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A. M. Olymp. U. C. 4706 3996 193-1 746 8 Augustus corrects the calendar, by ordering the twelve ensuing years to
pass without intercalation; the month Sextilis receives the name of Augustus, by a decree of the senate.—A census at Rome : 4,233,000 citizens.—The temple of Janus shut, in consequence of a universal
peace. 4708 3998 3 748 6 Tiberius invested with the tribunate for five years; but, jealous of the
favour shown by Augustus towards the sons of Agrippa, he retires in disgust to Rhodes.-Conception of John the Baptist announced to his
father Zacharias. 4703 3999 4 749 5 Our Lord and Saviour JESUS Christ born at Bethlehem, in Judea, on
Monday, the 25th of December (according to the Romish church), four years and six days before the common era.
.-Q. Varus appointed governor of Syria, and Cyrenius of Jude.-A comet seen in China. 4710 4000 194-1 750 4 Jesus Christ circumcised on the 1st of January (according to the church
of Rome): the wise men, or magi of the East, guided by a star, arrive
in Judea to make their offerings. 4711 4001 2 751 3 Joseph and Mary take the holy child into Egypt, during which Herod
cruelly orders all infants under two years of age to be slaughtered,
hoping that among them Jesus might perish. 4712 4002
2 Herod dies on the 25th of November, and the Roman emperor and senate
divide his kingdom among his sons : Herod Archelaus has Judea, Idumea, and Samaria, with the title of ethnarque, or prince; Herod Antipas is created tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, or the country beyond Jordan ; and Philip is made tetrarch of Trachonitis and the adjacent country.- Joseph and Mary return from Egypt, and settle at Nazareth, in Galilee.-Augustus banishes Julia, widow of Agrippa, to the little isle of Pandatarium, off Campania, on account of her incontinence.
Caius Cæsar goes as general in the Armenian war. 4713 4003 4 753 1 An interview, in the island of Samos, between Caius Cæsar and Tiberius,
whereby their mutual aversion is rather increased.
FROM THE CHRISTIAN ERA TO THE DESTRUCTION OF THE WESTERN EMPIRE : 476 YEARS.
FIRST CENTURY OF THE VULGAR CHRISTIAN ERA.
Augustus in the 32nd year of his reign.—Caius Cæsar makes peace with the
Augustus, dies at Marseilles.
wound received in Armenia.
with the tribunate.-Cinna’s conspiracy detected.—The temple of Janus re-opened, in consequence of fresh disturbances in Germany, whither Tiberius repairs.—Bissextile, or leap-year, which had been observed every third year, changed to every
Tiberius and his nephew Germanicus are sent.
plained, is deposed, and his dominions added to the province of Syria ; Coponius
Acts v. 37.
doctors in the temple, in April, the passover being ended. - The Pannonians
Three legions, under Varus, cut to pieces in Germany, by Arminius; Varus stabs
himself, and the barbarians send his head to Augustus. Tiberius reduces the Germans, for which service Augustus makes him his colleague
in the empire, August 28.
August, aged 76, and is succeeded by Tiberius.
magicians expelled Rome.-Conspiracy of Drusus discovered.
--Germanicus triumphs for his successes in Germany, May 26.—The first African
war, under Tacfarinus, begins, and continues four years. The city of Tiberias, in Galilee, built by Herod Antipas.-A new island appears in
the Archipelago.-Germanicus goes on an expedition to the East.
Caiaphas high-priest of the Jews.—The Jews banished Rome.
Blesus, which ends the war.
Sejanus.—John the Baptist begins his ministry in the wilderness of Judea; and,
about 30 years of age.--Pontius Pilate made governor of Judea. A conflagration at Rome consumes all the quarter of Mount Celius.—50,000 persons
said to have been killed by the fall of an amphitheatre at Fidena. John the Baptist beheaded about this time, by order of Herod Antipas. Our Saviour Jesus Christ crucified by the Jews, on Friday, April 15; rises from the
grave on the following Sunday, April 17; and ascends to heaven on Thursday, the
26th of May.-Peter's sermon on the day of Pentecost, 5th June. Ananias and Sapphira struck dead for their hypocrisy. Sejanus disgraced, and put to death.—Nero, eldest son of Germanicus, dies.
Stephen, the first Christian martyr, stoned to death by the Jews, Saul of Tarsus
assisting.--A great persecution of the followers of Christ in Judea ensues. Philip baptizes the Ethiopian eunuch. Saul of Tarsus, converted, becomes an eminent preacher and apostle, better known
by the name of Paul.–Drusus, son of Germanicus, dies. Peter cures Eneas of the palsy, at Lydda, and restores Tabitha to life, at Joppa. A fire at Rome destroys part of the circus, and the quarter of Mount Aventine.
Tiberius declares himself friendly to the followers of Christ, but is prevented by
the senate from enrolling Jesus among the gods.
succeeded by Caligula, son of Germanicus.—Disgrace and death of Pontius Pilate.
Germanicus. Seneca banished to Corsica.- Mauritania reduced, and made a
imprisoned, by Herod Agrippa, at Jerusalem. Vespasian, having fought 30 battles
establishes himself in the Isle of Wight. A dreadful famine, foretold by Agabus, Acts xi. 28, rages in Judea at this time. Thrace becomes a Roman province. A new island, called Therasia by Seneca,
appears in the Ægean sea. The Secular games celebrated at Rome.-Caractacus, the British king, conquered by
the Romans.-Claudius adds three new letters to the Roman alphabet, of which the names of two only remain, viz., the Æolic diganma, answering to our v, and
the antisigma, answering to ps.-Claudius puts many noble Romans to death, to
gratify his wife Messalina.—The canal between the Rhine and the Maese cut. The empress Messalina, having filled Rome with her debaucheries, publicly marries
Caius Silius, during the emperor's life-time, for which they are both put to death
by Claudius.--The Gauls admitted into the senate. Miserable death of Herod Agrippa, Acts xii. 23.–Seneca recalled from banishment,
and made preceptor to Nero Cæsar, son of the empress Agrippina.
hold a council at Jerusalem.—St. Paul preaches at Athens.-Astrologers expelled
empress, and grandson of Germanicus.
Paul pleads at Cæsarea, before Felix, governor of Judea, Syria, &c.
court of Rome ; soon afterwards, he preaches before. Herod Agrippa, king of the
Jews.--A remarkable comet appears.
London ; but is soon afterwards conquered by Suetonius, and poisons herself in the
St. Mark, the Evangelist, dies about this time.--St. Paul, sent in bonds to Rome, by
sea, from Sidon, in the beginning of winter, is shipwrecked at Melita, or Malta : the ensuing spring he pursues his voyage, and arrives
in Italy. A great earthquake on the 5th of February destroys part of the city of Pompeii
, at the foot of Vesuvius, and greatly damages Herculaneum. The city of Rome, set on fire by Nero, burns for six days ; upon which the first
Gentile persecution of the Christians begins.—The Jews begin their revolt by pelting
the governor Florus with stones. Seneca, Lucan, and many other eminent characters, put to death, at Rome. - The
city of Lyons destroyed by fire. Nero goes into Greece, and holds public trials of skill with tragedians, musicians,
dancers, and charioteers.—The Jewish war begins in May, under Vespasian, in consequence of Nero having decided the controversy relative to Cæsarea, in favour
of the Syrians. Simon Magus, founder of the sect of Gnostics, causes St. Peter and St. Paul to be
cast into prison, and shortly afterwards put to death, the former by crucifixion, the latter by decapitation.--Vespasian defeats the Jews, and takes Josephus, the lis
torian, prisoner. Nero, deposed by the senate, kills himself, and Galba is proclaimed. Civil wars between Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian; the latter remains master
of the empire.— The temple of Jupiter Capitolinus destroyed by fire. Vespasian orders the capitol to be rebuilt, the first stone of which is laid on the
21st of June.— Titus, son of Vespasian, takes Jerusalem, on the 7th of September, which puts an end to the Jewish war. The city and temple are levelled with the
ground, and the lands of Judea sold. Vespasian triumphs for his victories over the Jews.—The temple of Janus is shut, for
the sixth time, the empire being at peace.
Although the Table No. III. gives a full as well as a synchronical view of the reigning princes in all the countries connected with Scripture history, it is scarcely explicit enough in showing the succession of the Asmoneans and Herodians in Judea. The following will supply the information, which is of some importance to a clear perception of those periods of the Jewish history during which these princes flourished :
AGRIPPA I., imprisoned Peter, put to death James, brother of John, and was himself struck with death, publicly, Acts xii.
first the wife of Phi-
AGRIPPA II., before whom Paul pleaded.
the proconsul, before
FORMS OF GOVERNMENT.
ALTHOUGH it forms no part of our object to give followers as the lieutenant of the Lord of Hosts. an analysis or summary of the Scripture narrative, In truth, the martial labours to which his office there are some two or three topics connected with called him, placed the successor of Moses at the the history of the Hebrews that call for distinct head of his countrymen in the quality of a general, notice, inasmuch as a knowledge of them is inti- guiding them on their march, or forming their mately connected with the interpretation of the array in the field of battle, rather than as a teacher Scriptures. Of these, the principal are, Forms of of wisdom, or the guardian of a peculiar faith and Government, Jurisprudence and Legal Procedure, worship. Until the conquered lands were divided and Military and Fiscal Affairs ; each of which among the victorious tribes, Joshua was a soldier, may properly furnish the subject of a section.
and nothing more; while, on the other hand, the congregation of the Hebrews, who seconded so
well his military plans, appear at that juncture on SECTION I.
page of history in no other light than that of veteran troops, rendered hardy by long service in
a parching climate, and formidable by the arts of Patriarchal – Theocratical - The Hebrew Commonwealth
Tributary Condition of the Hebrews-Of the Maintenance of discipline, under a skilful and warlike leader. the Kings.
From the exode, in short, till towards the end of
Joshua's administration, we lose sight of that 1. The earliest form of government among the simple scheme of domestic superintendence which Hebrews, of which we have any knowledge, was Jacob established among his sons. The princes of the patriarchal, as exercised by Abraham, Isaac, tribes, and the heads of families, were converted and Jacob. It is quite natural to suppose that into captains of thousands, of hundreds, and of Adam, the progenitor of mankind, would be ac- fifties'; regulating their movements by the sound knowledged as supreme among his children, and of the trumpet, and passing their days of rest that the authority he exercised over them would amid the vigilance and formality of a regular enbe unlimited. When his posterity separated into campment.* distinct families, the respective fathers of each 3. With the Levitical law, another and extratribe were acknowledged as princes, maintaining ordinary form of government was introduced, which the chief power and command, without being ac- has obtained the distinctive appellation of a theocountable to any other authority. They also offici- cracy; Jehovah assuming a marked and visible ated as priests in their respective families. This relation to the posterity of Abraham ; becoming form of government appears to have been con- their lawgiver, king, and judge. Under this chatinued, under some modifications, to the time when racter he gave the Law from Sinai, appointed Moses was invested with the supreme authority, judges and magistrates, made peace and war, and to liberate his oppressed brethren from the yoke of received the half-shekel as a tribute or revenue. Egypt; for during the negociations which preceded Whatever may have been the authority possessed their deliverance, the applications and messages by the various orders in the Jewish state, it stopped were all addressed to the patriarchal rulers of the short of making and promulgating the laws, which people. “Go, gather the Elders of Israel toge- was a prerogative retained by the divine Head of ther,” was the command of Jehovah to the son of the tribes :—“ Now, therefore, hearken, O Israel
, Amram, when the latter received authority to unto the statutes, and unto the judgments, which rescue the descendants of Isaac from the hand of I teach you, for to do them; that ye may live, and
the land which the Lord God of 2. During the pilgrimage in the wilderness, and your fathers giveth you. Ye shall not add unto more particularly when the tribes approached the the word which I command you, neither shall ye confines of the devoted nations of Canaan, the diminish ought from it, that ye may keep the original jurisdiction of the family chiefs was ren-commandments of the Lord your God which I dered subordinate to the military power of their inspired leader, who, as the commander of the armies of Israel, was obeyed and esteemed by his
Russell's Palestine, p. 47.
go in and