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been observed at the stated times; the seasons of era of contracts; because after they fell under Palestine, on which they depended, not answer the government of the Syro-Macedonian kings, ing to that purpose. To assign the reasons on they were forced to use it in all their contracts which this opinion is founded, however, would about civil affairs. When they were driven from occupy more space than can be devoted to it the East, A. D. 1040, they adopted the era of the here; reference is therefore made to another creation, which, according to their computation, work, where it will be seen that the present is in the present year of the Christian era (1836), Jewish calendar is carried up a month too high.* 5596. In writing, they generally contract this,

4. We have already stated that the Jews had by omitting the thousands, writing only 596. If two kinds of years, viz., the civil and the sacred. to the Jewish year, then, as usually expressed by (1) The civil year commenced with the month them, we add 1240, we get the year of the ChrisTizri, because it was an old tradition that the tian era, as 596+1240, gives 1836. world was created at that time. This is believed 2. The Jews, after their dispersion, having no to be the same with the patriarchal year; and by opportunities of regulating their feasts by the it the Jews computed all their civil affairs. (2) appearance of the moon, were obliged to have The sacred or ecclesiastical year commenced with recourse to astronomical calculations and cycles. the month Nisan, the seventh of the civil year, They at first employed a cycle of 84 years; but which was the time of their departure from this being found defective, they had recourse to Egypt; and all their religious matters were regu- a cycle of nineteen years, which had been invented lated by it. Lamy mentions two other Jewish by Meton, the illustrious Athenian philosopher, years ; viz., the year of cattle, which commenced who flourished A. A. C. 432. The authority of with the month Elul, when the beasts were this cycle was established by the rabbi Hillel tithed, and the tenth paid to the Levites ; and Hannasi about A. D. 360, and the Jews say

it is the year of trees, beginning with the month She- to be observed till the coming of the Messiah.|| beth, because they paid tithe-fruits of the trees 3. The editor of Calmet has shown that in which budded at that time.t

some parts of the East, particularly in Japan, the II. After the Babylonish captivity, the Jews year ending on a certain day, any portion of the complied with such methods of computing time preceding year is taken for a whole year ; so that, as were used by the nations to whom they were supposing a child to be born in the last week of subject--the Chaldeans, the Persians, and Grecians. December, it would be reckoned one year old on They probably took the names of their months the first of January. If this mode of compufrom the Chaldeans and Persians, and perhaps tation obtained among the Hebrews, which is their manner of dividing the year and months very likely, it will account for those anachronisms also. But we cannot be sure of this, not know- of single years, or parts of years taken as whole ing exactly the form of the Chaldean months. ones, which occur in the sacred writings. It

1. It has been a custom with the Jews to reckon removes the difficulties which concern the half their years from some remarkable eras in their years of several princes of Judah and Israel, in history, a knowledge of which is indispensable to which the latter half of the deceased king's last avoid mistakes in their chronology. From Gen. year has hitherto been supposed to be added to vii. 11, and viii. 13, it seems they reckoned from the former half of his successor's first year.g And the births of the patriarchs, that is, of the most the conjecture is greatly strengthened by observing eminent characters

among afterwards from that the Hebrews really adopted this principle the departure from Egypt (Numb. xxxiii. 38, when reckoning by days. Thus, “ three days and 1 Kings vi. 1); then from the building of Solo- three nights," the time during which our Saviour mon's temple (2 Chron. viï. 1); and also from is said to have remained in the tomb, included the reigns of their kings. See the Books of only a part of the two extreme days. I Kings and Chronicles throughout. Inlater times,

4. If the reader be desirous of seeing the comthe Babylonian captivity furnished them with a plete Jewish Calendar, containing the festivals, new epoch, whence they computed their time. fasts, &c., he will find it in a work already referred See Ezek. xxxiii. 21, xl. 1. At the retaking of Babylon by Seleucus, A. A. C. 312, they adopted

|| See Prideaux, vol. i., Pref. and sub. A. A. C. 162, 432. the era of the Seleucidæ, called by them the We have given this perpetual table in pp. 341 342.

Calmet's Bib. Ency., art. “ Year.”

We may farther observe, in support of this opinion, that * See Carpenter's Calendarium Palestinæ, pp. 39---75,

Aben Ezra, speaking of the law for circumcising an infant ou

the eighth day, says, if the infant was born but one hour before † Apparatus Biblicus, b. i., c. 5.

the first day was ended, it was counted for one wbole day.-Ad # Jennings's Jewish Antiq., b. i., c. 1.

Lev. xij. 3.

them;

to_Calendarium Palestino, in which is also in- | lunar cycle, 19; and if the new moons did not serted the principal events in the Scripture history, gain upon this cycle, Easter-day would always be in their chronological order.

upon the Sunday next following the full moon III. Besides the natural divisions of time into after the 21st of March. But in consequence of days, months, and years, there are others formed this anticipation, to which no proper regard was of the less obvious consequences of the planetary paid before the alteration of the style, the ecclerevolutions, which are called cycles, from the siastical Easter has frequently been a week difGreek xuxaos, a circle, because they contain a ferent from the true Easter. This cycle, which circulating period, at the expiration of which cer- was invented by Victorinus of Agintain, A. D. tain celestial phenomena return to the point 463, includes every possible variety of Easter. whence they originally set out. The most remark- IV. It may be necessary to say something of the able of these modes of computation are the fol- different eras used in computations. 1. By the lowing

Usherian

year

of the world the reader is to under1. THE CYCLE OF THE SUN, consisting of a rero- stand the chronological computation of Archlution of 28 years, in which time the days of the bishop Usher; who supposed that 4000 years months return again to the same days of the week; exactly had elapsed from the creation of the world as does likewise the sun's place to the same signs to the birth of Christ. 2. The Alexandrian Era and degrees of the ecliptic, in the same months, is that chronological computation which was used and on the same days of the months, so as not to by the people of Alexandria ; who began their vary one degree in a century. The leap-years also reckoning 5502 before the vulgar year of Christ, begin their course over again, with respect to the 1. 3. The Antiochan Era is a correction of the days of the week on which those of the months preceding, in the 4th century, by Pandorus, an fall. The first seven letters of the alphabet-A, Egyptian monk, and used by the people of AnB, C, D, E, F, G, have been employed to mark tioch; it differs only from the Alexandrian by the several days of the week; the first letter subtracting ten years. 4. The Constantinopolitan standing for the first day of January, and so on : Era is that still in use in the Greek church, which and as one of them must in course stand against reckons 5508 before the year 1 of the IncarSunday, it is called the Dominical or Sunday nation, according to the Vulgar Era. 5. The letter, for the year. As the Julian period of 365 Julian Period is a factitious era, conceived by days contains 52 weeks and one day, it is obvious Joseph Scaliger, to facilitate the reduction of the that it must begin and end on the same day of years of any given epoch to that of another. This the week (except in the case of leap-year); and period is the result of the Lunar and Solar Cycles, consequently, the next year must commence on and the Indic ms, multiplied by each other. the day following.

Thus : multiply 19 the Lunar Cycle, by 28 the 2. THE CYCLE OF THE Moon, called also the Solar Cycle, and the product will be 532; mulmetonic cycle and the golden number, consists of a tiply this sum by 15, the Cycle of the Indictions, revolution of 19 years, or 6940 days, at the end and you will have 7980 years, which constitute of which the conjunctions, oppositions, and other the Julian Period. The first year of the Vulgar aspects of the moon, are within an hour and a Era is placed in the 4714th year of the Julian half of being the same as they were at the com- Period: whence it follows, that to find any year mencement of the cycle. It is by this cycle that of our Lord in this Period, 4713 years must be certain festivals, as Easter, are fixed.

added to that year : e. g., to find the year of this 3. The Roman INDICTION consists of a revo- Period, answering to the year of our Lord 1812, lution of 15 years, and was used by the Romans add 4713, and you will have 6525, which is for indicating the times of certain payments of the year of the Julian Period sought. 6. The tribute made by the subjects to the government. Era of the Seleucidæ, sometimes improperly It is also called the pontifical indiction, because called the Era of Alexander, commenced 12 years employed by the popes in their bulls.

after the death of Alexander the Great, 312 years 4. THE CYCLE OF EPACTs need not be explained before the Incarnation, according to the vulgar here, further than to say, that by the epact of reckoning, and was properly the first year of the any year is understood the age of the moon on Syro-Macedonian empire. 7. By the year

before the 1st day of January of that year; or it is the Vulgar Era of Christ, is meant that correct the number of days elapsed since the last new chronological reckoning which showed that the

vulgar or common reckoning of the A. D., or year 5. THE CYCLE OF EASTER, Pascual Cycle, or of our Lord, is deficient not. less than four DIONYSIAN PERIOD, is a revolution of 532 years, years : so that the year 1812 should be, according found by multiplying the solar cycle, 28, by the I to strict chronological precision, 1816. 8. The

moon.

mode of computing by Olympiads derived its this was kept in commemoration of the entire suborigin from the institution of the Olympic Games, duction of Spain, by Augustus Cæsar, which took which were celebrated every four years, for five place in the year of Rome 715, or 39 years before successive days, at the time of the first full moon, the Vulgar Era of Christ. 13. The Julian Era, after the summer's solstice. They were held on or as it is sometimes called, the Era of Julius the banks of the river Alpheus, near Olympia, a Cæsar: this had for its foundation, the reformation city of Elis, from which they derived their name. of the Roman Calendar by Julius Cæsar: and The first Olympiad commenced 776 before the the change was made 45 years before the birth of Incarnation of our Lord. It need scarcely be Christ. Other Eras might have been noticed, but added, that each Ol; mpiad consists of four years ; those mentioned above were judged to be the hence the first, second, third, or fourth year of any most important. particular Olympiad. 9. Year of the building of V. On the subject of general chronology we Rome is an important Era among the Roman his- may remark, that considerable difference exists in torians : it commenced 753 years before the birth the chronology of the Hebrew Scriptures, the of Christ. 10. The year of Augustus, or years Samaritan Pentateuch, the Septuagint, and Joseafter the Battle of Actium, is the computation of phus, the adjustment of which has been attempted, time from the commencement of the Roman Em- with more or less success, by different learned PIRE, which took place after the Battle of Actium, men, whose works are referred to below. The 27 years before our Lord : from this time Augus- following tables may be found useful. tus became sole governor. 11. The Cæsarian Era of Antioch was a monument which the city of Antioch erected to the honour of Julius Cæsar, in

* Jackson's Chronological Antiquities, 3 vols., 4to, 1762 ;

Allen's Chain of Scripture Chronology, 4to., 1659; Bedford's commemoration of his victory at Pharsalia : this

Scripture Chronology, folio, 1730; Hales's Analysis of Chro was obtained 48 years before the commencement nology, 3 vols , 4to., 1809–1812. of the Christian Era. 12. The Spanish Era :

A PERPETUAL TABLE

SHEWING,

THROUGH THE COURSE OF THIRTEEN LUNAR CYCLES (WHICH EMBRACE EVERY POSSIBLE VARIATION), THE DAY OF THE WEE WITH WHICH THE JEWISH YEAR BEGINS, AND ON WHICH TH PASSOVER IS HELD; AS ALSO THE LENGTH OF THE MONTHS MARCHESVAN

AND CISL EU.

CYCLE CCXCIV.

CYCLE CCXCV.

CYCLE CCXCVI.

Year

Usberi. Rabbin.

Usheri- Rabbin

Year
Usheri- Rabbin-

Year 20 year ical year Year of of the ladex. an year ical year Year of of the

Index.
an year ical year Year of of the

Index. of the of the Christ. lunar

of the of the Christ.

lunar

of the of the Christ. lunar world. world.

cycle.
world. world.

cycle.
world. world.

cycle. 5812 5568

1808 1 7 P 3 5831 5587 1827 1 2 P 5 5850 5606 1846 1 5 d 7 5813 5569 1809 2 5 d 7 5832 5588

1828
2 7 P 3

5851 5607 1847 2 2 P 5
5570
5814

1810
E 3
2 D 5 5833

5589 1829 E 3 5 D 1 5852 5608 1818 E 37 D 3 5815 5571 1911

4 7 P 3 5634

5500
1830 4 3 d 5 5853 5609 1819

4 5 P 1
5816
5572 1812
5 5 d 7 5835 5591 1831 57 P 3

1850 5 3 d 5 5854

5610
5573
5517
1813 E 6 2 D 5 5836

5592
1832

E 65 D 1 5855 5611 1851 E 6 7 P 5
5818 5574 1814 7
7 P 3 5837 5593 1833 7 3 d 5 5856 5612

77 D1

1852 5819 5575 1815 E 8 5 P 3 5839 5594 1834 E87 P5 5857 5613 1853 E 8 3 d 7 5820 5576 1816 9 5 d 7 5839 5595 1835 9 7 P 3 5858 5614 1854 9 2 P 5 5821 5577 1817 10 2 D 3 5810 5596 1830 10 5 d 7 5859 5615

1855

107 P 3 5578 1818 5822 E11 5 P 3 5641 5597

1837

E11 12 D 5 5860 5616 1856 E11 5 D 1 5823 5579 1819 12 5 d 7 5842 5598 1838 12 17 P 3 5861 5617 1857 12 3 d 5

5580 5824

1820 13 2 P 5 5843 5599 1839 13 5 d 7 5862 5618 1858 13 7 P 3 5381 5825 1821 E 14 7 D 3 5814 5600

1810

E 14 2 P 7 5863 5619 1659 E 14 5 P 3 5826

5582 1822 15 5 d 7 5845 5601 1841 15 2 D 3 5861 5620 1860 15 5 d 7 5827 3583 1823 16 2 P 5 58-16 5602 1842 16 5 d 7 5805 5621 1861 16 2 D 3 5828 5584 1924 E 17 7 D 3 5817

5603
1843 E 17 12 P 7 5866 5622 1802

E 17

5 P 3 5829

5555 1825 18 5 P 1 5818 5604 1814 18 2 P 5 5867 5623 1803 18 5 d 7 5830 5586 1826 E 19 3 d 7 5849 5605 1845 E 19 7 D 3 5568

5624 1861 E 19 2 D 5

CYCLE CCXCVII.
CYCLE CCXCVIII.

CYCLE CCXCIX.
Usheri- Rabbin-

Year
Usheri- Rabbin

Year
Usheri- Rabbin-

Year
an yrar ical year Year of of the
Index. an year ical year Year of of the
Index. an year ical year Year of of the

Index.
of the
of the
Christ. lunar
of the of the Christ. lunar

of the of the Christ. lunar world. world.

cycle.
world world.

cycle.
world. world.

cycle.
5669 5625 1865
1 7 P 3 5888 56 H

1881
1 3 d 5 5907 5663 1903

1 7 ᎠᏗ 5970 5026 1866 2 5 d 7 5889 5615 1685 27 P 3 5908

5664 1904 2 3 d 5 5871 5627 1867 E 3 2 P 7 5890 50-16

1886 E 3 5 P 3 5909 5665

1905 E 37 P 5 5872 5628 1868 4 2 D 3 5891 5647 1887 4 5 d 7 5910

5600 1906 4 7 P 3 5629 5873 1869 5 5 P 1 5892 56-18 1888

5 2 D 3 5911 5667 1907 5 5 d 7 5874 5630 1870 E 6 3 d 7

5893 56 19 1889

E 6 5 P 3 5912 5668 1906 E 6 2 D 5 5875 5631 1871

7 2 P5 5891

5650 1890 7 5 d 7 5913 5609 1909 7 7 P 3
3876 5632 1872 E 8 7 D 3 5895 5651 1891 E 8 2 D 5 5914 5670 1910 E 8 5 D 1
5877 5633 1873
9 5 d 7 5896 5652

1992
9 7 P 3 5915

5671 1911 9 3 d 5 5878 5634 1874 10 2 P 5 5897

5653 1893 10 5 d 7 5916 5072 1912 10 7 P 3 3879 5635 1875 E11 7 D 3 5898 5654

1894

E 11 2 P 7 5917 5673 1913 E11 5 P 3 5880 5036 1876 125 P 1 5899 5655

1895 12 2 D 3 5918 5674 1914 12 5 d 7 5881 5637 1877 13 3 d 5 5900 5656 1896 13 5 P 1 5919 5675 1915 13 2 D 3 5882 5638 1878 E 14 7 P5 5901 5657 1897

E 14 3 d 7 5920 5676 1916 E 14 5 P 3 5883 5639 1879 157 P 3 5902

5658

1808 15 2 P 5 5921 5677 1917 15 5 d 7 3884 5640 1880 16 5 d 7

5903 5659

1899 16 7 D 1 5922 5678 1918 16 2 P5 5885 5641 1891 E 17 2 D 5 5904 5660 1900 E 17 3 d 7 5923 5679 1919 E 17 7 D 3 5866 5642 1882 18 T P 3 5905 5661 1901

18 2 P 5 5924 5680

1920

18 5 d 7 5887 5643 1883 E 19 5 D 1 5906 5662

1902

7 P5 5925 5681 1921 E 19 12 P 7

E 19

CYCLE CCC.

CYCLE CCCI.

CYCLE CCCII.

Year

Usheri- Rabbio

Year
Usheri- Rabbin-

Year

Usheri- Rabbin-
alı year ical year Year ofl of the
Index. lan year ical year Year of of the
Index. lan year ical year Year of of the

Index.
of the of the
Christ. lonar

of the
of the
Christ. lunar

of the of the

Christ. lunar world. world.

cycle.
world. world.

cycle.
world. world.

cycle.
59-26 5682 19-22
1 2 P5 5945 5701 1941

5 d 7 5964
5720 1960

1 7 P 3 5927 5683 1923 27 D1 5946 5702 1942 2 2 P 3 5965 5721 1961

2 5 d 7 5928 5681 1921 E 3 3 d 7 59447 5703

1913 E 3 7 D 3 5906 5722

1962 E 3 2 D 5 59-29 5685 1925 4 2 P5 5918 5704 19-14 4 5 d 7 5967 5723 1963 4 17 P 3 5930 5686 1926

5

7 P 3 5949 5705 1915 5 2 P 5 5968 5724 1964 5 5 7 5231 5687 1927 E 6 15 D 1 5950 5706 19-16 E 6 7 D 3 5969 5725 1965 E 62 P 7 5932 5688 1928

7 3 d 5 5951 5707 1917 7 5 P 1 5970 5726 1966 7 2 D 3 5933 5689 1929 E 8 7 P 5 5952

5708 1918 E 8 3 d 7

5971 5727 19967 E 8 5 P 3 5931 5690 1930 97 D 1 5953 5709 1949 9 2 P 5 5972 57:28 1968

9 5 d 7 5935 5691 1931 10 3 d 5 5954 5710 1950 10 17 D1 5973 5729

1969

10 2 P 5 5936 5692 1932 El 7 P5 5955 5711 1951

E 11
3 d 7 5974

5730

1970 E11 1 D 3 5337 5693 1933 12 7 P 3 5956 5712 1952 12 2 P 5 5975

5731

1971 12 5 d 7 5939

5694 1934 13 5 d 7 5957 5713 1953 13 7 P 3 5976 5732 1972 13 2 P 5 5939 5005 1935 E 14 2 D 5 5958 5714 1954 E 14 5 5 D 5977 5733 1973 E 14

7 D 3 5910 5696 1936 15 7 P 3 5959 5715 1955 15 3 d 5 5978 5734

1974 15 5 P 1 5911 5697 1937 16 5 d 7

5960
5716 1956 16 7 P 3 5979 5735

1975 16 3 d 5 5942 1938 E 17 2 P 7 5901 5717 1957 E 17 5 P 3 5980 5736

1976 E 17 7 P 5 5913 5699 1939 18 2 D 3 5962 5718 1958 18 5 d 7 5981 5737 1977 18 7 D 1 5914 5700 1940 E 19 5 P 3 5063 5710

1959 E 192 D 5 5982 5738 1978 E 19 3 d 7

341

Year

cycle.

CYCLE CCCIII.
CYCLE CCCIV.

CYCLE CCCV.
Usberi. Rabbin-

Year
Usberi- Rabbin-

Usheri

Year

Rabbinan year !cal year Year of of the

Index.
an ycar ical year Year of of the

Index.
an year ical year Year or of the

Index. of the of the Christ.

of the
lunar
of the

of ine
Christ. lunar
of the

lunar

Christ. world.

world.
world.
world.

world.
cycle.
world.

cycle. 5983 5739

1 2 P 5
1979
0002 5758 1998
1 5 d 7 6021 5777

1 12 D 3

2017 5981 5710 1980 27 13 0003 5759 1999 2 2 P 5

60-22
5778

25 d 7

2018 5985

E 35 D 1 6005741

5760 1981

2000

6023 E 3 17 P 5

5779 2019 E 3 2 P 7 5986 57-12 1982 4 3 d 5 6005 5761 2001

4 7 Di

5780 0024

20:20 4 2 P 5 5997 5743 1983 5 17 P 3 6006

5762 2002 5 13 5 6025 5781 2021 5 7 D1 5999 5741 1984 E 6 5 P3 6007 5763 2003 E 6 7 P5l 6026 5782

E 6 3 d 7

2022 5989 5745 1985 7 5 d 7 6008 5761 2004 7 7 P 3) 60-27 5783 2023 7 2 P 5 5990 57-16 1986 E 8 2 D 5 6009

5765
2005

E 8 5 D 1 6028 5781 2024 E87 D 3 5991 5747

9 7 P 3
1987
6010 5766 2006

3 d 5 6029

5785 20-25 9 5 P1 5992 57-18 1988 10 5 d 7 6011 5767 2007 10 7 P 3 | 6030 5786 2026 10 3 d 5 5993 5749

E11
1089
2 D 5 6012 5768 2008 E11 5 P 3| 6031 5787

7 P5

2025 5991 5750

127 P 3
1090
6013 5769 2009

12

5 7 6032 5789 2028 127 P 3 5995 5751 1991 13 5 d 7 6011 5770 2010

5 d 7 5996 5752

E11

2 D 3 6033

13
5789 2029

E14 2 P 7
1992
6015 5771 2011 E 14 15 P 3

5790
603-4

E 14 2 D 5

2030 5997 5753

15
1993
2 D 3 6016 5772 2012 15 5 d 7

6035 5791 2031 15 11 P 3 5998 5754

16
1991
5 P 1 6017 5773 2013

5792
16 2 P 5| 6036

2032 16 5 d 7 5999 5755

1995
E 17
3 d 7 6018
5774 2014 E 17 7 D 3 6037

5793

2033 E 17 2 D5 6000 3756

18
1990
2 P 5 6019
5775 2015 18
5 d 7 6033 5794

2034

18 7 P 3 6001 5757

E 19

7 D 3
1997
60-20 5776 2016 E 19 2 P 7

5795 2035 E 19 5 P 3

ܝܬ

6039

CYCLE CCCVI.

CYCLE CCCVI.

Usheri- Rabbin

Year
Usheri- Rabbin-

Year
an year ical year Year of of the

Index.
an year ical year Year of of the

Index.
of the of the Christ.

lunar

of the of ihe Christ lunar
world. world.

cycie.
world. world.

cycle.
60-10 5796 2036

1 5 d 7 6050 5806 2016 El 3 d 7 6041 5797 2037 2 ]2 D 3 6051 5807 20-17

12 2 P 5
6042 5798 2038 E 35 P 3 6052 5808 2018 13 7 D 1
6013 5799 2039 4 5 d 7 6053 5809 20-19 E14 3 d 7
60 14 3800 2010 5 2 P 5 6054 5810 2050 15 2 P 5
6045 5801

2011
E 6 17 D 3 6055

5811 2051 16 7 P 3
60-16 5802 2012

7 5 d 7 6056 5812 2052 E17 5 DI 6047 5803 2043 E 82 P7 6057 5813

2053 18 13 d 5 6018 5804 2044 9 12 D 3 6058 5814

E 19

7 P5 6049 5805 2045 10 5 P 11

2051

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