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ceives that Providence has left us these, as ever- | Aaron was able to take a journey (which usually lasting monuments of the veracity of that Sacred occupies treo months, says Dr. Shaw) to Mount History with which we are favoured. In fact, Horeb, to meet Moses, which had he been kept that they are part, at least, of the labours of the without intermission to his labour, would have Israelites, previous to the exodus; and that they been impossible. Indeed, if the Israelites laboured remain to witness the leading events of that por- | in the field, they could not have been constantly tion of the history of the sons of Jacob. The employed in building; and that they did labour in following considerations are advanced in support the field is evident from their possession of great of this opinion.
herds of cattle, when they went out of Egypt. (1) If we inquire what were the labours of the Add to this, that their profession was that of shepIsraelites for the Pharaohs, we find that they con- herds, that they were placed in the richest passisted in making bricks, to be hardened in the turage in Egypt, that Moses stipulates that not a sun, for such bricks alone require the assistance of hoof should be left behind, and that the very straw in their composition, which material is par- institution of the passover-lamb implies the posticularly mentioned by the officers of this people, session of flocks; these, with other circumstances, , Exod. i. 14. Now, it appears from various tra- show clearly that the Israelites must have had invellers, that the internal construction of these tervals of time, in which to pay attention to their mighty masses consists, among other materials, of own property and business. brick of this description ; and thereby agrees with (4) It is almost certain that the native Egypthat circumstance of the sacred narrative. This tians, or the governing nation, at least, did not is true of the great pyramid, which is usually labour on these structures ; for Diodorus Siculus visited; but the pyramids of Sakkara, at some says (lib. i. cap. 2), “ He [Sesostris] built .... distance, are wholly composed of sun-burnt bricks, he employed in these works none of his own sub80 that these are undeniable.
jects, but only the labours of captives. He was (2) The multitude, when in the wilderness, re- even careful to engrave these words on the temples, get the fish which they ate in Egypt, freely No Egyptian had a hand in this structure. They [gratis ; not at their own expense], the cucum- say, further, that the captives brought from Babers, the melons, the leeks, the onions, the garlick, bylon, unable to endure these labours, found means Numb. xi. 5. In conformity with this, we are to escape, and . . . . made war against the Egyptold by Herodotus, that on the pyramid was an tians, &c. It is therefore likely that the stranger inscription, "expressing the expense of the arti- Israelites found in Egypt, by “the king who knew cles of food consumed by the labourers ; radishes not Joseph," and whose increasing numbers and (the leeks, perhaps, of Scripture), onions and gar- strength he dreaded, would be set to labour, lick; they cost 1,600 talents of silver." No doubt though in mere waste of their strength, on structhese vegetables were cheap enough ; so that this tures only useful in a political view, rather than considerable sum implies a prodigious number of any of the natural inhabitants, toward whom the workmen, employed during a great length of time. same policy was not necessary. This conduct was Herodotus also admires the further sum which afterwards adopted by Solomon (1 Kings ix. 27); must have been expended in food and clothes. “Solomon built . . . . of the Amorites, Periz
(3) As to the number of persons employed in zites, Hivites, &c., who were not of the children their erection, Diodorus Siculus says, that 360,000 of Israel, did Solomon levy a tribute of bond service workmen or slaves were occupied twenty years in —but of the children of Israel did Solomon make constructing the pyramid of Chemnis. Herodotus no bondmen; but they were men of war,” &c. says, 100,000 were employed in bringing stones ; (5) That it was anciently, as it still is in the 10,000 at a time, who relieved each other every East, the custom to employ bondmen in building, three months.
It may be supposed, therefore, is notorious ; we have therefore only to inquire, that the number given by Diodorus, includes the whether this character was attached to the Israelwhole of the population employed in all depart-ites. It is expressly attributed to them; for they ments, while the number given by Herodotus is are said to be brought out of the house of bondage that employed in a specific department; but, that (Exod. xx. 2); they are charged to remember al were relieved every three months, and that only they were bonumen in Egypt, Deut. vi. 21, xv. 15. a proportion of one tenth was employed at a time, That the Israelites did not make brick only, but seems to have been a kind of rule in the business. performed other labours of building, may be inNow, it is very likely that the Israelites were in ferred from Exod. ix. 8, 10. Moses took “ ashes this manner relieved; for we find (Exod. iv. 27), of the furnace”--no doubt that which was tended that the mother of Moses was able to conceal him, by his people. So Ps. Ixxx. 6: “I remember his when an infant, no longer than three months. And shoulder from the burilen, and his hands were delivered from the mortar-basket" (not pots, as in affliction, were again permitted to offer sacrifice." our translation); and with this rendering agree Here are plain traces of a government by a foreign the LXX., Vulgate, Symmachus, and others. It family, and of a worship contrary to that which is recorded, indeed, that the Israelites built cities had been previously established in Egypt; which for Pharaoh, and in such building they might and agrees exactly with circumstances narrated in must carry the burden, and the mortar-basket Exodus. The historian relates that it lasted 106 (analogous to our mortar-hod); yet as their deli- years, in which it coincides with the bondage-time very from these things is spoken of, as the furnace of the sons of Israel. is evidently not distant from the residence of (7) But there is information couched under the Pharaoh, and as there is no reason to suppose that ambiguous mention of the shepherd Philitis, which soon after they had built these cities they were should not escape us. It is clear that the Egypdismissed; these circumstances seem to corrobo- tians could not call the kings by whose order the rate the positive testimony of Josephus, that Israel pyramids (plural) were built by this name, in the was employed on the pyramids. We may, per- hearing of Herodotus, since they referred them to haps, attribute the omission of finishing the last their kings Cheops and Chephren; besides which, pyramid to the confusions consequent on the death it would seem that the shepherd Philitis had forof Pharaoh in the Red Sea, and the hatred which merly and customarily fed his cattle elsewhere. attended his memory among the genuine Egyp. We may, therefore, understand this passage
thus: tians, to which race he did not belong ; but was They attributed the labour of constructing these usurper over them, as he was a tyrant over Israel. pyramids to a shepherd who came from Philistia ;
(6) The space of time allotted to the erection but who at that time fed his cattle in the land of of these immense masses, coincides with what is Egypt." Implying, that they more readily told usually allotted to the slavery of the Israelites. the appellation of the workmen (the sons of Israel, Israel is understood to have been in Egypt 215 the shepherd, Gen. xlvii. 5] employed in the years, of which Joseph ruled seventy years; nor building, than of the kings by whose commands was it till long after his death that the “ new king they were built. They seem to have done the arose, who knew not Joseph.” If we allow about same in the days of Diodorus, who remarks
, for the extent of the generation which They admit that these works are superior to all succeeded Joseph, added to his seventy, there which are seen in Egypt; not only by the imremain about a hundred and five years to the mensity of their mass, and by their prodigious exodus. Now, Herodotus tells us, * that “till cost, but still more by the beauty of their conthe reign of Rampsinitus (the Rammesses of struction; and the workmen who have rendered Scripture) Egypt was not only remarkable for its them so perfect are much more estimable than the abundance, but for its excellent laws. Cheops, kings who paid their cost; for the former have
ho succeeded this prince, degenerated into the hereby given a memorable proof of their genius extremest profligacy of conduct. He barred the and skill, whereas the kings contributed only the avenues to every temple, forbade the Egyptians riches left by their ancestors, or extorted from from offering sacrifices, and next proceeded to their subjects ... They say the first was erected make them labour servilely for himself, by build- by Armæus, the second by Ammosis, the third by ing the pyramids. Cheops reigned fifty years. Inaron.” The first name, Armæus, Mr. Taylor His brother Chephren succeeded, and reigned corrects into Aramæus, that is, “ the Syrian:" and fifty-six years : he adopted a similar conduct. then the title perfectly coincides with the mention Thus for the space of 106 years were the Egyp- of the shepherd of Palestine, by Herodotus. This tians exposed to every species of oppression and passage being extremely curious, and perhaps calamity; not having in all this period permission never properly understood, the original Greek is to worship in their temples. For the memory of subjoined :t these two monarchs they have so extreme an aversion, that they are not willing to mention murov Røv Os oeurégav 'Alienoi, şñv de spuris
-την μεγιστης ποιήσαι λεγούσιν 'Αρμαιον, ['Αραtheir names. They call their pyramids by the
'Ιναρίωνα. name of the shepherd Philitis, noho at that time fed his cattle in those places. Mycerinus succeeded (8) This coincidence will appear more striking, Chephren, disapproved his father's conduct, com- if the names be considered distinct from their manded the temples to be opened, and the people, prefixes; for if we compare them with the dewho had been reduced to the most extreme scription of Moses and Aaron (Exod. vi. 26, 27),
* Herod., lib. ii., cap. 124.
+ Diod. Sic. lib. i., sect. 2.
we find them the same, as near as traditionary | that he raised three mountains called Rucmalri, pronunciation by natives of different countries Rajatadri, and Retnairi; or, the Mountain of could bring it: a Mousin, or ha Mousin, is hu- gold, of silver, of gems. The author says, mounMouseh, non 117; and in Arona, or hin Arona, is tains, but it appears, says Major Wilford, from hu Aaron, 1908 Nin; which, where two vowel the context, that they were fabrics [the Arabs, sounds came together, took a consonant between and Turks call them Djebel Pharouni, Pharaoh's them when spoken—hun Aaron. This, therefore, Mountains, to this day). There can be little or confirms the supposition, that the Israelites were no doubt, that they are the three pyramids near employed on the pyramids ; first, under the appel- Misra-sthan, or Memphis. Rucmavatsa was no lation of the Syrian, or Aramean [the very title tyrant to his own people, whom he cherished, says given to Jacob: “An Aramite ready to perish the “Mahacalpa,' as if they had been his own was my father, he went down into Egypt ... and children ; but he might have compelled the native the Egyptians evil entreated us, and afflicted us, Egyptians to work, for the sake of keeping them and laid upon us hard bondage,” Deut. xxvi. 5]; employed, and subduing their spirit. The first and afterwards, under the names of the two most was said to be of gold, because coated with yellow famous principals of that people.
marble ; the second of silver, because coated with (9) But beside the names of Moses and Aaron, white marble ; the third of gems, because coated the builders, we may possibly find that the names with variegated marble ;” or perhaps, marbles set of the kings by whose order they were built are in some pattern. also preserved, so far, at least, as by the help of (11) Now the opposite character of this RutScripture to afford assistance in this inquiry. mavatsa, says Mr. Taylor, is what we should ex“ Rampsinitus (supposed to be the Remphis of pect would be delivered by writers of opposite the next paragraph, from Diodorus Siculus] .... nations. (1) He was a foreigner introduced by possessed such abundance of wealth, that, so far conquest, therefore," he knew not Joseph," nor from surpassing, none of his successors ecer equalled cared for any former services rendered by that him in affluence,” says Herodotus; who also re- “ Saviour of the (Egyptian) world.” (2) He lates a history of his treasury, from which the tenderly loved his people-yes, his own people, least we can gather is, that it was very extraor- foreigners like himself; but the Egyptians were dinary. “ Remphis (son of Protheus), having not so fond of him; they rather banished his name succeeded his father, employed the whole period from their memory, and hated the mention of it. of his reign in increasing his revenues, and amass- (3) From his just revenues he amassed treasuresing gold and silver .... he left behind him more but his conquered subjects would describe this as riches than any of his predecessors ; for it is said iniquitous exaction (4) This family shut up the that in his coffers were found 400,000 talents."* temples ; and we are sure they prohibited sacri
(10) Raumesses or Raugmesses (Benjamin of fices in the instance of Israel. This might be Tudela writes it Raghmesses; Eusebius, Ramises ; piety in the opinion of the writers of the MahaJosephus, Ramphates ; and such differences indi- calpa; but the original Egyptians would esteem cate a foreign origin) is the name of a town it persecution for religion's sake, and consequently (Exod. i. 11, xii. 37), apparently named after this wickedness of no common guilt. (5) He built king of Egypt; and if pronounced Rucmetses, it three mountains : rather, three mountains were would be the Indian Rucmaratsa. This elision is built during the reign of his family; on these he common in India, and Major Wilford adopts it did not employ his own people, but partly the himself, by supposing that the Tamoratsa of this native Egyptians, with others whom he found in passage is the Timaus of the Greek writers. the country (the mixed multitude of Exod. xii. Rucmaratsa was, say the Puranas, Not OF THE 38), and partly the Israelites, whom he wished to ROYAL RACE OF EGYPT; but his grandfather Ta- subdue by labour. The character of this prince mocatsa defeated the Egyptian king, “ placed him- agrees sufficiently to prove his identity; and it self on the throne of Misra, and governed the disagrees sufficiently to prove, that on one side it kingdom with perfect equity; his son Bahya-ratsa is viewed with the eye of national and religious devoted himself to religion, having resigned his partiality ; on the other, with the aversion of dominion to his son Rucmaratsa, who tenderly national and religious abhorrence. It is imposloved his people, and so highly improved this sible to refrain from observing how aptly historical country, that from his just revenues he amassed narration and geographical discussion illustrate an incredible treasure. His wealth was so great, each other. And we form this general conclu
sion, that so many coincidences justify us in be
lieving that the pyramids of Egypt were built * Diod. Sic., lib. i., sect.?.
when Israel was in that land; were partly con
structed by that people; and that the labours they 2. Ethiopia was once a very large empire, conexacted fostered that aversion of mind which the sisting of forty-five kingdoms, according to Pliny, true Egyptians entertained against the memories It is exceedingly mountainous. Some of the mounof their oppressors; so that in later ages, the tains are of salt, and others abound with mines of priests rather mentioned, to inquiring foreigners, iron, copper, and gold. Its chief river is the Nile, the names of the operative builders, than of the into which almost all the inferior ones run. kings whose treasures had been expended on their 3. It appears that about the time of the Hebrew construction. As to the difference of names be- bondage in Egypt, or perhaps in the time of the tween Cheops and Ramesses ; probably one may Judges, the Cushites of Arabia, spoken of before, be a title, or a name taken on a certain occasion; with part of the descendants of Joktan, passed or one may be a Hindoo, the other an Egyptian, the Red Sea at the straits of Babelmandel, and appellation. At all events, we know so little settled in this country. The language of the on this subject, that no objection can be main- modern Abyssinians is plainly a dialect of the tained from it without further information. true and ancient Arabic. Many of their laws
(12) But though it be admitted that the Israel were similar to those of Egypt, and others resemites contributed to erect the pyramids, it does not bled the customs of the more civilized Arabs. follow that they cased them with their coating Ham, the father of Cush, or Jupiter-Ammon, was of marble or granite. That was, in all probability, their chief deity. They likewise paid divine performed by professed artists; the stones were honours to Isis, Pan, Hercules, Æsculapius, and brought from a distance, and doubtless required others. There is a tradition among the Abysskill as well as labour in their preparation and sinians, that their ancestors embraced Judaism in
It is indeed a tradition on the spot, that the the time of Solomon, to which they stedfastly Israelites dug out from the rocks adjacent those adhered till their conversion to Christianity. Acgrottos which show from whence come the layers cording to this tradition, the queen of Sheba, of stone which accompany the rubble work; and whom our Saviour calls the queen of the South, this may be true ; but the granite, it is presumed, and who ruled over at least a powerful nation of they did not cut. *
Ethiopia, had a son by Solomon, who was edu1. This country is frequently cated at that prince's court, and instructed in the mentioned in Scripture under the name of Cush, law of God, under the care of his father. Being though it is not always intended under that term. afterwards anointed king of Ethiopia, and sent The ancients appear to have given the name of home to take possession of his kingdom, he was Ethiopian to all persons, either perfectly black, accompanied by several eminent Jewish doctors, or of a very swarthy complexion. The Arabs, under whose superintendence the law of Moses therefore, and other Asiatics, as well as a great was established among his people. It is certain number of Africans, came under this denomina- that circumcision, the observance of the seventh tion. Thus the wife of Moses, who was a native day Sabbath, and a number of other Jewish rites, of Midian, on the eastern shore of the Red Sea, are practised by the Ethiopians to this day. But is called a Cushite or Ethiopian, and the river that their sovereigns are descended in a direct Gihon, which is supposed to be the Araxes, is line from Solomon, it is somewhat difficult to besaid to encompass the whole land of Ethiopia, lieve. It is probable that the Ethiopians were Gen. ii. 13. It is plain, therefore, that there are conquered by Shishak, king of Egypt, either in three countries bearing this name, referred to in the time of Solomon, or shortly afterwards. Scripture. The proper Ethiopia, however, was During the civil war which happened in Egypt on the south of Egypt, on which side it was after his death, Zerah, the Ethiopian, appears to bounded by the Lesser Cataract, and the island have possessed himself of Egypt and Libya. Elephantine; on the west it was bounded by Intending to add Judea to his dominions, he Libya Interior ; on the east by the Red Sea ; and advanced with a large army against Asa, but wits on the south by a part of Africa unknown to the defeated by the Jews, who afterwards assisted the ancients, and therefore difficult to define. Ethi- Egyptians to recover their liberty, 2 Chron. xiv. opia is now known under the name of Abyssinia, 9—15. About A. M. 3257, So, or Sabacon, king one of the large kingdoms of Africa.
of Ethiopia, reduced Egypt, which then consisted of three or more distinct kingdoms, and entered into an alliance with Hoshea and the Israelites
against the king of Assyria, which issued in the * We are indebted for the principal part of this account of destruction of the kingdom of Israel by ShalmaEgypt, to Calmet's Dictionary, 8vo. edition, where the various speculations which were distributed throughout the . Fragments," neser, 2 Kings xvii. 1-8. Tirhakah, perhaps have been carefully collected and condensed.
the same with Sethar, marched an army against Sennacherib, 2 Kings xix. 9. Some time after, ABEL, ABEL-BETH-MAACAA, or ABEL-Maim, a Esarbaddon, king of Assyria, having ravaged city of Manasseh, lying between Damascus and Egypt, subdued a great part of Ethiopia, and held Paneas. It is sometimes called ABILA (Luke üii. the people in bondage for three years, that is, till 1); and by Josephus, “ Abila in Libanus." The his death ; when the Ethiopians, revolting from addition of “ Beth-Maacah," seems to denote that the Assyrians, asserted their independence, which it was near the temple of the deity or idol Maacah. they maintained, though a monarchy distinct from ABEL-MEHOLAH, a city in the great plain, about Egypt, till the time of Cyrus, by whom, and his 16 miles south of Scythopolis. It was celebrated successor Cambyses, they seem to have been much for the victory over the Midianites obtained here harassed, and by Xerxes were either partly or by Gideon (Judg. vii. 22); and also, as the birthwholly subdued, Isai. xix. 23, xx. 4, 5; Ezek. place of Elisha, 1 Kings xix. 16. IXX. 4, 5.*
ABEL-SHITTIM, a city in the plains of Moab, III. LIBYA was a large country on the west of east of Jordan, opposite to Jericho, and in the Egypt, the eastern part of which was generally neighbourhood of Mount Peor. Moses encamped subject to this power. The Lybians or Lubim, here before the Hebrew army passed the Jordan, assisted the kings of Ethiopia against the Jews under Joshua (Numb. xxv. l;
1; xxxiii. 49); and (2 Chron. xii. 3; xvi. 8), and the Egyptians here the Israelites, seduced by Balak, fell into against the Assyrians or Chaldeans, Neh. ii. 9; idolatry, and worshipped Baal-Peor. Jer. xlvi. 9; Ezek. xxx. 5. The Libya mentioned Accad, a city, built by Nimrod (Gen. x. 10), by St. Luke (Acts ii. 10), is that by Ptolemy which the LXX. write Arcad; and the Syriac called Libya Cyrenaica, in which dwelt a great Achar. Ephraim the Syrian, Abulpharagius, Jenumber of Jews. This was the country of that rome, the Targum of Jerusalem, and Jonathan Simon who was compelled to carry our Saviour's call it Nisibis, the antiquity of which is unquescross, Matt. xxvii. 32.
ACCHO, or ACRE, is a town situated on the coast
of the Mediterranean Sea, on the north angle of SECTION III.
the bay to which it gives its name, and which PROVINCES, CITIES, TOWNS, &c., MENTIONED IN
extends in a semi-circle of three leagues, as far as SCRIPTURE. +
the point of Mount Carmel. Aceho was given to
the tribe of Asher (Josh. xix. 25. Gr.; Judg. i. ABANA (the rocky river] is a branch of the 31), but was not possessed by them, being reBarrady, or Chrysorroas, which derives its source tained by the ancient Canaanites. At different from the foot of Mount Libanus, eastward ; runs periods, this town has been known by different round and through Damascus, and continues its names. One of the Ptolemies enlarged and beaucourse till lost in the wilderness, four or five leagues tified it, and called it Ptolemais. The Christian south of the city. The Talmudists say, that Crusaders named it Acre, or St. John d’Acre, from " the waters of Kirmon and Pigah are not fit to St. John, who was the tutelar saint of the place. sprinkle the unclean, because they are muddy The Arabians call it Acca, or Akka. When Syria waters;"—meaning, probably, that running through was subjected by the Romans, this city was made a chalky soil, or over chalky rocks, they are sul- a colony by the Emperor Claudius.
Its most lied by the particles they carry with them. Naa- ancient name AKH, has been observed upon small man, however, held a different opinion; for he bronze medals found, though rarely, in the counsays (2 Kings v. 12), “ Are not Abana and Phar- try. The medals of gold and silver, of Alexander phar, rivers of Damascus, better than all the the Great, struck in this town, with Phænician waters of Israel ?"
characters, call it Aco. We have many of its ABARIM, a range of mountains which spread medals with Latin inscriptions, but the Greek are far into the tribe of Reuben, and the country of very rare.
The town of Acre is situated twentyBioab, on each side of the Arnon. They were com- seven miles south of Tyre, and seventy N.W. of posed of many little hills, under different names; Jerusalem. Its population was computed by the but it is impossible to define their precise extent. Abbé Mariti, in 1760, at 16,000; and by Mr. Eusebius fixes them at six miles west of Heshbon, Brown, in 1797, at 18,000 or 20,000. The early and seven east of Livias. The mountains Nebo, travellers speak of its pristine splendour ; but of Pisgah, and Peor were parts of the range.
this few traces remain. Dr. Clarke states, that
its external view is the only prospect worth be* Ancient Universal History, vol. xviii., p. 277, &c.
holding The sight of the interior exactly resem+ We have omitted the mention of many small places, which bles what is seen in Constantinople, and in the lave no historical importance.
generality of Turkish cities : narrow, dirty lanes,