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Ezek. iv. 2; xxi. 22); or endeavoured to enter The diagram occupying the following page affords them by burning the gates, and cutting down the a good idea of this camp. wooden towers, Ezek. xxvi. 9.

6. Of the order observed in the encampment of the armies, we have no precise information. The

Breadth...... 156 3-4 cubits.

Length 400 castramentation in the wilderness, the plan of which was laid down by God himself (Numb. i.),

Total......62,700 consisted of three principal divisions : The first,


Breadth..... 103 3-4 cubits. which was the most powerful, occupied the centre;


400 this was the tabernacle, or the throne of God. The second, which was composed of the priests and

Total...... 41,500 Levites, surrounded this in a quadrangular form.


Breadth...... 133 1-2 cubits. And the third consisted of the remaining tribes who

Length 400
pitched around, each under his own banner, at a
distance of about a mile from the tabernacle.*

If we make the ichnography, or even the scenography, of the

camp on this plan, in following it, we must first, in the centre, Reyher, who is followed by Scheuchzer, assigns the follow- form a parallelogram of 100 cubits long, and 50 broad, for the ing space to the soldiers of each of the tribes, whilst remaining court of the tabernacle, with an empty space all round of 50 close to each other in their ranks, allowing one square cubit to cubits broad. We must then place the camp of the Levites each; but if we take in the arrangement, not only the soldiers, towards the west, viz., bat the tents, the families, &c., a much larger extent of ground

The Gershonites. is requisite.

Breadth...... 30 cubits.

Length 250
Breadth......298 35 cubits.

Total...... 7,500
Length .......250

South, The Kohathites.
Total .....74,600

Breadth...... 86 cubits.

Length 100
Breadth......217 35 cubits.

Total...... 8,600

North, The Merarites.

Breadtb...... 62 cubits.

Length ,100
Breadth......140 5-11 cubits.

Total...... 6,200
Length ..325

On the east, we must place the tents for Moses, and Aaron
Total...... 45,650

and his sons; and at the place where the camp of the Levites

ends, a space must be left of 2000 square cubits; after which we Breadth...... 229 3-4 cubits.

must take the dimensions of the camp of the twelve tribes. Length 250

To represent the whole camp of the Israelites in that order

which appears most proper, we must extract the square roots Total......57,400

of the preceding spaces, in order to assign to each tribe square

areas, or rectangular parallelograms. We find, therefore, for Breadth...... 202 1-2 cubits.


.3049 Length 200


.3298 Total......40,500





.2846 Breadth...... 143 1-5 cubits.


.3049 Length 325


.2537 Total...... 46,500


.3443 Benjamin

.2660 Dan......

.3541 Breadth...... 161 cubits.


2880 Length








3268 Total......32,200


1224 Kohathites......

..)311 Merarites.....

..)113 Breadth...... 182 6-13 cubits. Length 325

The tabernacle, which was 100 cabits long and 50 broad,

being placed in the centre of the camp, 840 feet from the camp Total......59,300

of the Levites, the whole space of the camp was therefore TRIBE OF BENJAMIN.

259,600,000 feet. Now, according to the above division of the Breadth...... 177 cubits.

camp, the sum total being 125,210,000, it follows that the space Length 200

between the tents contained 134,390,000. Now, if we reckon

21,141,604 square feet to the Roman mile, the Israelitish camp Total .....35,400

will contain a little more than twelve such square miles.


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405 The admirable order of this encampment drew

9. The arms of the Jewish warriors were from Balaam the following exclamation: “How adapted to the exigencies of the occasion. Some goodly are thy tents, O Jacob, and thy taberna- of them wore complete armour; consisting of a cles, O Israel! As the valleys are they spread helmet of brass (1 Sam. xvii. 5), an habergeon, forth, as gardens by the river's side, as the trees cuirass, or breastplate of brass, a defence for the of lign-aloes which the Lord hath planted, and as back, a girdle for the loins, and greaves of brass cedar-trees beside the waters,” Numb. xxiv. 2–6. for the legs and feet (1 Sam. xvii. 6), with a But it is not likely that there were any regularly sword for the right hand, and a shield or buckler formed camps among the Hebrews, similar to for the left. Hence the beautiful allusion to all those of the Romans and other warlike nations. these in St. Paul's description of the Christian In 1 Sam. xxvi. 7, we read that the spear of Saul soldier (Eph. vi. 13—17), where nothing is left was stuck at his head while he slept. This was undefended but the back; to teach us that Christ equivalent to the place of the general's tent.* hates a coward and an apostate ; that as long as His armour-bearer and principal officers slept we undauntedly face the foe, we are safe ; but if around him, and the rest of the army, in their we turn our backs, we do it at our hazard. I But several divisions, in a circle without. This was although some of the soldiers were thus equipped, probably the general manner of their encamp- the greater part wore their ordinary clothing, and

were arranged in companies according to their 7. It is impossible to avoid noticing, in reading armour. Thus one part had swords and buckthe historical books of the Old Testament, the lers; another, spears and javelins ; a third, battlebarbarities which were mutually practised in the axes (Jer. li. 20); a fourth, slings (Judg. xx. 16; wars carried on between the Israelites and the 2 Kings iï. 25); and a fifth, bows (1 Sam. xxxi adjoining nations. Some were decapitated (1 3; 1 Chron. v. 18, xii. 2). There are several Sam. xxxi. 9), others had their noses and ears cut highly expressive and beautiful metaphors in the off (Ezek. xxiii. 25), or their hands and feet, New Testament, which are derived from various (2 Sam. iv. 12). Some were put under saws and parts of the Roman armour. See Rom. xiii. 12; harrows of iron, and made to pass through the 2 Cor. vi. 7, &c. brick kiln (2 Sam. xii. 31); mothers were de

10. In so mountainous a country as Judea, stroyed with their children (Esth. iii. 13); infants cavalry could be of no great service, and therefore

were dashed against the stones (2 Kings vii. 12; in the more early periods of their history the He: Ps. cxxxvii. 9; Isai. xiii. 16–18); women with brews did not adopt them. Absalom is the first

child were ripped up (2 Kings xv. 16; Hos. xiii. of whom we read making use of them (2 Sam. 16; Amos i. 13); and persons of rank reduced xv. l); and they appear to have been of no furto the most degrading slavery (Isai. xlvii. 2).

ther service to him than to facilitate his flight 8. With regard to the spoil taken in war, (chap. xviii. 9, &c.). Solomon, indeed, sent to Moses distinctly recognized the right of the Egypt for a considerable number of horses, and a people to it; and the following regulations may proportionable number of chariots (1 Kings x. 26, be collected out of his writings, relative to its dis- &c.); but it seems they were more for splendour tribution.–1. The spoil in persons and cattle did than actual service; and hence Rabshakeh, when not belong to the individuals who took it, but he marched against Jerusalem, taunted Hezekiah was collected, reckoned, and distributed in the fol with the remark, that if he should lend him 2000 lowing proportions :-(1) One half to those who horses, none of his subjects were capable of went to the field, out of which they had to give riding them (2 Kings xviii. 23). And yet that every five hundredth individual to the priests, the Jewish monarchs sometimes employed chaNumb. xxxii. 26—29. (2) The other half went riots in their armies is evident from several pasto the rest of the Israelites, with the deduction sages in the books of Kings, Chronicles, &c. of every fiftieth individual for the Levites, ver. Those used by the Canaanites are called “chariots 30. 2. Things inanimate belonged to the indi- of iron” (Judg. i. 19), because their poles, wheels, vidual who seized them, ver. 48–54. David and axles were armed with sharp scythes. enacted a wise and equitable law relative to the 11. The qualifications of a Hebrew warrior division of spoil in the army; giving equally to were so very different from those which are conthose who fought, and those who remained with sidered essential in modern times, that we are at the stuff or baggage, 1 Sam. xxx. 24, 25. a loss, without a knowledge of this circumstance,

* See liad, X.,

150–155. + Vichaelis on the Laws of Moses, vol. iii., pp. 37–53.

See Macknight on Eph. vi. 17, and Brown's Antiquities of the Jews, vol. ii., p. 419.


of a

to understand the propriety of some of the com- pomp of a Roman triumph were of the most magmendations bestowed upon them in the Old Tes- nificent description. After a decisive battle tament writings. The discipline of modern gained, and the complete conquest of a kingdom, tactics was unknown in ancient times, when the the most illustrious captives in war-kings, meanest soldier had an opportunity of distin- princes, and nobles, with their wives and children, guishing himself by his strength and agility. His were, with the last dishonour and ignominy, led bodily strength, if great, enabled him to bear in fetters before the general's chariot, through the down his opponent; and when that was wanting, public streets of Rome, which were crowded by his dexterity in the use of arms, his pretended all classes of persons, in the highest excesses of flight and sudden return, were all employed to joy. On these occasions, indeed, Rome was a deceive and defeat his adversary; whilst the scene of universal festivity: the temples were all closeness of the combat rendered the disarming thrown open, were adorned with garlands, and or death of his antagonist the only means of pre- filled with clouds of incense and the richest

perserving himself. Bodily strength, therefore, com- fumes; the spectators were clothed in white

garplete presence of mind, experience in the art of ments, hecatombs of victims were slain, and war, and swiftness as a roe, when swiftness was most sumptuous entertainments were given. The necessary, either to pursue after or avoid the foe, illustrious captives, after having been dragged were indispensable ingredients in an ancient through the city in this procession, and thus warrior; whilst his eye acquired an animation, publicly exposed, were generally imprisoned, frenis countenance an expression, his voice a variety quently strangled and dispatched in dungeons, of cadence, and his whole frame a degree of ath or sold for slaves. // The first allusion to such a etic force, which are in vain sought for in the spectacle is in Col. ü. 15, where the Redeemer is mechanical

modern army. Nor should represented as a great conqueror, who, after having we forget that the valour of the Jews had totally vanquished and subjugated all the empires often peculiar motives to strengthen it, viz., the and kingdoms of false religion, and overturned motives of religion ; for they frequently went to the mighty establishments of Judaism and Pathe field under the immediate direction of Je- ganism, supported by the great and powerful, hovah, and with the positive assurance of suc- celebrates a most magnificent TRIUMPH over them, cess. It is well known, that for the purpose of leads them in procession, openly exposing them to keeping the military disembarrassed from the the view of the whole world, as the captives of cares and distractions of secular life, the Romans his omnipotence, and the trophies of his gospel! prohibited marriage to their soldiery. To this the “Having spoiled principalities and powers, he apostle refers, 2 Tim. ii. 4: “No one that warreth made a show of them openly, triumphing over entangleth himself with the affairs of this life; them!" $ The second passage, whose beautiful that he may please him who hath chosen him to and striking imagery is taken from a Roman be a soldier."

triumph, occurs 2 Cor. ii. 14-26 : “Now thanks 12. The return of the conquering army has be unto God, who always causeth us to triumph ever been an occasion of the most enthusiastic in Christ, and maketh manifest the savour of his rejoicing. The circumstances attending the re- knowledge by us in every place. For we are turn of Jephthah (Judg. xi. 34), the victory of unto God a sweet savour of Christ, in them that David over Goliath, and the defeat of the Philis- are saved, and in them that perish : to the one tines (1 Sam. xviii. 6, 7), as also that of Judith we are a savour of death unto death; and to the over the Assyrians (Judith xvi. 1–17), are well other, of life unto life.” In this passage, God is known to every reader of the Bible. On a represented, in very striking language and sentisimilar occasion was that beautiful lyrical com- ment, as leading the apostles in triumph through position, known as the Song of Moses (Ex. xv.), also composed.t But there are several beautiful allusions to the return of a triumphant army in the writings of the New Testament, which must || A translation of Plutarch's minute description of the not here be passed over. I The splendour and triumphal procession of Paulus Æmilius, who took Persens,

king of Macedon, prisoner, and put a final period to that an

cient empire, may be seen in Kennett's Antiquities of Rome, * Brown's Antiq., vol. ii., + A metrical translation of this song may be seen in Critica $ The original is, leading them in triumph. Biblica, vol. i., pp. 319, 320.

The original here, also, is leadeth us about in triumph. For the remarks which follow, we are indebted to Dr. “ 'The Greek word, which we render causeth us to triumph, Harwood.

properly signifies to triumph over, or to lead in triumph, as

p. 228, &c.

p. 458.

the world, showing them every where as the | as well as of religion ; and therefore the tithes, monuments of his grace and mercy, and by their and the portion of sacrifices which the law asmeans diffusing in every place the odour of the signed for their maintenance, were in the nature knowledge of God; in reference to a triumph, of taxes payable for the support of the governwhen all the temples were filled with fragrance, ment. Besides these, we read of no other stated and the whole air breathed perfume. And the taxes, appointed by the law, except a poll-tax of apostle, continuing the allusion, adds, that this half a shekel, which, when the people were numodour would prove the means of the salvation of bered in the wilderness, was levied upon every some and destruction of others—as in a triumph, man from twenty years old and upwards; and it after the pomp and procession were concluded, is said to be designed for “a ransom, or atonesome of the captives were put to death, others | ment for his soul,” and to be “appointed for the saved alive.*

service of the tabernacle of the congregation," 13. Among the other military honours and Exod. xxx. 12—16. This tax, however, appears recompences, rich and splendid crowns,t fre- only to have been resorted to as circumstances requently of gold, were publicly bestowed on the quired, until the later periods of the Jewish hisillustrious conqueror,

and upon every man who, i tory, when it became a stated annual payment, || acting worthy the Roman name, had distinguished and was demanded of our Saviour, Matt. xvii. 24.3 himself by his valour and his virtue. In allusion 2. After the captivity, the Jews were tributary, to this custom, how beautiful and striking are first to the Persians (Ezek. iv. 13, vii. 24), and those many passages of Scripture which represent then to the Greeks ; from the latter of whom the Saviour, before angels and the whole assem- they were freed by the Maccabees, 1 Mac. x. 29, bled world, acknowledging and applauding dis- 30; xi. 35, 36, &c. When Pompey conquered tinguished goodness, and publicly conferring Judea (about ante A. D. 60), the Jews became crowns of immortal glory upon persevering and tributary to the Romans; and in the reign of victorious holiness. See 2 Tim. iv. 8; James i. ! Augustus (A. D. 8) Judea was reduced into a 12; 1 Pet. v. 4; Rev. ii. 10.

Roman province, and the people were laid under a direct tax to the state, according to a census

held by P. Sulpicius Quirinus, while Coponius was SECTION IV.

Procurator of Judea. See Luke ïi. 2; Acts v. 37. To this tribute the Jews submitted with the

utmost reluctance; and it gave rise to several 1. Under Moses.-II. After the Captivity.-III. The Pub- tumults and insurrections. Our Saviour expressly licans.

enjoined upon them the obligation to pay it, in 1. As the law of Moses was the only body of which he was followed by his inspired apostles, law enacted by God, the King of Israel

, for the Matt. xxii. 17—21 ; Rom. xiii. 8; 1 Pet. ii. 13. government both of church and state, and as the

3. The collectors of the Roman taxes in Judea priests were appointed to dispense it, they are

are well known to every reader of the New Tesproperly to be considered the ministers of state, tament, under the appellation of Publicans. Of

these there appear to have been two kinds; the

collectors of the taxes, and the receivers-general. our translators themselves have rightly rendered it in another Of the latter order was Zaccheus, who is called a place, Col. ii. 15. And so the apostle's true meaning is plainly “ chief publican,” Luke six. 2. this: Now thanks be to God, who always triumpheth over us

From the extorin Christ ; leading us about in triumph, as it were, in solemn tion and rapacity which was too generally pracprocession. This yields a most congruous and beautiful sense tised by the inferior order of these officers, added of his words. And in order to display the force of this fine to the odium which attached to such an employsentiment, in its full compass and extent, let it be observed, ment in the estimation of the Jews, they were that when St. Paul represents himself and others as being led about in triumph, like so many captives, by the prevailing held in the utmost contempt; so that a “pubpower and efficacy of gospel grace and truth, his words natu- lican," and a “sinner,” or a notoriously profligate rally imply and suggest three things worthy of particular notice character, were synonymous terms in the time of and attention, viz., a contest, a victory, and an open show of this victory.”_“While God was leading about such men in triumph, he made them very serviceable and successful in promoting Christian knowledge in every place wherever thev

H Josephus, Jew. Wars, b. vii., c. 6. came."— Breckell's Discourses, pp. 141, 142, 151.

$ That this was the tribute demanded of our Lord is evident, • Harwood's Introduction, vol. ii., pp. 29–34.

as Jennings remarks, from the reason alleged by bim why he

might have been excused from paying it (ver. 25, 26), and which + See Kennett's Rom. Ant., p. 224, &c.

would not hold good were it a tribute paid to the Roman Em: Harwood, vol. ii., pp. 56, 57.

peror, as Salmasius and others have thought.


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