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right and left hand. Paul was at first so confined. I the next morning there was no small confusion When the tribune received him from the hands of among the soldiers, who were appointed his guards, the Jews, he commanded him to be bound with and to whom he was chained, as to what had betwo chains, Acts xxi. 33. In this manner was come of Peter, Acts xii. 18. Whence it appears Peter fettered and confined by Herod Agrippa : that this deliverance had been effected without their
“ The same night Peter was sleeping between knowledge, when they were sunk in repose. Upon two soldiers, bound with two chains,” chap. xii. 6. which Herod, after making a fruitless search for It further
appears, that if the soldiers, who were him, ordered all those who had been intrusted with thus appointed to guard criminals, and to whom his custody, to be put to death, ver. 19. See also they were chained, suffered the prisoner to escape, Acts xvi. 27.* they were punished with death. Thus, when Peter was delivered out of prison by a miracle, * Harwood's Introd., vol. ii., pp. 207-211.
§ 3. A Harmony of the Mosaic Lan,
ARRANGED UNDER PROPER HEADS, WITH REFERENCES TO THE SEVERAL PARTS OF THE PENTATEUCH, WHERE THE RESPECTIVE LAWS ARE
FOUND. FROM A MANUSCRIPT IN THE LIBRARY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST'S COLLEGE, PRESENTED BY ARCHBISHOP LAUD,
THE MORAL LAW, WRITTEN ON THE TWO TABLES, CONTAINING THE TEN COMMANDMENTS.
of their office in offering ; which function, largely spreading itself, is divided into these
heads: What the sacrifices ought to be Of the continual fire Of the manner of the burnt-offerings of the manner of the peace-offerings Of the manner of the sacrifices, according to
their several kinds, viz., For sin committed through ignorance of the
law For sin committed through ignorance of the
were several kinds observed by the priests : Of the consecration of the high-priest, and
struments of the tabernacle Of the continual
were divers, and had peculiar rites, dis-
26. 12, 14, 26.
13, 22, 24.
7, 17, 10.
The magistrate is the keeper of the precepts of both tables, and to have respect to human society; therefore
the Political Laws of the Israelites are referred to both the tables, and are to be reduced to the several precepts of
THE MORAL LAW.
LAWS REFERRED TO THE First TABLE, NAMELY,
I. To the First and Second Commandments, viz., Of idolaters and apostates
20. Of abolishing idolatry
23, 24. Of diviners and false prophets
19, 20. Of covenants with other gods
II. To the Sixth Commandment, viz.,
24. Of manslaughter, unwittingly committed ; and of the cities of refuge
21. Of heinous injury
24. Of punishments, not capital Of the law of war
III. To the Seventh Commandment, viz.,
19, 20. 22.
Of unlawful marriages
18, 20. is, 20.
21, 22, 24, 25.
bearing arms. Hence, out of those who were thus qualified to serve in the militia, Moses gene
rally orders the selection of a certain number, The wbole Hebrew Nation liable to be called to Arms: Exemptions from Military Service - Strength of the Israelitish suitable to the service required, Exod. xvii. 9, Armies— Military Oficers-Order of Battle and of Encamp-10, &c.; Numb. xxxi. 146. There are two ment- Treatment of Enemies-Division of the Spoil— Arms memorable instances on record, however, where -Chariots—Qualifications of a Warrior— Return of a Con- the whole people took the field, Judg. xx. 11; 1 quering Army-Reward of the Victors.
Sam. xi. 7.7 1. The maxim of ancient states, Quot cives, tot 2. The following exemptions from military sermilites—whoever would be defended, must defend, vice were allowed by the Mosaic law :-(1) Whowas, as Michaëlis remarks, so fully established ever had built a house, and had not yet occupied in the Mosaic code, that we find every man of it, was at liberty to return, lest, falling in battle, twenty years old and upwards distinguished by another should enjoy the fruits of his labour, this epithetical characteristic, that he goes forth to Deut. xx. 5. (2) Whoever had planted a vinerar, Numb. i. 3, 45, xxvi. 2.* It is hardly to be yard or olive-yard, and had not yet eaten of its supposed, however, that the services of a whole produce freely, was exempt for the same reason, nation would ever be required for the purpose of Deut. xx. 6. This statute exempted the estab
lisher of a vineyard or olive-yard for five whole
* The melancholy circumstances attending the military execution of the inhabitants of Jabesh-Gilead, simply because they did not join the Israelitish armies, as related in Judges xxi. + An interesting paper on the practice alluded to in these pas8-13, show with what rigour the law was, in this respect, pat sages may be seen in the Critica Biblica, vol. üi., pp. 489— in force.
years. For if a tree bore fruit the first year, it | 380,000, making a total of 1,160,000, besides could not be used for food before the fifth year of those in the fenced cities to garrison them, 2 its growth. During the first three years it could Chron. xvii. 14—18. not be eaten at all; and in the fourth year
4. The officers in the Israelitish armies were consecrated to God, and could only be eaten at (1) The Generalissimo, or commander-in-chief; the sacred feasts, Lev. xix. 23—25. (3) Who called, also, the captain of the Lord's host : such ever had betrothed a wife, but had not yet con- as, Joshua under Moses, Abner under Saul, Joab summated marriage, was likewise exempted, lest under David, and Benaiah under Solomon. (2) he should fall in battle, and another take his The princes of the tribes, or of the fathers, or of the bride, Deut. xx. 7. (4) Every new-married man families of Israel, who were at the head of their was, during the first year after marriage, freed respective tribes. (3) Princes of a thousand, or trifrom military service, and all other personal bur- bunes, captains of a hundred, heads of fifty men, dens. (5) Whoever was fearful and faint-hearted thirdsmen, whose functions are unknown, and was allowed to retire, that he might not infect decurions, or chiefs of ten men. (4) Scribes, or others with cowardice, Deut. xx. 8. The four muster-masters, who kept exact registers of all former immunities, independent of their manifest who bore arms in their districts. (5) Inspectors, equity, were attended with two very great politi- or provosts, who had authority to command the cal benefits, in promoting, first, marriages, and troops under their inspection, and to punish desecondly, the culture of the soil, which are never linquents. It was quite common for the kings to more necessary than in the time of war. The go to war in person, and in the earlier times they latter ground of exemption, however, was not fought on foot. After Solomon had introduced quite so honourable. It must have cost a coward cavalry into his armies, they headed their troops a great struggle to avail himself of it; and no in chariots. See the Kings and Chronicles, doubt many, rather than do so, would repress throughout. their fears, and, of course, fight so much the 5. We have no certain information of the prebetter.*
cise manner in which the Israelitish armies were 3. The Israelitish armies being thus levied on drawn up for battle. The Jewish writers state the nation, en masse, it is easy to see how they that the whole army was ranged into one single were able to bring such large numbers into the line, twenty or thirty deep. In the front of these field. Thus they mustered 400,000 footmen to were placed the light infantry, viz., the archers, revenge the perfidy and cruelty of the Benja- slingers, and spearmen, who commenced the onset mites, Judges xx. 17. When Saul marched with a warlike shout, and with a shower of arrows against the Ammonites he had 330,000 (1 Sam. and stones directed against the enemy's front. It xi. 8), and when he went to destroy Amalek, he is probable that the cavalry was disposed in large had 210,000, ch. xv. 4. It was not till a later squadrons on the two wings. Before the battle period in their history, however, that the Is- commenced, the following ceremonies were obraelitish armies assumed a regular warlike cha- served :-(1) The priest approached the army, racter, and became, as a whole, properly effective. and said, “ Hear, O Israel, ye approach this day They were called out from their agricultural occu- into battle against your enemies ; let not your pations, according to the exigency of the times, hearts faint ; fear not, and do not tremble, neieach one bringing his own arms and provisions ;t ther be ye terrified because of them ; for the Lord and after the termination of the war, which was your God is He that goeth with you, to fight for seldom more than short skirmishes with the you against your enemies, and to save you.” (2) surrounding nations, they were disbanded, and The officers then proclaimed the exemptions from returned to their homes, 1 Sam. xi., xiii. The military service which have been enumerated earliest instance on record of any military force above, and then (3) The whole who remained being kept in time of peace, is in the reign of were led forward to the battle, the method of Saul, 1 Sam. xiii. 1, 2. This force was evidently which was directed as circumstances permitted. augmented during the reigns of the subsequent Before the invention of fire-arms, fenced cities kings; for in Jehoshaphat's reign the military were of the utmost importance, and on them the force in Judah was 780,000, and in Benjamin greatest dependance was placed. When the Is
raelites were about to besiege a city, they either * Michaelis on the Laws of Moses, vol. iii., pp. 26-37.
drew lines of circumvallation, to prevent escape, + On some occasions one part of the army foraged for the or hewed down trees, and built forts against them rest
, Judges 21. 10. And it was sometimes the case that part round about (2 Kings xxv. 1 ; 2 Sam. xvii. 20; of the nation remained at home, to provide provisions for those Isa. xxix. 3 ; Jer. vi. 6); or planted battering who marched against the enemy. See 1 Sam. xvii. 13, 17; and Josephus, Jewish Wars, b. ii., ch. 20.
rams and other engines of destruction (Jer. vi. 6