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10–14. After the blood had been thus disposed | individuals only varied in some few trifling cirof, the victim was flayed, deprived of the fat, and cumstances from this ; except that the whole of laid wholly naked and open ; the various parts to the carcase, after the fat and inwards had been be burned were then salted, and thrown into the burned, belonged to the priest, Lev. vi. 24–29. fire to be utterly consumed, Lev. ï. 13; i. 8. To We must not forget, while treating of the sinthe custom of flaying the animal, and exhibiting offering, that our Saviour is often spoken of units inward parts to full view, there is a most ex- der that character, particularly in Rom. viii. 3 ; pressive and beautiful allusion in the Epistle to 2 Cor. v. 21 ; Heb. ix. 28. Indeed, in the Epistle the Hebrews : “The word of God is quick and to the Hebrews sin-offerings are clearly applied as powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, types of Christ : “For the bodies of those beasts, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and whose blood was brought into the sanctuary by spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a the high-priest for sin, were burnt without the discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart. camp; wherefore Jesus also, that he might sancNeither is there any creature that is not manifest tify the people with his own blood, suffered within his sight, but all things are naked and opened out the gate,” Heb. xii. 11, 12. unto the


of him with whom we have to do," 3. Trespass-offerings were of two kinds; doubtiv. 12.* Such was the manner in which the ful and undoubted. The former were offered in bullocks, rams, and goats were sacrificed. The cases where the consciences of the offerers surmethod of flaying the turtle doves and the young mised that they had committed a sin, while their pigeons was somewhat different. The person who understandings were in doubt; the latter, like brought these presented them to the priest, who most other piacular sacrifices, were appointed for offered up one of them for a sin-offering, and the the purgation of certain corporeal impurities, as other for a burnt-offering.

well as for the expiation of trespasses, properly 2. Sin-offerings were appointed for sins of so called. The cases in which they were offered ignorance against negative precepts (Lev. iv. 2, were five; viz., for things stolen, unjustly gotten 13, 22, 27), either for the whole congregation, or or detained ; for sacrilege ; for violating the chasfor individual persons. It is true, there are some tity of a bondmaid; for a Nazarite ; and for a leper, sin-offerings that do not exactly come under the Lev. vi. 2–7; Numb. v. 5–8; Lev. v. 16; xix. description here given of them; such as the sin- 20–22; Numb. vi. 2–21; Lev. xiv. 12. The offering of Aaron on his consecration (Lev. ix. 2); person who brought the sacrifice placed his hands the sin-offering of the woman at her purification on the head of the animal, between the horns, (xii. 6); and of the leper at his cleansing, xiv. 19. and confessed his sins, saying, “I have sinned, I This, however, was their general character. Of have done iniquity, I have trespassed, and done the sin-offering for the whole congregation we thus and thus (specifying the sin of which he have an account in Lev. iv. 13–21, where a had been guilty), and do return by repentance young bullock being brought before the door of before thee, and with this I make atonement." the tabernacle of the congregation, or, during the The animal was then considered as vicariously temple, into the court of the priests, the elders or bearing the sins of the persons who presented it. heads of the tribes, as representing the people, The reader will recollect that our Lord is said laid their hands upon its head, and it was killed (Isai. liii. 10) to have had his soul made according to the form mentioned for the burnt offering for sin;" where the very same word is used offering. The blood was then taken by the priest as is put for the trespass-offering. It is difficult into the holy place, where, having dipped his to define the difference between the two classes of finger in it seven times, he sprinkled what ad-sins for which the two last-mentioned offerings hered to it seven times before the veil; after were presented; viz., sins and trespasses. But which he returned to the court of the priests, whatever this difference consisted in, there were ascended the altar, put some of the blood upon several points of difference between the sacrifices the horns at its corners, and poured out the rest respectively designated by these terms. The ses at its foot. The fat was the only part of the of the victims, and the rites to be performed in animal that was offered on the altar; for the rest, the trespass-offerings, were altogether different including the skin, inwards, and even the dung, from those prescribed for the sin-offerings. The were carried forth to a clean portion of that place former always consisted of rams and he-lambs

, where the ashes of the altar were poured out, and which were never used for the latter. The blood burnt completely with fire: The sin-offering for of the sin-offering was to be put on the horns of


* Harwooul, Introd., vol. ii., p. 220.

+ See Magee on the Atonement, vol. i. ; Ilustrativas, No. 27.

the altar (Lev. iv. 7, 18, 25, 30), and that of the rites, about which there were some peculiarities. trespass-offering was to be sprinkled on the sides See Numb. vi. 15—20; Lev. vii. 31, 32. of the altar (vii. 2). Sin-offerings also, as we 5. Among the eucharistic oblations may also be have seen, were offered for the whole congre- placed the firstlings and the tithes. After the pregation; but trespass-offerings were only required servation of the first-born in Egypt, God declared from individuals. These two kinds of sacrifices that in memory of so singular a benefit, every had this point of resemblance, that they were first-born male, both of man and beast, should considered as legitimately offered, only in com- thenceforward be devoted to him, Numb. iii. 13. pliance with the express command of the law; All male firstlings of beasts fit for the altar were neither of them was ever admitted as a votive or to be sacrificed (Exod. xiii. 15; Numb. xviii. 17); voluntary oblation : that was peculiar to peace and all male first-horn children were to be reofferings and burnt-sacrifices.

deemed by five shekels of money paid to the 4. Peace-offerings comprehended thank-offerings, priests, Numb. iii. 47. This law is considered by freewill-offerings, and offerings made in conse- the Jews as having no reference to the tribe of quence of vows, Lev. vii. 12–16. The Hebrew Levi, because all the males of that tribe were word used for these denotes, as Dr. Clarke re-constantly devoted to the service of the sanctuary. marks, * to complete, or make rohole ; because by The firstling of an ass was to be redeemed by the them that which was lacking was considered as substitution of a lamb, or, that no one might derive being made up ; and that which was broken—the any benefit from the sacrilege, his neck was to be covenant of God by his creature's transgression, broken, Exod. xiii. 13. The flesh of every firstwas supposed to be made whole. So that after ling brought to the altar was wholly allotted to the such an offering, the sincere and conscientious priests, Numb. xviii. 17, 18. But if any firstling mind had a right to consider that the breach was happened to have a blemish, it was not to be made

up between God and it, and that it might brought to the altar as a sacrifice, but to be given lay confident hold on the covenant of peace. To to the priests; and it was allowed to be eaten any this the apostle evidently alludes in Eph. ii. 14 where, not only by the priests themselves, but also 19: “He is our peace (i. e., our peace-offering) by any other persons, Deut. xv. 21, 22. To the who has made both one, and broken down the same order of sacrifices must also be referred those middle wall; having abolished in his flesh the victims selected as the tithe of lambs, kids, and enmity,” &c. (See the whole passage.) The com- calves, Lev. xxvii. 32. The tenth of the herd mon offerings in such cases were, either a he or a and of the flock was every year to be devoted to she-calf

, a he or a she-lamb, or a goat (Lev. iii. 1, the Lord, as a kind of thank-offering for all the 6, 12), accompanied by the proper meat-offering advantages derived from cattle. It was to be They were to be without blemish for vows and solemnly offered to the Lord; if it happened to thank-offerings (xxii. 18-22); but a free-will have any blemish, it might lawfully be eaten any offering might be either lacking or superfluous in where, but was not to be redeemed with money, its parts, ver. 22. Whichever kind of them was nor to be exchanged for any other animal. But brought, the offerer laid his hand upon its head as whatever was its condition, the whole of the flesh an acknowledgment of guilt ; after which it was (according to Maimonides) belonged to the prokilled before the tabernacle of the congregation ; prietor, and no part of it to the priests. its blood was sprinkled on the altar round about ; IV. We have had occasion, in describing the the fat, the kidneys, the caul, and the rump, if it various kinds of sacrifices, to notice some of the was a lamb, being burnt on the altar (iii. 1–5); purposes for which they were designed. It will the breast, after it was waved, and the shoulder, not be amiss, however, to state these more forafter it was heaved, became the property of the mally. The general design and uses of these priests, vii. 31–34; and the rest of the victim sacrifices, then, were—(1) As an acknowledgment was eaten by the offerer, under the restrictions of receiving all their good things from the hand of laid down in Lev. vii. 19-21, xxii. 30, xix. 5–8. God, and of his right in the whole of that of which The peace-offering for the whole congregation was they offered him a part; though to make this act made only once a year—at the feast of pentecost, the more significant and expressive, it was a part when two lambs composed the sacrifice. The of almost every thing they had.—(2) To be - a peace-offerings of individuals were of three kinds; means of repentance and humiliation for sin, of viz., those offered without bread; those offered the desert of which they were reminded by the with bread; and the peace-offerings of the Naza- suffering and death of the victim substituted in

their room, and suffering in their stead.—(3) To * Comment on Lev. vii.

typify that promised sacrifice of atonement which the Son of God was to offer in due time, and to | it was not lawful for any person to taste the new assist their faith in him.* Of the political use of corn. Previous to the offering up of the firstmany of the sacrifices we have spoken, in treating fruits all was unclean ; afterwards all was holy; of the judicial law.

and to this Paul alludes in Rom. xi. 16: “If the V. We have already noticed four classes of offer- first-fruit be holy, the lump is also holy." These ings; we now pass on to a fifth class, known by first-fruits were considered as giving a public and the appellation of meat-offerings (mincha). joyful assurance that the general harvest would

1. These offerings were composed of wheaten soon be gathered in. How beautiful and striking or barley flour ; some with, and others without, is the same apostle's allusion to the ceremony of the addition of wine. They were all to be mixed presenting this oblation, in the First Epistle to the with oil, and invariably to be connected with some Corinthians, in which place he argues

and estakind of victims, except in the case of the person blishes the doctrine of a general resurrection, from who had sinned being so poor that he could not the fact of the resurrection of Christ, as the firstpurchase two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons fruits of them that slept! “Now is Christ risen for an offering. The victims which God required from the dead, and become the first-fruits of them to be always accompanied with meat-offerings were that slept," xv. 20. “Christ the first-fruits-afterall the burnt-offerings of the whole congregation, wards they that are Christ's," ver. 23. By raising with all those of individuals, and the peace-offer- him, the head and representative of Christian ings selected from the flock of the herd; but none believers, from the dead, and conducting him in taken from birds, except when they were sub- glorious triumph, as the first-fruits were publicly stituted for a quadruped; nor any sin-offerings, conducted through the streets of Jerusalem, from except those offered by a purified leper, Numb. xv. the grave to immortality, God has announced to 2, &c., xxviii. 29; Lev. xiv. 10, 31. The follow the whole world, that his power, in like manner, ing are the portions prescribed for the meat-offer- will be displayed in re-animating all the dead, and ings :-For bullocks, three-tenths of an ephah of at the consummation of all things, gathering into fine flour mingled with half a hin of oil; for rams, his eternal mansion a universal harvest of all the two-tenths of an ephah of fine four, mingled with saints." After the omer of barley had been waved a third part of a hin of oil ; and for goats and before the Lord, a part of it was consumed on the female sheep, as well as for lambs and kids, both altar, and the rest given to the priests, Lev. xxiii. male and female, only one-tenth of an ephah 15-17. of fine flour, mingled with the fourth of a hin of 3. The two loares offered on the day of penteoil, Numb. xv. These were the general directions; cost contained a tenth of an ephah cach, made of but in Lev. xxii. 10–13, we find that the lamb the flour of new wheat, and were a thanksgiving to be offered on the same day as the sheaf of the for the bounties of the harvest which had been first-fruits was to be accompanied with two-tenths just gathered in. They were waved before the of an ephah of fine flour ; and in chap. xiv. 10, altar, and given entirely to the priests, it not being we find a log ordered for three-tenth deals in lawful to burn on the altar any thing containing the meat-offering of the leper; and in ver. 21, a leaven, Lev. vii. 13, 14. log of oil is ordered to but one-tenth deal of fine 4. The shew-bread, literally the bread of faces, flour, in the case of those lepers who were poor. so called from its position on the sacred table, in The meat-offerings unaccompanied with any liba- the outer sanctuary, where it was “set in order tions of wine were either for the whole congrega- before the Lord,” or “ before the faces of Jehovah.” tion of Israel, or for particular persons. Those of was made of fine wheaten flour, two tenths of an the former kind were three; the omer, or sheaf of ephah being allotted to each cake. The loaves first-fruits waved before the Lord, the two loaves were twelve in number, and were placed on the ordered on the day of pentecost; and the loaves golden table, in two rows, six in a row, and pure called the shew-bread.

frankincense put upon each row. They were to 2. The omer of first-fruits was offered on the be removed and replaced by fresh ones every sabsixteenth day of the month Nisan, before the bath-day, when the removed ones were given to wheat had grown to a full ear, and before which the priests, and the frankincense was burnt on the

great altar, Lev. xxiv. 5–9. It is more difficult

to as * See Lightfoot, Temple Service, chap. viii., sect. 1-4;

tain the use of these, and what they reOwen on the Hebrews, Exerc. xxiv. ; Jennings's Jewish Antiq.: presented, than almost any other emblem in the b. i., chap. 5; Lamy's App. Bib., b. i. chap. 7; Brown's Jewish Antiq., vol. i., pt. 4, sect. 2 ; Ontram on Sacrifices, Diss. i., chap. ix.-xvi.

+ Harwood, Introduct., vol. ii., p. 307.


whole Jewish economy. Dr. Cudworth's opinion 6. To the offerings that have been specified we seems to be the most rational ; viz., that with the must add, (1) The oblations of incense that used other meat and drink-offerings, and the furniture to be made in the temple ; for though they are of the tabernacle and temple, it was designed to not usually classed with the meat-offerings, they show the Jews that God had in an extraordinary must, nevertheless, be numbered with those sacrimanner taken his residence among them, these fices which were to be selected from inanimate things forming part of his establishment as king things, and to be solemnly burnt in the service of of Israel.*

God. The manner of offering this has been 5. The meat-offerings for particular persons already noticed in treating of the service of the were as follow: (1) The daily meat-offering of temple. We need only add, that it represented the high-priest; half of which was offered in the the prayers of the people, while the priest, premorning, and the other half at night, Lev. vi. senting them to God in the temple, prefigured 20–22. (2) The meat-offering of initiation, Christ, now in the heavenly sanctuary, commendwhich was offered by each priest on his entrance ing to God the prayers of the saints. See Rev. into office, and which was wholly burnt. (3) The v. 8, viii. 3, 4. (2) The tithes of all the fruits of sinner's meat-offering, or that substituted by a poor the earth, paid by every Israelite, and which man for a sin-offering, Lev. v. 11. (4) The Jerome divides into four sorts : Such as were paid jealousy meat-offering, or the offering brought to the Levites by the people, who were forbidden with the suspected wife, Numb. v. 15. It is to eat any of their fruits till this had been paid, worthy of notice, that this and the meat-offering on pain of death ; such as were paid by the of the first-fruits of the barley-harvest were the Levites to the priests ; such as were reserved for only offerings which were of barley; all the other the banquets made within the precincts of the kinds being of wheat. (5) The meat-offering of temple, to which the priests and Levites were fine flour unbaked, which was red vited; and such as were paid every


years pouring oil and frankincense upon it, Lev. ii. for the support of the poor. See Numb. xviii. 13. (6) The meat-offering baked in the oven, 21 ; Lev. xxvii. 30; Deut. xiv. 22, 23; Neh. which was either unleavened cakes of fine flour xii. 5, 10. mingled with oil, or unleavened wafers anointed 7. The rule prescribed in the law for preparing with oil, ver. 4. (7) The meat-offering baked and presenting meat-offerings was this: They in a pan, which was fine flour unleavened, mingled were to be brought to the priest, who carried them with oil, separated in pieces, on each of which to the altar, took a handful from each of them, was poured oil, ver. 5, 6. (8) The meat-offering as an oblation, salted it, and burnt it upon the made in a frying-pan, and which was fine flour altar. The remaining part became the property mingled with oil, ver. 7. (9) The wafers baked of the priesthood, and was eaten by those whose in the oven, which are classed with the cakes lot it was to serve, Lev. ii. 2, 8, 9, 10, vi. 14—18, above, in No.6. (10) The offerings of first-fruits x. 12, 13. by individuals at the feast of pentecost.

With VI. The drink-offerings were nothing more than all the meat-offerings duly presented, salt was to a certain quantity of wine, proportioned to the be used (Lev. ii. 13), and, according to the Jews, nature of the sacrifice they accompanied. After was to be sprinkled on the offerings when laid on the sacrifice and the meat-offering were laid on the altar. Salt possesses an agreeable savour, and the fire, the drink-offering was taken by the the quality of preserving food from putrefaction :t priest, and poured out like the blood, at the founhence, a durable covenant is called “a covenant dation of the altar, or around its top. I of salt," Numb. xxviii. 19; 2 Chron. xiii. 5. But no leaven, nor honey, was allowed in any offering. The latter was offered to Bacchus, among the

Lamy, Apparatus Biblicns, b. i., c. 7. heathen ; and also to the infernal deities, and There is no doubt that the heathen borrowed their custom departed heroes.||

of offering meat and drink-offerings from the Hebrew ritual. The salted meal (meat-offerings) which they added to their victims, and which used also to be accompanied with wine, is

thus referred to by Virgil : “And now the dreadful day was See Dr. A. Clarke on Exod. xxv. 23, 30.

arrived; the preparations to sacrifice me were commenced, and + There is an allusion to this typical law in Mark ix. 49, 50; tion is

, “ Salt and barley, called salted meal, with which they

the salted meal was ready.”—Æn. ii. 132. Servius's explanafor some remarks on which, see Critica Biblica, vol. ii., p. 624. used to sprinkle the forehead of the victim, the sacrificial fire, VII. In closing this summary account of the “ Wherefore, when he cometh into the world, heJewish sacrifices and oblations, we may notice saith, Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not, the inducements to pay them, by those liable, but a body hast thou prepared me: in burntand the time when they became due. The in- offerings and sacrifices for sin thou hast had no ducements to render these sacrifices and oblations, pleasure. Then said I, Lo, I come in the volume by those who were liable,' were two-fold; con- of the book it is written of me) to do thy will, science and penalty. If the first prevailed not, O God. Above, when he said, Sacrifice and the second was enforced, where the offence was offering and burnt-offerings and offerings for known, and generally consisted in whipping. The sin thou wouldest not, neither hadst pleasure time when they became due was at the first of therein (which are offered by the law); then said: the three great festivals, which occurred next after he, Lo, I come to do thy will, O God. He taketh the time of contracting the obligation. This away the first, that he may establish the second. provision was most beneficial to those who lived By the which will we are sanctified by the offering at a distance from Jerusalem, and who otherwise of the body of Jesus Christ once for all,” Heb. x. would have been compelled to abandon their 5—10. The apostle certainly means (and the ordinary occupations, and, at very great expense clause, “ He taketh away the first, that he may and inconvenience, appear with their offerings establish the second,” ascertains it beyond all “ in the place which Jehovah had chosen to put doubt) that the sacrifice of Christ succeeded in his name there ;" for their offering could not be the room of all the sacrifices which were “offered sent by the hand of another.*

• See Calmet's Bib. Ency., art. “ Salt;” and Fragments to and the knives.” After the salted meal it was also customary ditto, No. cxxx.

to pour wine on the head of the victim, which by that ceremony 1 Ovid. Fast., I. ii., 175; Strabo, Geog. I. xv.; Odys, 1.

was said to be macta or magis aucta, augmented, or more 518; xi. 26, &c.

increased. This ceremony is thus referred to by Ovid : “Goat, * Lightfoot, Temple Service, chap. i., sect. 3; viii., sect. 5; Outram on Sacrifices, Diss. i., c. 8, 11.

by the law;" and hence it was, that when his VIII. To the incidental remarks already sub- sacrifice was accomplished, they all ceased. As mitted on the typical nature of the Jewish sacrifices, the sacrifice of Christ

, therefore, succeeded in the we may add, from Outram, that the author of the room of all the victims that were to be offered Epistle to the Hebrews seems tacitly to compare according to the law, and removed them from their all the different kinds of victims with the one place; and as it far excelled them all ; it seems sacrifice of Christ, as types with their antitype: reasonable to consider them all as types of this

sacrifice, and this one sacrifice as the antitype of

them all. For the mutual relation of type and gnaw the vine ; yet its produce will be sufficient to be poured antitype is sufficiently conspicuous in any two upon thy horns, when thou shalt stand before the altar.» –Fast. things, of which the latter succeeds by divine !. i. It is likewise introduced as part of the sacrificial process appointment in the room of the former, possessing by Virgil: “Here, first, the priestess places four black bullocks, moreover that efficacy of which the former had and pours wine on their foreheads.” —Æn. iv. 60. Dr. Har- only an image, or a very small degree ; especially wood supposes that there is an allusion to this practice in 2 Tim. iv. 6. But that is hardly probable, as the Jews did not thus when there is so great a resemblance between dispose of the drink-offering ; besides which, Parkhurst says he those two things, as between all the Jewish victims can find no example in which the word here used by the apostle and the sacrifice of Christ.+ signifies to have a libation poured out upon it, as a victim going to be sacrificed. Greek Lexicon, SevdW.

† Dissertation on Sacrifices, p. 223.


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