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the life of Josephus we learn, that the length of which contained 15,000 inhabitants. The district Samaria, from north to south, was three days' jour- of Galilee, as Dr. Wells remarks, was most ney; for he states, “ that it is absolutely necessary honoured with our Saviour's presence. for those who would go quickly to Jerusalem (from here that he was conceived; it was hither that Galilee) to pass through that country; for in that Joseph and Mary returned with him, then a child, road they might in three days time go from out of Egypt; it was here he settled, and lived Galilec to Jerusalem."* We see also from this, with his reputed father, and the blessed Virgin, that there was a natural as well as a moral reason, his mother, till he began to be about thirty years for the evangelist saying of Christ (John iv. 4), of age, and was baptized of John ; it was hither that “he must needs go through Samaria" to he returned after his baptism, and temptation by Jerusalem. This province comprehended the the devil; and, after his entrance upon his public original possessions of Ephraim and Manasseh. ministry, though he frequently visited the other

(3) GALILEE was the most northerly division provinces, yet it was here that his dwelling-place of Palestine, and contained the inheritances of was, whence he was called a Galilean; and, Issachar, Zebulun, Naphtali, Asher, and part of lastly, it was here our Lord made his first appearthat belonging to the eastern half-tribe of Ma- ance to the eleven disciples after his resurrection. nasseh. It was one of the most extensive pro- To all which may be added, that the most consivinces of the Holy Land; and is divided by derable part, if not all, of his apostles, were of Josephus into the Upper and the Lower Galilee. this country; whence they are all styled by the The Upper Galilee abounded in mountains, and angels, “men of Galilee,” Acts i. 11.|| was eminently understood by the term “Galilee (5) Such were the principal divisions on the west of the Gentiles,” or “Galilee of the Nations ;" as

of the Jordan; and if we cross that river, and exthe mountainous nature of the country enabled amine the eastern districts, inhabited by the two those who possessed the fastnesses to defend them tribes and a half, we shall find them to be, Perea selves against invaders. Strabo enumerates among on the north, and Idumea on the south. its inhabitants, Egyptians, Arabians, and Phæni- (1) PEREA, properly so called, had its limits cians.f It extended principally beyond Jordan, thus: Philadelphia, east; the Jordan, voest ; inclining toward the Trachonitis, Libanus, and Macheron, south ; and Pella, north. But under Batanea. In proof of this, Calmet has noticed, the appellation of Perea is sometimes included among other things, that Judas Gaulonitis is the whole country east of the Jordan, except the called the Galilean (Acts v. 37), and we know extreme south; comprising the cantons of Perea that Gaulon was beyond Jordan.

So also was

on the south ; Batanea and Gaulonitis, in the Bethsaida ; but the disciples who were of this middle ; and Abilene, Iturea, Trachonitis, and city were called Galileans. The testimony of Jo- Auranitis, on the north. I The whole of this sephus is to the same effect, who assigns the district was a fruitful country, abounding with limits of the entire Galilee thus: “It is termi- pines, olive-trees, palm-trees, and other plants, nated west by Ptolemais and Carmel (which do which grew in the fields in great plenty and pernot belong to Galilee); on the south by the fection; and even in the excessive hot seasons it country of Samaria and Scythopolis, on the river was well watered and refreshed with springs and Jordan ; on the east by the cantons of Hippos, torrents from the mountains. The following is Galara, and Gaulon ; on the north by the con- the language in which it is described by Mr. fines of the Tyrians." The Lorcer Galilee con- Buckingham: “We had no sooner passed the tains the Plain of Esdraelon, which is nearly fifty summit of the second range (of hills beyond the miles in length, and twenty in breadth. It is Jordan], going down on its eastern side by a very described by Dr. Clarke as one vast meadow, gentle descent, than we found ourselves on plains covered with the richest pasture, inclosed on all of nearly as high a level as the summits of the sides by the mountains, and not having a single hills themselves, and certainly eight hundred feet, house or a tree within its extent. Josephus de- at least, above the streams of the Jordan. The scribes Galilee as very populous, containing two character of the country, too, was quite different hundred and four cities and towns, the least of from any thing I had seen in Palestine, from

my first landing at Soor to the present moment. We were now in a land of extraordinary richness, have they made thine oars,' Ezek. xxvii. 6. Some abounding with the most beautiful prospects, learned commentators, indeed, believing that no clothed with thick forests, varied with verdant oaks grew in these supposed desert regions, have slopes, and possessing extensive plains of a fine translated this word by alders, to prevent the red soil, now covered with thistles as the best appearance of inaccuracy in the inspired writer. proof of its fertility, and yielding in nothing to The expression of the fat bulls of Bashan, the celebrated plains of Zebulon and Esdraelon, which occurs more than once in the Scriptures, in Galilee and Samaria. We continued our way seemed to us equally inconsistent, as applied to to the north-east, through a country, the beauty the beasts of a country generally thought to be a of which so surprised us that we often asked each desert, in common with the whole tract which is other what were our sensations; as if to ascer- laid down in our modern maps as such, between tain the reality of what we saw, and persuade each the Jordan and Euphrates ;t but we could now other, by mutual confessions of our delight, that fully comprehend, not only that the bulls of this the picture before us was not an optical illusion. luxuriant country might be proverbially fat, but The landscape alone, which varied at every turn, that its possessors, too, might be a race renowned and gave us new beauties from every different for strength and comeliness of person." I point of view, was, of itself, worth all the pains (2) IDUMÆA.—This province composed the exof an excursion to the eastward of Jordan to treme southern part of the land, and also a small obtain a sight of; and the park-like scenes part of Arabia. During the captivity at Babylon, that sometimes softened the romantic wildness it seems to have been possessed by the neighof the general character as a whole, reminded bouring Idumæans. Being conquered by the us of similar spots in less neglected lands."

* Joseph. Vit., cited by Wetstein. † From such a mixture of people many provincialisms might be expected; hence they are mentioned as having differed from the rest of the Jews in their mode of pronunciation. See Mark 1iv. 70, and Lightfoot's Chorog. Cent., chap. Ixxxvii.

Jewish Wars, book iii., chap. 3.

|| Sacred Geography, pt. 4, chap. i.

Ś Josephus, Wars, book iii., chap. iii. For a detailed account of this part of the Holy Land, the reader is referred to Burckhardt's Travels, a work pre-eminently distinguished for its accuracy.

."* victorious arms of the Maccabees, these people Of the district of Batanea the same traveller embraced Judaism, and thus became incorporated thus speaks: “We continued our way over this into the body of the Jewish nation. The tract elevated tract, continuing to behold, with surprise inhabited by them retained the name of Idumæa, and admiration, a beautiful country on all sides of not only during the time of the New Testament us; its plains covered with a fertile soil, its hills history (Mark iii. 8), but also for a considerable clothed with forests, at every new turn presenting time afterwards. || the most magnificent landscapes that could be

6. The following table will supply the means imagined. Among the trees the oak was fre- of comparing the division of Palestine amongst quently seen, and we know that this territory the twelve tribes, with that adopted by the produced them of old. In enumerating the Romans during the first three centuries of the sources whence the supplies of Tyre were drawn Christian era, and with that adopted by the in the time of her great wealth and naval splen- Turks at the present day. dour, the prophet says, “Of the oaks of Bashan

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» Zebulun (north-west of the

Lake of Gennesareth)
Issachar (Valley of Esdraelon,

Mount Tabor)
5 Half-tribe of Manasseh (Dora

{
{

and Cesarea
Ephraim (Shechem, Samaria).

Hivites.

Samaria

Nablous.

The same

* Travels in Palestine, &c., p. 322.

strength of its people, Dent. iii. 13. It contained threescore + It was because the tribes of Reuben and Gad possessed a great cities, with walls and brazen bars, 1 Kings iv. 13. “And multitude of cattle that they entreated Moses to give them this Og, the king of Bashan, pre-eminent above his subjects, slept land for their portion, as it was a land of rich pastures, and not

on a bedstead of iron, which was nine cubits long, and four to take them over Jordan. See Numb. xxxii, 1–5, and Jose broad, after the cubit of a man,” Deat, iii. 11. Buckingham's phus, Antiq., book iv., chap. 7.

Travels, p. 328, 329. # It was called the land of giants, probably from the great

|| Wells' Geography, pt. 4, chap. i.

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(7) We cannot, of course, pretend to mark these dant meadows, offer all the luxuriance of cultivadivisions with any thing like precision, much less tion; and herds and flocks give life and animato mark their geographical agreement with each tion to scenes as grand, as beautiful, and as highly other ; but what we have done will answer all picturesque, as the genius or taste of a Claude the purposes of historical comparison.

could either invent or desire.t. But we must descend to particulars, and describe

I. Rivers, LAKES, AND SEAS.- Of these the $ 5.The Face of the Country.

following deserve notice : We have incidentally noticed the general cha- under the lofty peaks of the Anti-libanus, and flows

1. The Jordan, or river of Dan, which rises racter and appearance of the country ; but we

in a direction almost constantly southward, with may here further observe, that the surface of the

the lake of Tiberias, through which it passes,

and Holy Land, being beautifully diversified with mountains, plains, and valleys, watered by the that of Asphaltites (the Dead Sea), which it forms river Jordan, and the innumerable streams by | by its discharge, divides Palestine completely from river Jordan, and the innumerable streams by north to south. The lake of Phiala, whence it which it is intersected, must have presented a

takes its rise, is situate about fifteen miles northdelightful appearance when the Jewish nation was in its prosperity, and the land held under the cast of Cesarea, and on the right hand of the road special providence of God. “Under a wise and to Trachonitis. It obtained its designation from salutary government, the produce of the Holy brimful at all times. Before the time of Philip

its resemblance to a bowl, and its waters were Land would exceed all calculation : its perennial harvest, the salubrity of its air, its limpid springs,

the Tetrarch, Panium was considered as the its rivers, lakes, and matchless plains, its hills and source of the Jordan ; but he having thrown a vales ; all these, added to the serenity of its quantity of chaff into the spring of Phiala, which climate, prove this land to be, indeed, a field issued out at Panium, a subterraneous passage which the Lord hath blessed. God hath given it between the two springs was thereby discovered,

and Phiala ascertained to be the true source of of the dew of heaven, and the fatness of the earth, and plenty of corn and wine."

this famed river. I

The limestone rocks and valleys are even now to be seen entirely

(2) At its embouchure the Jordan is deep and covered with plantations of figs, vines, and olive- rapid, rolling a volume of waters from two to trees; scarcely a single spot seems to be neglected. violent that an expert swimmer finds it impracti

three hundred feet in width, with a current so The hills, from their bases to their upmost sum

cable to cross it. mits, are entirely covered with gardens, and in a

Dr. Shaw describes it, indeed, high state of agricultural perfection. Even the

as not more than thirty yards broad, and Maunsides of the most barren mountains are rendered drell, as only about twenty yards over ; but they fertile by being divided into terraces, like steps

speak of its appearance at some distance from the

The former rising one above another. In many parts of the mouth, where the pilgrims bathe. land the scenery is peculiarly grand. Lofty moun

affirms that it runs about two miles an hour, and tains give an outline of the most magnificent

Chateaubriand represents it as sluggish, recharacter; flowing beds of secondary hills soften luctantly creeping to the Dead Sea; while the the romantic wildness of the picture ; gentle

latter speaks of its violent and turbid current, slopes

, clothed with wood, give a rich variety of too rapid to be swam against;" in which he is tints

, hardly to be imitated by the pencil; deep supported by Pococke, who describes it as “ deep valleys, filled with murmuring streams and ver

+ Buckingham's Travels, p. 330.- For an account of the

seasons, &c., of Nadea, see page 423, infra. * Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. iv., part ii., ch, 16.

Josephus’s Wars, book iii., ch. 10; book iv., che !.

»*

and very rapid, wider than the Tiber at Rome, tains on both sides, and form numerous pools of and perhaps about as wide as the Thames at stagnant water, produce in many places a pleasing Windsor ; the water turbid.” But these varia- verdure, and a luxuriant growth of wild herbage tions may easily be accounted for, by observing, and grass; but the greater part of the ground is a that the writers not only visited different parts of parched desert, of which a few spots only are the river, but that at different times of the year. cultivated by the Bedouins. In the neighbour

(3) There is no doubt that anciently, at certain hood of Bysan the soil is entirely of marle; there seasons, this river overflowed its inner bank, Josh. are very few trees; but wherever there is water, iii. 15; 1 Chron. xii. 15; Jer. xlix. 19, 1. 44. high reeds are found. The river Jordan, on “But at present,” says Maundrell, “ whether it be issuing from the lake of Tiberias, flows for about that the river has, by its rapidity of current, worn three hours near the western hills, and then turns its channel deeper than it was formerly, or whe- towards the eastern, on which side it continues its ther because its waters are diverted some other course for several hours. The river flows in a way, it seems to have forgot its ancient greatness; valley of about a quarter of an hour in breadth, for we could discern no sign or probability of such which is considerably lower than the rest of the overflowings when we were there, which was the plain of the Ghor; this low valley is covered with 30th of March, being the proper time for these high trees of a luxuriant verdure, which afford a inundations. Nay, so far was the river from over-striking contrast with the sandy slopes that border flowing, that it ran at least two yards below the it on both sides. The river where we passed it brink of its channel.” It is nevertheless a fact, was about eighty paces broad, and about three that the Jordan still rises to a height of from nine feet deep; this, it must be recollected, was in the to ten perpendicular feet, between the months of midst of summer. In the winter it inundates the January and March—a height quite sufficient to plain in the bottom of the narrow valley, but produce a very extensive inundation, when its never rises to the level of the upper plain of the channel was shallower than it now is.

Ghor, which is at least forty feet above the level (4) The course and channel of this river have of the river. The river is fordable in many places been accurately described by Maundrell, Bucking- during summer, but the few spots where it may ham, Burckhardt, and other recent travellers. Mr. be crossed in the rainy season are known only to Buckingham observes, that the whole of the plain, the Arabs.”+ It abounds with fish. from the mountains of Judea on the west to those 2. The Lake of Tiberias, or Sea of Galilee, was of Arabia on the east, may be called the vale of called in more early times the Sea of Chinnereth, Jordan in a general way; but in the centre of the from a city of that name seated on it, belonging plain, which is at least ten miles broad, the Jordan to the children of Naphtali (Josh. xix. 35); and runs in another still lower valley, perhaps a mile the edge of this sea on the other side Jordan, broad in some of the widest parts, and a furlong eastward, was made the western boundary of the in the narrowest. There are close thickets all portion of Gad, who occupied all the cities of along the edge of the stream, as well as upon this Gilead, and half the land of the children of lower plain, which would afford ample shelter for Ammon, Josh. xiii. 24—27. Gennesareth is conwild beasts; and as the Jordan might overflow its sidered by Calmet and Buckingham to have been banks, when swollen with rains, sufficiently to the original name of this sea of Chinnereth, grainundate this lower plain, though it could never dually corrupted ; Galilee was the name given to reach the upper one, it was most probably from it from its situation on the eastern borders of that these that the lions were driven out by the inun- division of Palestine ; and Tiberias, which is its dations, which gave rise to the prophet's simile: most modern name, must have been bestowed on “Behold, he shall come up like a lion from the it after the building of the city bearing the same swelling of Jordan, against the habitation of the name by Herod. It is computed to be about strong,” Jer. xlix. 19, 1. 44.* Mr. Burckhardt is eighteen miles in length, and from five to six in more particular as to the exact course of the river: breadth. The description which Josephus has “ The valley of the Jordan, or El Ghor, which left us of this beautiful sheet of water is, like all may be said to begin at the northern extremity of the other pictures drawn by him, admirably faiththe lake of Tiberias, has near Bysan [Bethshan, ful in the detail of local features. “Now, this or Scythopolis] a direction of N. by E., and S. by W. Its breadth is about two hours. The great number of rivulets which descend from the moun

+ Travels in Syria, &c., pp. 344, 345. Josephus, Jewish Wars, b.iž., chap. xi. Dr. Richardson,

misled by Sandys, has stated it to be “about twelve miles long, * Travels in Palestine, &c., pp. 313, 314.

and six broad.” Travels, vol. i., p. 426.

lake of Gennesareth is so called from the country, water; and they ceased, and there was a calm," adjoining to it. Its breadth is forty furlongs, and Luke viii. 23, 24. It was the old opinion, that its length one hundred and forty ; its waters are the waters of the Jordan passed through the lake sweet, and very agreeable for drinking, for they without mingling with it; and Pococke thought are finer than the thick waters of other fens; the he noticed the stream to be of a different colour. lake is also pure, and on every side ends directly The fact is, that the water of the lake is clear, at the shores, and at the sand; and it is also of a while that of the Jordan is muddy, and of course temperate nature when you draw it up, and of a the strong current, in passing through the former, more gentle nature than river or fountain water, imparts to it a tinge of its own colour. and yet always cooler than one could expect in so 3. The Dead Sea, or Lake Asphaltites, variously diffuse a place as this is. Now, when this water called in Scripture the Sea of the Plain, the Salt is kept in the open air, it is as cold as that snow Sea, and the East Sea (Deut. iii. 17, iv. 49; which the country people are accustomed to make Numb. xxxiv. 3; Josh. xv. 5; Ezek. xlvii. 18; by night in summer. There are several kinds of Joel ii. 20), is a collection of waters of considerfish in it, different both to the taste and sight able magnitude. It is surrounded by high hills from those elsewhere."* Dr. Clarke speaks of on three sides, some of them exhibiting frightful the uncommon grandeur of the memorable scenery precipices, and on the north it is bounded by the of this spot. He describes the lake as being plain of Jericho, through which the Jordan flows longer and finer than any of our Cumberland and into it. The Kedron, Arnon, and Zerka rush Westmoreland lakes, although, perhaps, inferior down the hills in torrents, and, along with other to Loch Lomond. It does not possess the vastness streams, discharge themselves into the lake. Its of the lake of Geneva, although it much resembles real size is not satisfactorily ascertained, ancient it in certain points of view. In picturesque beauty and modern writers materially disagreeing in their he states it to come nearest to the lake of Locamo statements. Josephus affirms it to be seventy-two in Italy, although it is destitute of any thing miles long, and eighteen broad. Diodorus states similar to the islands by which that majestic piece it at sixty-two miles long, and seven and a half of water is adorned.+ Viewing it from Tel Hoom, broad. But the calculation of Pliny is much which he erroneously supposed to be the ancient greater; for he says it is one hundred miles long, Capernaum, Mr. Buckingham says, “ Its appear- and twenty-five wide, in the broadest part. ance is still grand. The barren aspect of the Maundrell and Dr. Clarke agree with Josephus, mountains on each side, and the total absence of and Pococke decides with Diodorus; whereas wood, give, however, a cast of dulness to the Mr. Bankes confidently affirms, that its utmost picture ; which is increased to melancholy by the extent does not exceed thirty miles. Yet, as the dead cast of its waters, and the silence which editor of the Modern Traveller has judiciously reigns throughout its whole extent, where not a remarked, the ancients were well acquainted with boat or vessel of any kind is to be found. The this sea. Josephus, Julius Africanus, and Pausawaters of this lake, lying in a deep bason, sur- nias describe it from their own ocular evidence. rounded on all sides with lofty hills, excepting Are we to conclude that the lake has contracted only the narrow entrance and outlets of the Jordan its dimensions, so as to be only half its ancient at each extreme, are protected from long-continued length ? Supposing any change to have taken tern pests; and, like the Dead Sea, with which place in the depth of its bason, in the lapse of they communicate, are never violently agitated for ages, during which the bituminous stores conany length of time. The same local features, tained in the subterranean chambers of the abyss however

, render it occasionally subject to whirl- have been in a process of decomposition, this is winds, squalls, and sudden gusts from the hollow not impossible. For as the whole of the plain is of the mountains, which, as in every other similar a flat, on a level with the sea, it is extremely probason, are of short duration, and the most furious bable that the waters anciently covered that whole gast is instantly succeeded by a calm. A storm extent; and a comparatively slight subsidence of of this description is evidently alluded to by the the sea would convert the shallow into a marshy, evangelist, where he says, “There came down a and at length arid, plain.|| The waters of the storm of wind on the lake, and they were filled Dead Sea are clear and limpid, but their specific with water, and were in jeopardy—then he arose, gravity exceeds that of all other water known. and rebuked the wind and the raging of the Josephus and Tacitus say that no fish can live in

* Josephus, Jewish Wars, b. iii., chap. z.

+ Travels, vol. iv., p. 200, &c.

# Travels, p. 471. | Modern Traveller, vol. i., pp. 205, 206.

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