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secure, “ You have a watch : go your way, and were attending to their duties in the holy place. make it as secure as you can,” Matt. xxvii. 65. After the conclusion of their prayer, and a reOver these guards one person had the supreme hearsal of the ten commandments and their phycommand, who in several places is called the cap- lacteries, the priests again cast lots, to choose two tain of the temple, or officer of the temple guards, to offer incense on the golden altar, and another Acts iv. l; v. 25, 26; xviii. 12. Josephus men- to lay the pieces of the sacrifice on the fire of tions such an officer, Antiq. b. xx., § 2; Wars, the brazen altar. The lot being determined, the c. 17, § 2.*
two who were to offer the incense proceeded to VI. A few remarks on the daily service of the discharge their duty, the time for which was betemple may properly close this section.
tween the sprinkling of the blood and the laying 1. The first thing we notice is the morning the pieces upon the altar, in the morning; and service. After having enjoyed their repose, the in the evening, between the laying of the pieces priests bathed themselves in the rooms provided upon the altar and the drink-offering. As they for that purpose, and waited the arrival of the proceeded to the temple they rang the megempresident of the lots. This officer having arrived, phita, or great bell, to warn the absent priests to they divided themselves into two companies, each come to worship; the absent Levites to come to of which was provided with lamps or torches, and sing ; and the stationary men to bring to the gate made a circuit of the temple, going in different Nicanor those whose purification was not perdirections, and meeting at the pastryman's cham- fected. The priest who carried the censer of ber, on the south side of the gate Nicanor. Hav- coals, which had been taken from one of the three ing summoned him to prepare the cakes for the fires on the great altar, after kindling the fire on high-priest's meat-offering, they retired with the the incense altar, worshipped and came out into president to the south-east corner of the court, and the porch, leaving the priest who had the incense cast lots for the duties connected with the altar. alone in the holy place. As soon as the signal The priest being chosen to remove the ashes from was given by the president, the incense was kinthe altar, he again washed his feet at the laver, dled, the holy place was filled with perfume, and and then, with the silver shovel, proceeded to his the congregation without joined in the prayers. I work. As soon as he had removed one shovel- These being ended, the priest, whose lot it was to ful of the ashes, the other priests retired to wash lay the pieces of the sacrifice upon the altar, their hands and feet, and then joined him in threw them into the fire, and then, taking the cleaning the altar and renewing the fires. The tongs, disposed them in somewhat of their natural next duty was to cast lots for the thirteen par- order. The four priests who had been in the holy ticular duties connected with offering the sacri- place now appeared upon the steps that led to the fice, which being settled, the president ordered porch, and extending their arms, so as to raise one of them to fetch the lamb for the morning their hands higher than their heads, one of them sacrifice. While the priests on this duty were pronounced the solemn blessing, Numb. vi. 24 engaged in fetching and examining the victim, 26. After this benediction, the daily meat-offer those who carried the keys were opening the ing was offered; then the meat-offering of the seven gates of the court of Israel, and the two high-priest; and last of all the drink-offering ; at doors that separated between the porch and the the conclusion of which the Levites began the holy place. When the last of the seven gates song of praise, and, at every pause in the music, was opened, the silver trumpets gave a flourish, the trumpets sounded and the people worshipped. to call the Levites to their desks for the music, This was the termination of the morning service.|| and the stationary men to their places, as the It should be stated, that the morning service of representatives of the people. The opening of the priests began with the dawn of day, except in the folding-doors of the temple was the estab- the great festivals, when it began much earlier : lished signal for killing the sacrifice, which was the sacrifice was offered immediately after sunrise. cut in pieces and carried to the top of the altar, 2. During the middle of the day the priests held where it was salted and left, while the priests themselves in readiness to offer the sacrifices that once more retired to the room Gazith to join in might be presented by any of the Israelites, either prayer. While the sacrifice was being slain in of a voluntary or an expiatory nature. Their the court of the priests, the two priests appointed duties would therefore vary according to the numto trimn the lamps and cleanse the altar of incense ber and nature of the offerings they might have 3. The evening service varied in a very trifling might pray with his head uncovered. And the measure from that of the morning, and the same wise men and their scholars never prayed without priests ministered, except when there was one in a veil.” This custom is alluded to in 1 Cor. xi. the house of their father who had never burned 4, where the apostle directs the men to reverse the incense, in which case that office was assigned to practice adopted in the Jewish temple. (13) Their him; or if there were more than one, they cast bodily gesture in bowing before the Lord, was lots who should be employed.*
to present. * Harwood's Introduction, vol. j., pp. 169, 170. † The whole congregation was divided into twenty-four
See Luke i. 9, &c. each of which sent a representative.
|| Lightfoot, Temple Service, chap. is.
either “bending of the knees,” “bowing the head," VII. The holiness of the place, and the injunc- or “falling prostrate on the ground.” (14) Having tion of Lev. xix. 3: “Ye shall reverence my performed the service, and being about to retire, sanctuary,” laid the people under an obligation to “ they might not turn their backs upon
the altar." maintain a solemn and holy behaviour when they They therefore went backward till they were out came to worship in the temple. We have already of the court. seen that such as were ceremonially unclean were forbidden to enter the sacred court on pain of
$ 3.-The Symagogues. death ; but in the course of time there were several prohibitions enforced by the Sanhedrin 1. The term synagogue primarily signifies an which the law had not named. The following assembly; but, like the word church, it came at have been collected by Lightfoot out of the rab- length to be applied to places in which any assembinical writings. (1) “No man might enter the blies, especially those for the worship of God, met mountain of the house with his staff.”—(2) “None or were convened. From the silence of the Old might enter in thither with his shoes on his feet," Testament with reference to these places of worthough he might with his sandals. (3) “Nor ship, most commentators and writers on biblical might any man enter the mountain of the house antiquities are of opinion that they were not in with his scrip on." (4) "Nor might he come in use till after the Babylonish captivity. Prior to with the dust on his feet," but he must wash or that time the Jews seem to have held their social wipe them, “and look to his feet when he entered meetings for religious worship either in the open into the house of God;" to remind him, perhaps, air, or in the houses of the prophets. See 2 Kings that he should then shake off all worldly thoughts iv. 23. Afterwards, synagogues could only be and affections. (5) “ Nor with money in his erected in those places where ten men of age, purse." He might bring it in his hand, however, learning, piety, and easy circumstances could be and in this way it was brought in for various pur- found to attend to the service which was enjoined poses. If this had not been the case it would in them. Large towns had several synagogues ; seem strange that the cripple should have been and soon after the captivity, their utility became placed at the gate of the temple, to ask alms of so obvious, that they were scattered over the land, those who entered therein. See Acts iï. 2. (6) and became the parish churches of the Jewish “None might spit in the temple: if he were nation. Their number appears to have been very necessitated to spit, it must be done in some corner considerable ; and when the erection of a synaof his garment.” (7) “He might not use any gogue was considered as a mark of piety (Luke irreverent gesture, especially before the gate of vii. 5) or passport to heaven, we need not be surNicanor," that being exactly in front of the temple. prised to hear that they were multiplied beyond (8) “He might not make the mountain of the all necessity, so that in Jerusalem alone there were house a thoroughfare," for the purpose of reaching not fewer than 460 or 480. They were generally a place by a nearer way: for it was devoted to the built on the most elevated ground. || and consisted purposes of religion. (9) “He that went into of two parts. The one on the most westerly part the court must go leisurely and gravely into his of the building contained the ark, or chest
, in place; and there he must demean himself as in which the book of the law and the sections of the the presence of the Lord God, in all reverence and fear." (10) "He must worship standing, with his feet close to each other, his eyes directed to the ground, his hands upon his breast, with the
+ Lightfoot, Temple Service, ch. x. right one above the left." See Luke xviii. 13.
# Lightfoot, Chorog. Cent., ch. xxxvi. (11) “No one, however weary, might sit down in
1. Luke says (vi. 12) that our Lord went up into a mountain the court." The only exception was in favour of to pray, and continued all night in a proseucha, or oratory
These proseuchæ are several times men. the kings of the house of David. (12) “ None dedicated to God.
tioned in the New Testament, and are considered hy some persons, but we think improperly, as being different places from
the synagognes. See Jennings's Jewish Antiq., b. ii., chap. 11, Lightfoot, Temple Service, ch. ix.
and Harwood's Introduction, vol. ii., p. 174.
MINISTERS OF THE JEWISH SANCTUARY.
prophets were deposited, and was called the tem- some distinguished person who happened to be ple, by way of eminence. The other, in which present. The reader will recollect one memorable the congregation assembled, was termed the body occasion on which our Saviour availed himself of of the church. The people sat with their faces the opportunity thus afforded to address his countowards the temple, and the elders in the contrary trymen (Luke iv. 20), and there are several other direction, and opposite to the people ; the space instances recorded of himself and his disciples between them being occupied by the pulpit or teaching in the synagogues. See Matt. xiii. 54 ; reading desk. The seats of the elders were con- Mark vi. 2; John xviii. 20; Acts xiii. 5, 15, 44, sidered as more holy than the others, and are xiv. 1, xvii. 2—4, 10—12, 17, xviii. 4, 25, xix. 8. spoken of as “ the chief seats in the synagogue,” The whole service. was concluded with a short Matt. xxiii. 6.
prayer or benediction. I 2. The stated office-bearers in every synagogue 4. The Jewish synagogues were used not only were ten, though in rank they were but six. Their for the purposes of divine worship, but also for names and duties are given by Lightfoot, to whom courts of judicature, in such matters as fell under the reader is referred. But we must notice the the cognizance of the council of three, of which Archisynagogos, or ruler of the synagogue, who we have already spoken. On such occasions the regulated all its concerns, and granted permission sentence given against the offender was sometimes to preach. Of these there were three in each carried into effect in the place where the council synagogue. Dr. Lightfoot believes them to have was assembled. Hence we read of persons being possessed a civil power, and to have constituted beaten in the synagogue, and scourged in the synathe lowest civil tribunal, commonly known as “the gogue, Matt. x. 17; Mark xii. 9. council of three;" whose office it was to decide the differences that arose between any members of the synagogue, and to judge of money matters,
SECTION V. thefts, losses, &c.* To these officers there is probably an allusion in 1 Cor. vi. 9. The second office-bearer was
“ the angel of the church,” or : I. The HIGH-PRIEST -- His qualifications and functions-His minister of the congregation, who prayed and consecration to the office, and his dress-His duties–Typical
nature of his character. II. THE SUPERIOR OFFICERS OP preached In allusion to these the pastors of the
THE TEMPLE-1. The Sagan---2. The Kathelikin–3. The Asiatic churches are called angels, Rev. ii., iii. Amerkelin-4. The Gezberin-5. The heads of the course
3. The service of the synagogue was as follows: 6. The heads of the houses of their fathers—7. Overseers. The people being seated, the minister, or angel
III. The ORDINARY PRIESTS--Qualifications for the dis
charge of the priestly office–The dress of the priests of the church, ascended the pulpit and offered
Their duties-- Their maintenance-Their numbers and divi. up the public prayers; the people rising from sions. IV. The LEVITES—Their rank-Their classes and their seats, and standing in a posture of deep de
duties-- Their consecration–Their dress — Their support-votion (Matt. vi. 5; Mark xi. 25; Luke xviii.
Their numbers. V. The NETHINIM AND STATIONARY MEN. 11, 13). The prayers were nineteen in number, In treating of those persons who sustained sacred and were closed by reading the execration. The functions in the Jewish church, we shall follow Dext thing was the repetition of their phylacteries ; ; the order in which they are enumerated and classed after which came the reading of the law and the by the indefatigable Lightfoot || ; viz., the Highprophets. The former was divided into fifty-four priest—the Superior Officers of the Temple—the sections, with which were united corresponding Priests—the Levites—the Stationary men, and the portionst from the prophets (see Acts xv. 21, Nethinim. xiï. 27); and these were read through once in the course of the year. After the return from the
§ 1.- The High-priest. captivity an interpreter was employed in reading 1. In the Aaronic priesthood, the law established the law and the prophets (see Neh. viii. 2-10), two orders or degrees; of which the superior was who interpreted them into the Syro-Chaldaic dia- allotted to Aaron himself, and to his successors in lect, which was then spoken by the people. The the pontifical dignity; and the inferior, to the other last part of the service was the expounding of the priests. Hence it appears, that those functions Scriptures, and preaching from them to the people. which the Scriptures attribute to Aaron, as pecuThis was done either by one of the officers, or by
See Jennings's Jewish Antiq. b. ii., c. 11; Prideaux, Con* Jeightfoot, Harm., Luke iv. 15; Hor. Heb., Matt. iv. 23. nect. A. A. C. 444, &c. For an account of the synagogue + These may be seen in Lightfoot, Harm., Luke i. 5. Dr. A. service of the modern Jews, see Allen's Modern Judaism, Clarke, in his commentary on Deut. xxxiv., has given them as p. 319, &c. read in the different Jewish synagogues.
|| Temple Service, chap. ii.-vii.
liar to himself, belonged exclusively to the high- of the high-priests were the coat, the drawers or priests, while the rest of the offices might be breeches, the girdle, the robe, the ephod, the legitimately performed by the other priests. breast-plate, the mitre, and the crown; all which,
2. In addition to the splendour of his dress and being very beautiful, and some of them made of the dignity of his office, of which we shall pre- gold, have been called by the Jews golilen testsently speak, there were certain things of a civil ments, Exod. xxviii. Th were put upon Aaron, nature in which the high-priest differed from other and used to be worn by every high-priest in the men. It was necessary, for instance, that he should performance of all the sacred functions, except be free from bodily defect, Lev. xxi. 17–21. He only on the day of annual atonement. In the could neither marry a widow, nor a woman that services of that day no others were worn than the had been divorced, nor a profane woman; but coat, the drawers, the girdle, and the mitre; these only a virgin, ver. 7–15. He might not be were made of linen, and are called by the Jews defiled for the dead, or mourn, except for his white vestments. Grief became that day, and nearest relations, ver. 1-3. He might not be pompous attire is unsuitable to grief.
When ar. veiled if others were, or unveiled if they happened rayed with these vestments, Aaron was further to be so; and while others sat on the ground, he dignified by being anointed with the holy oil sat on a seat. In short, the Jewish policy seems (Exod. xxix. 7, xxx. 25; Lev. viii. 12), which the to have been, never to allow that principal func- Jewish writers say was profusely poured over his tionary to forget that he was the priest of God, head, and thence drawn over his forehead, so as to and solemnly separated from the rest of men. Yet, describe on it, according to some, the Greek X, high as his character was, in a sacred point of according to others the K, or according to others view, he was not raised above the law; for there the Hebrew ), which is the first letter of the word were circumstances which show that, in civil mat- priest in that language ; for there is nothing which ters, the crown was always superior to the mitre. the Jews leave uninvolved in their subtleties. The Thus, he might be a witness in a civil cause, holy unction, however, was significant of honour and, if necessary, evidence might be given against and joy, as well as of sanctity and divine inspirahim. He might act as a judge occasionally ; and, tion. In allusion to this, David says,
“ Thou when guilty, could himself be judged. If he so lovest righteousness and hatest iniquity; therefar forgot the sanctity of his character, as to do fore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with any thing that required whipping, he was sus- the oil of gladness above thy fellows,” Ps. xlv. 7. pended from his office, punished by the Sanhedrin, Hence it is, also, that the Son of God, being enand then deposed. His shoe might be pulled off, dued with the Holy Spirit without measure (John foi not raising seed unto his brother (Deut. xxv. iï. 34), is called Messiah, Christ, the anointed. 5), although he was not permitted to marry a Hence, likewise, Christians themselves, who are widow, Lev. xxi. 13, 14. These, and several other made spiritual kings and priests (Rev. i. 6), are things which might be mentioned, serve to show said to be “ anointed,” and to have “received an that the sanctity of his character did not raise unction,” 2 Cor. i. 21. And hence, in the last him above civil control.*
place, among the ancient Christians unction was 3. That no species of sanctity or honour might connected with baptism." be wanting to the priesthood, the Aaronic priests 4. These rites having been performed upon were consecrated to their office by various rites Aaron, his sons were next enrobed with the vestand ceremonies, in the following manner :-The ments appointed for them, and then the oblation of first part of the consecration commenced with three sacrifices for the whole of them followed. ablution (Exod. xxix. 4; Lev. viji. 6), to teach First, a sin-offering, as a kind of expiation by them the necessity of holiness to the proper dis- which they were to be purified. Secondly, a charge of so sacred an office. As soon as the burnt-offering, as a gift or present to recommend lustrations had been duly performed on Aaron and them to their Lord; and, lastly, a peace-offering, his sons, Aaron himself was arrayed in the pon- as a sacred feast by which they were introduced tifical attire ; the splendour and magnificence of into the family of God. For even the offerers which were proportioned to the dignity of the themselves were permitted to feed upon peacepriesthood, and of the services to be performed. offerings; and those who rightly fed upon them llence they are said to have been made “for glory were considered as God's domestics, Exod. xxix. ; and for beauty,” Exod. xxviii. 2. The vestments Lev. viii. With the blood of the ram, which was
immolated as a peace-offering, the right ears of
all the priests were then imbued, and the thumbs * Lightfoot, Temple Service, chap. iii. See also Brown's Jewish Antiq., vol. i., pp. 218, 249.
Tertullian de Baptismı, chap. vii.
of their right hands, and the great toes of their their fathers, the immediate sons of Aaron. The right feet, Exod. xxix. 20; Lev. viii. 23, 24. By reason of this difference was, that the pontificate this ceremony every priest was admonished what descended according to personal claims, but the great attention he was required to give to the priesthood by hereditary right.t study of the law, to the sacred services, and to 6. The high-priest, being thus installed, was his ways—a term by which the Hebrews denote prepared for discharging the various parts of his the general conduct. Abarbanel observes, that office, which were as follow :-(1) To offer sacrithese ceremonies were performed on the right ear, fices for the people ; some of which he performed right hand, and right foot, to teach the priest that alone, as on the great day of atonement, in the his hearing, his actions, and his manners ought most holy place ; some with the assistance of the always to have a right tendency : for the right priests, as the offering of incense, and trimming denotes perfection. After these things were the lamps, at certain times, in the holy place; done, Moses, who was appointed to officiate as a and some with the assistance of both priests and priest in these solemnities, “ took of the ram” last Levites, as all the services of the brazen altar, mentioned, " the fat and the rump, and all the fat where the priests in killing, and the Levites in that covereth the inwards, and the caul above the removing what was offensive about the bodies of liver, and the two kidneys and their fat, and the the beasts that were sacrificed.—(2) To bless the right shoulder; and one loaf of bread, and one people, either at stated seasons, according to the cake of oiled bread, and one unleavened wafer, form prescribed in Numb. vi. 23—27, or occaand put all in the hands of Aaron and his sons;" sionally, as when Eli blessed Hannah, 1 Sam. and placing his hands under their hands, he i. 17.—(3) To judge the people, either in things "waved them” all to and fro, and presented them concerning the house and worship of God (Zech. to God, the possessor of all things ; and having iii. 6, 7), or in hard and difficult cases of a civil thus presented them, he took them from off nature, when he was joined with the civil judge their hands,” and proceeded to “ burn them upon or ruler, Deut. xvii. 12. Dr. Owen makes him the altar," Lev. viii. 25—28; Exod. xxix. 22–25. also to have been, ex officio, a member of the SanThe breast of this ram he waved in the same hedrin, which he thinks is countenanced by Deut. manner, and took for himself, that being his xvii
. 8—13, although he owns that this is denied share, as he had done the duty of a priest. He by some of the Jews. Il then sprinkled Aaron and his sons, and all their 7. The high-priest held his office for life, that is, garments, with blood taken from the altar, and he could not be deposed by any legal procedure. with the holy oil. In this manner he consecrated But it frequently happened, in the times toward the both the priests themselves and the sacerdotal end of the Jewish polity, that the office was made vestments, Lev. viii. 29, 30.
an object of emolument and ambition, and priests 5. By these rites and ceremonies, repeated for were deposed and installed according to the pleaseren successive days, the whole family of Aaron sure of those who wielded the supreme authority was originally invested with the priesthood, Lev. in the state. See the books of Maccabees, and viii. 33, 34. But as long as any of the holy oil Josephus's Jewish Wars, b. iv., c. 3. remained, all his successors in the priesthood, 8. In closing these observations, we must not when about to enter on their office, were anointed omit to notice the typical character of the highand arrayed with the pontifical vestments, for the priest, the illustration of which truth is one of the same number of days, Exod. xxix. 29, 30. Hence objects proposed by the writer of the epistle to the high-priest is sometimes designated in the the Hebrews. As our great high-priest, Christ Scripture as " the priest that is anointed,” Lev. has offered a more excellent sacrifice than those iv. 3, 5, 16. But after the consumption of the with which Aaron was provided. He, “through sacred oil made by Moses, which the Jews affirm the Eternal Spirit, offered himself without spot to was never made again, it was a sufficient invest- God," and then passed through the heavens into ment in the high-priesthood to be arrayed in the the most holy place, to present the oblation of his pontifical robes for seven successive days; after blood on our behalf. which he was said to be “consecrated by the garments.” The case of the high-priest differed from that of the common priests, who were never con
+ Outram on Sacrifices, Diss. i, c. 5. secrated afresh after the original consecration of
Brown's Jewish Antiq., vol. i., p. 247. || Exercit. 23, in vol. i. of his Exposition of the Epistle to the
Hebrews. For a more detailed account of the vestments and * Ad Exod. xxix.
duties of the high-priest, see Jennings's Jewish Antig., b. i..c 5.