitute the general like a rational basis. By a variety of important substance of the muscles or flesh of the animal, experiments, this indefatigable and accurate ob- that the principle of life exerts itself in its most server succeeded in proving, incontrovertibly, that extraordinary manner. I the blood contributes in a far greater degree, not 4. The anatomy of man, says Galen, discovers only to the vital action, but to the vital material, above six hundred different muscles; and whoever of the system, than any other constituent part of it, only considers these, will find that in each of them whether fluid or solid. But he went beyond this nature must have, at least, adjusted ten different discovery, and afforded equal proof, not only that circumstances, in order to attain the end which the blood is a mean of life to every other part, but she proposed :-proper figure, just magnitude, that it is actually alive itself. “ The difficulty," he right disposition of the several ends, the upper says, “ of conceiving that the blood is endowed and lower position of the whole, and the due inwith life, while circulating, arises merely from its sertion of the several nerves, veins, and arteries. being a fluid, and the mind not being accustomed So that, in the muscles alone, above six thousand to the idea of a living fluid.”* Important, how- several views and intentions must have been ever, as the facts collected by Hunter are, they do formed and executed! This writer calculated the not reach home to the question before us. They bones to be two hundred and eighty-four, and the sufficiently establish the blood to be alive, but they distinct purposes aimed at in the structure of each, do not tell us what makes it alive ; on the contrary, above forty. This makes eleven thousand, three they rather drive us into a pursuit after some hundred and sixty! What a prodigious display foreign and superadded principle ; for that which of artifice, even in these simple and homogeneous is at one time alive, and at another time dead, parts ! But if we consider the skin, ligaments, eannot be life itself. The fact appears to be, that vessels, glands, humours, and the several limbs neither physiology nor chemistry, with all the ac- and members of the body, how must our astonishcuracy and assiduity with which these sciences ment rise, in proportion to the number and inhave been pursued of late years, has been able to tricacy of the parts so artificially adjusted! Who arrest or develope the fugitive principle of life. can survey this wonderful structure without adThey have unfolded to us, perhaps, the means by miring the power and wisdom of its Architect ?— which life is produced and maintained in the animal frame, but they have given us no information I am fearfully and wonderfully made: as to the thing itself. We behold the instrument
Wonderful are thy works, as my soul well knoweth. before us, and see some of the fingers that play
5. If we turn from the animal to the intellectual upon it, but we know nothing whatever of the part of man, our admiration will rise in proportion mysterious essence that dwells in the vital tubes
, to the superiority of his mental powers over his and constitutes the vital harmony.t The animal
bodily organs and functions. frame is a combination of solids and fluids, duly harmonized, and equally contributing to each other's There is a spirit in man, perfection. The principle of life, of whatever it and the inspiration of the Almighty giveth him unconsists, exists equally in both ; in some kinds in derstanding. a greater, in others in a lesser, degree. In the fluids, Mr. Hunter has traced it down to their Besides an ability to perceive, think, or reason, first and lowest stage of existence, for he has the mind is possessed of an almost infinite variety
of other attributes or faculties, implanted in it for
* Hunter on the Blood, p. 20. + See Good's Book of Nature, vol. ii., p. 243.
Ibid., p. 249.
the wisest and most beneficent purposes. It is powers or faculties of ELECTION ; and powers or endowed with consciousness. judgment, memory, faculties of EMOTION. To the first belong the and imagination; with a power of choosing or principles of perception, thought, reason, judgrefusing ; with admiration and desire, hope and ment, memory, and imagination; to the second, fear, love and hatred, grief and joy, transport and those of choosing and refusing, or of willing and terror; with anger, jealousy, and despair. And NILLING, to adopt an old and very expressive meeach of these faculties, as called into action, pro- taphysical term, that ought never to have grown duces a correspondent effect upon the organs of obsolete ; to the third belong those of hope, fear, the body; giving rise to what the painters call grief, joy, love, hatred, anger, and revenge, or EXPRESSION, or the language of the features, and whatever else is capable of moving the mind from to articulate sounds, or the language of the lips; a state of tranquillity and rest. But what are the lighting up the eye, and animating the counte- uses or proposed ends of this extensive and comnance; invigorating the speech, and harmonizing plicated machinery of the mind of man? What its periods; or, on the contrary, filling the eye and are the respective parts which its various faculties the countenance with gloom or indignation, and are intended to fulfil, and the means by which the voice with sighs and bitter rebukes. The they are to operate? Their object is threefold, in external signs thus produced, and representative of every respect most important, and admirably calthe inward motion, operate in their turn with a culated to prove the wisdom and benevolence of reflex influence, and rekindle in the mind the the Almighty architect. They are the grand feelings that have given birth to them. In dif- sources by which man becomes endowed with ferent persons, these energetic principles are dif- knowledge, moral freedom, and happiness, and is ferently modified, and associated in every variety hence fitted to run the elevated race of a rational of combination ; sometimes one of them, and and accountable being. From the powers of the sometimes another, and sometimes several leagued understanding he derives the first; from those of together, being peculiarly active, and obtaining a volition or election, the second ; and from the mastery over the rest. And we behold these passions or motive powers, the third. Yet never effects in different instances, from different causes ; j let it be forgotten, that he can in no respect, or at as peculiarity of temperament, peculiarity of cli- least to no considerable extent or good purpose, mate, custom, habit, or education. And hence
possess either one or the other, unless the mind, the origin of moral or intellectual character ; the as an individual agent, maintain its self-dominion, particular dispositions and propensities of indi- and exercise a due degree of government over its viduals, or of whole nations. Hence one man is own forces. This must be obvious to every one; naturally violent, and another gentle ; one a prey and it is in this harmonious balance, this equable ! to perpetual gloom, and another full of hope and guidance and control, that the perfection of the confidence; one irascible and revengeful, and human character can alone consist and exhibit another all benevolence and philanthropy ; one itself. Unless the faculties of the understanding shrewd and witty, and another heavy and inert. be called forth, there can be no knowledge ; and Hence the refinement and patriotism of ancient unless they be properly directed, though there Greece, the rough hardihood of Rome, and the may indeed be knowledge, it will be of a worse commercial spirit of Carthage ; and hence, in nature than utter ignorance; we shall pluck, not modern times, the silent and plodding industry of of the mixed tree of the knowledge of good and the Dutch ; the chivalrous honour of the Spaniards evil, as it stood þefore the fall, but from the tree of the last century, unpoisoned by the deadly fever of the knowledge of evil alone, without any union of Corsican morality; the restless loquacity and or participation of good. In like manner, unless intriguing ambition of the French; and the high the will and the passions be under an equal de heroic courage and love of freedom, the generosity gree of guidance, the mind can be neither indeand promptitude to forgive injuries, the unswerv- pendent nor happy; a mental chaos must usurp ing honesty and lofty spirit of adventure, that the place of order, and the whole be misrule and peculiarly signalize the inhabitants of the British confusion.* isles.
IV. We have but imperfect notices of the 6. The mental faculties themselves are numer- zoology of Palestine.
The Scriptures contain ous and complicated ; so much so, indeed, that it familiar references to the lion, the wolf
, the fos, is difficult to arrange and analyze them. Dr. the leopard, the hyæna, the jackal, and the wild Good, to whom we are indebted for the remarks boar, which induce a belief that they were native immediately preceding, has offered a new distribution; dividing them into the three general heads-powers or faculties of the UNDERSTANDING ; * Good's Book of Kature, vol. ii., Serm. 3 ; Lect. viü.