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II. The first temple was that of Solomon, for the temple was built, it originally comprehended which materials were provided by David before the several mountains round about Jerusalem. his death.

Hence, God said to Abraham, “ Take thy son, 1. It occupied one of the three eminences on thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get which the city of Jerusalem was built, and which thee into the land of Moriah, and offer him there is well known to the Scripture reader as Mount for a burnt-offering, upon one of the mountains Moriah. This name is differently explained by which I will tell thee of,” Gen. xxii. 12. commentators. Its most literal meaning is “the 2. At the division of Judea among the twelve myrrh of Jehovah,” or, “the bitterness of Je- tribes, it so happened that, small as the space on the hovah ;” but how to explain it of the mountains top of Moriah was, it became the property of two around Jerusalem is not so easy. Perhaps it tribes; for the greatest part of the temple courts referred to the productions for which the country was in the portion of Judah; and the altar, porch, around Jerusalem was famed, “the myrrh of Jeho- holy and most holy places, were in the portion of vah” meaning, in the Hebrew idiom, excellent Benjamin. In its original state the summit of myrrh. Be this as it may, the fact is certain, that Moriah was unequal, and its sides irregular; but the bitterness of Jehovah, God-man the mediator, it was a part of the ambition of the Jewish kings was afterwards experienced on these very moun- to have it levelled and extended ;* insomuch that, tains; for the garden of Gethsemane, in which during the second temple, it formed a square he suffered such dreadful agony, was on one of of 500 cubits, or 304' yards on each side, allowing, them; the places where he was mocked, scourged, as is commonly done, 21,888 inches to the cubit. and condemned, were on another; and Calvary, Almost the whole of this space was arched under where (while crucifying him) they offered him ground, to prevent the possibility of pollution from wine mingled with myrrh (Mark xv. 23), was on secret graves;t and it was surrounded by a wall a third. For though the term Moriah was after- of excellent stone 25 cubits, or 47 feet 7 inches wards confined to the particular hill on which high ; without which lay a considerable extent of

flat and gently-sloping ground, which was occu

pied by the buildings of the tower of Antonia, the than the former.' So that the words latter and former may gardens, and the public walks. I as well be construed with the glory as with this house. Accordingly, the Seventy have adopted this construction ; and

3. The plan and the whole model of this the context seems evidently to justify the propriety of their structure was laid by the same divine architect as translation ; for in the introductory part of this prophecy, the that of the tabernacle, 'viz., God himself; and it word first or former is manifestly applied to glory, and not to

was built much in the same form as the tabernacle, this house : “Who is left among you, that saw this house in

The utensils her first glory? And how do you see it now? Is it not in only of much larger dimensions. your eyes in comparison of it as nothing ?" Hag. ii. 3. It is for the sacred service were also the same as those manifest, too, that in this passage, the term this house is not used in the tabernacle, only several of them were confined in its application to the house the Jews were then larger, in proportion to the more spacious edifice building, but is undeniably meant of Solomon's temple. Nor, indeed, is it generally necessary to render a house identically to which they belonged. The foundations of this the same, according to the common acceptation of language, magnificent edifice were laid by Solomon, in the that it be built at one and the same time, and exactly of the year of the world 2992; and it was finished same form and materials ; it is sufficient, though it should have A. M. 3000, having occupied seven years and six been rebuilt at different times successively, if it be erected still on the same site, and devoted to the same purpose. It is the months in the building. It was dedicated A. M. house of God, the temple appropriated to divine worship at 3001, with peculiar solemnity, to the worship of Jerusalem, which was intended by this house, whether built Jehovah, who condescended to make it the place by Solomon, by the Jews under Zernbbabel, or by Heroid. Were it otherwise, how could Solomon's temple be called this for the special manifestation of his glory, 2 Chron. house, as it is in the passage just now cited ? or how are we to v., vi., vii. understand the words (Ezek, v. 11-13) which the Jews are 4. We have already said that the front or entrance said to have spoken to the Persian officers, who demanded to the temple was on the eastern side, and consetheir authority for rebuilding the temple? “We are,” say they, " the servants of the God of heaven and earth, and build the quently facing the mount of Olives, which comhouse that was builded these many years ago, which a great manded a noble prospect of the building: the king of Israel builded and set up. But after that our fathers holy of holies, therefore, stood towards the west.|| had provoked the God of heaven to wrath, he gave them into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, the Chaldean, who destroyed this house. But Cyrus made a decree to

* Lightfoot, Prospect of the Temple, chap. 1. build this house of God.” Here it is plain that the words this

+ Ibid. house are alternately applied to the temple of Solomon and that Ibid., chap. ii. Brown's Jewish Antiq., vol. i.,

37--10. built under Zerubbabel, and may certainly as well be extended || This, it will be perceived, was directly the reverse of the to that of Herod.--Discourse preached before the University plan on which the heathen temples were built ; these being su of Oxford, Nov. 9th, 1788, 4to., and reprinted in the Methodist constructed that the worshippers should have their laces to the Magazine, vol. v., third series, p. 515, &c.

pp.

east.

The temple itself, strictly so called, which com- , differs very materially from this in his account of prised the portico, the sanctuary, and the holy of the temple ; t for which we know not how to holies, formed only a small part of the sacred account, but by supposing that he has confounded edifice, being surrounded by spacious courts, the Scripture account of Solomon's temple with chambers, and other apartments, much more ex- that of the temple after the captivity and of tensive than the temple itself, which was never Herod. I designed to hold a concourse of people—it was for (2) In noticing the several courts of the temple, the service of the Lord, and the priests were the we naturally begin with the outer one,

which was only people employed in it.

called, 5. As we possess only verbal descriptions of (a) The court of the Gentiles, and into which the temple of Solomon, it is impossible to obtain persons of all nations were permitted to enter. a very accurate idea of its relative parts and their The most common approach to this was by the respective proportions. Hence we must not feel | east gate, which was the principal gate of the surprised that no two writers who have under- temple. It was by far the largest of all the taken to describe it, agree in their descriptions. courts pertaining to the sacred building, and The following account, which has been compiled comprised a space of 188,991 superficial cubits, with great care, may be sufficient to give us a or 14 English acres, 1 rood, 29 poles, and 13 general notion of the building.

yards; of which above two-thirds lay to the (1) The temple itself was seventy cubits long; south of the temple. It was separated from the the porch being ten cubits (1 Kings vi. 3), the court of the women by a wall of three cubits holy place forty cubits (ver. 17), and the most high, of lattice-work, so that persons walking here holy place twenty cubits,* 2 Chron. iii. 8. The might see through as well as over it.|| This width of the porch, holy and most holy places, wall, however, was not on a level with the court was twenty cubits (2 Chron. iii. 3); and the of which we are speaking, but was cut out of the height over the holy and most holy places was rock six cubits above it, the ascent to which was thirty cubits (1 Kings vi. 2). The height of the by twelve steps. On pillars placed at equal porch was much greater than this, being no less distances in this wall, were inscriptions in Greek than one hundred and twenty cubits (2 Chron. and Latin, to warn strangers, and such as were iii. 4), or four times the height of the rest of the unclean, not to proceed further, on pain of death. S building. To the north and south sides, and the It was from this court that our Saviour drove the west end of the holy and most holy places, or all persons who had established a cattle-market, for round the edifice, from the back of the porch on the purpose of supplying those with sacrifices the one side, to the back of the porch on the who came from a distance, Matt. xxi. 12, 13. other side, certain buildings were attached, called We must not overlook the beautiful pavement of side chambers, and consisting of three stories, variegated marble, and the piazzas, or covered Exh five cubits high (1 Kings vi. 10), and joined walks, with which this court was surrounded. to the wall of the temple without. But what Those on the east, west, and north sides were of may seem singular is, that the lowest of these the same dimensions; but that on the south was stories was five cubits broad on the floor; the much larger. I The porch called Solomon's (John second, six cubits; and the third, seven cubits; x. 23, Acts iii. 11) was on the south side or front and yet the outer wall of the whole was upright, of the temple, and was so called because it was ver. 6. The reason of this was, that the wall of built by this prince, upon a high wall of 400 the temple, against which they leaned, had always cubits from the valley of Kedron. ** a scarcement of a cubit at the height of every (6) The court of the women, called in Scripture five cubits, to prevent the joists of these side the new court (2 Chron. xx. 5), and the outer court chambers from being fixed in it. Thus the three (Ezek. xlvi. 21), was so designated by the Jews, stories of side chambers, when taken together, not because none but women were permitted were fifteen cubits high, and consequently reached to enter it, but because it was their appointed txactly to half the height of the side walls, and place of worship, beyond which they might not end of the temple ; so that there was abundance of space, above these, for the windows which gave light to the temple, ver. 4. Josephus

+ Antiquities, b. viii., c. 3. See Brown's Antiq., vol. i., pp. 149–152.

|| Josephus, Wars, b. v., c. 5. * We have designedly omitted to notice the furniture of the

Ibid. temple, it having been already described in the account of the

Lightfoot, Prospect of the Temple, c. viii.

** Josephus, Antiq., b. xx., c. 9.

tabernacle.

go; unless when they brought a sacrifice, in which being, that as the rock on which the temple stood case they went forward to the court of Israel. always became higher on advancing westward, The gate which led into this court, from that of the several courts naturally became elevated in the Gentiles, was the beautiful gate of the temple, proportion. The ascent into the court was by a mentioned Acts iii. 2; so called because the folding- flight of fifteen steps, of a semicircular form, on doors, lintel, and side-posts were all overlaid with which the Levites stood and sung the “ Psalms of Corinthian brass.* The court itself was 135 degrees” (cxx.—cxxxiv.) at the feast of tabercubits square, having four gates, one on each side; nacles. This gate is spoken of under several and on three of its sides were piazzas, with gal- appellations in the Old Testament; but in the leries above them, whence could be seen what was time of our Saviour it was known as the gate passing in the great court." At the four corners Nicanor. It was here that the leper stood, to of this court were four rooms, appropriated to dif- have his atonement made, and his cleansing comferent purposes, Ezek. xlvi. 21–24. In the first, pleted. It was here they tried the suspected wife, the lepers purified themselves after they were by making her drink of the bitter water; and it healed ; in the second, the wood for the sacrifices was here also that women appeared after childwas laid up; the Nazarites prepared their obla- birth for purification. The whole length of the tions, and shaved their heads in the third ; and court, from east to west, was 187 cubits, and the in the fourth, the wine and oil for the sacrifices breadth, from north to south, 135 cubits. This were kept. There were also two rooms more, was divided into two parts; one of which was where the Levites' musical instruments were laid the court of the Israelites, and the other, the court up; and also thirteen treasure chests, two of of the priests. The former was a kind of piazza which were for the half-shekel, which was paid surrounding the latter, under which the Israelites yearly by every Israelite; and the rest for the stood, while their sacrifices were burning in the money for the purchase of sacrifices and other court of the priests. It had thirteen gates, with oblations. It was in this court of the women, chambers above them, each of which had its parcalled the treasury, that our Saviour delivered his ticular name and use. The space comprised in striking discourse to the Jews, related in John the court of the priests was 165 cubits long and viii. 1—20. It was into this court, also, that the 119 cubits wide, and was raised two cubits and Pharisee and publican went to pray (Luke xviii. a half above the surrounding court, from which 10_13), and into which the lame man followed it was separated by the pillars which supported Peter and John after he was cured; the court of the piazza, and the railing which was placed bethe women being the ordinary place of worship tween them, 2 Kings xi. 8, 10. Within this for those who brought no sacrifice, Acts iii. 8. court stood the brazen altar on which the sacrifices From thence, after prayers, he went back with were consumed, the molten sea in which the them, through the beautiful gate of the temple, priests washed, and the ten brazen lavers for where he had been lying, and through the sacred washing the sacrifices; also the various utensils fence into the court of the Gentiles, where, under and instruments for sacrificing, and which are the eastern piazza, or Solomon's porch, Peter de- enumerated in 2 Chron. iv. livered that sermon which converted five thou- (d) It is necessary to observe here, that although sand. It was in the same court of the women the court of the priests was not accessible to all that the Jews laid hold on Paul, when they judged Israelites, as that of Israel was to all the priests, him a violator of the temple, by taking Gentiles yet they might enter it on three several occasions, within the sacred fence, Acts xxi. 26, &c. In viz., to lay their hands on the animals which they this court the high-priest, at the feast of expiation, offered, or to kill them, or to wave some part of read a portion of the law. Here also the king, them. Their entrance, however, was not by the on the sabbatical year, did the same at the feast east gate, and through the place where the priests of tabernacles. Il

stood ; but ordinarily by the north or south side (c) The court of Israel was separated from the of the court, according as the sacrifices were to court of the women by a wall thirty-two cubits be slain on the north or south sides of the altar. and a half high on that side, but on the other In general, it was a rule, that they never returned only twenty-five; the reason of the difference

* Josephus, Ant., b. xv., c. 11; Wars, b. v., c.

c. 5, 14. + Lightfoot, Prospect of the Temple, chap. xviii.

# Ibid., chap. xix. | Antiquities, b. xv., c. 11. Brown's Antiq , vol. i., sect. iv.

§ For a description of these, see Lightfoot, Prospect of the Temple, chap. xxxiii., or Brown's Antiq., vol. i., s. v.

Both the sea and the lavers were removed by Abaz, 2 Kings xvi. 17, 18.

from this court by the same door that they entered, offered swine's flesh upon the altar, and completely Exod. xlvi. 9.*

suspended the worship of Jehovah, 1 Mac. i. 62. (3) From the court of the priests the ascent to Thus it continued for three years, when it was the temple was by a flight of twelve steps, each repaired and purified by Judas Maccabeus, who half a cubit in height, which led into the sacred restored the divine worship, and dedicated it porch. Of the dimensions of this, as also of the anew. sanctuary and holy of holies, we have already IV. Herod, having slain all the Sanhedrin exspoken. We shall therefore only observe here, cept two, in the first year of his reign, or thirtythat it was within the door of the porch, and in seven years before Christ, resolved to atone for it, the sight of those who stood in the courts imme- by rebuilding and beautifying the temple. I This diately before it, that the two pillars, Jachin and he was the more inclined to do, both from the Boaz, were placed, 2 Chron. iii. 17; Ezek. xl. 49. peace which he enjoyed, and the decayed state of

5. The temple, thus described, retained its pris- the edifice. For, besides the common ravages of tine splendour but 33 years, when it was plundered time, it had suffered considerably by the hands of by Shishak, king of Egypt, 1 Kings xiv. 25, 26 ; enemies; since that part of Jerusalem was the 2 Chron. xii. 9. After this period, it underwent strongest, and consequently the last resort of the sundry profanations and pillages, and was at length inhabitants in times of extremity. After emutterly destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, king of ploying two years in preparing the materials for Babylon, A. M. 3416, B. C. 588, after having the work, in which a thousand wagons and ten stood, according to Usher, 424 years, three months, thousand artificers were employed, besides a thouand eight days.

sand priests to direct the works, the temple of III. After this sacred building had lain in Zerubbabel was pulled down, seventeen years ruins for fifty-two years, the foundations of the before Christ, and forty-six years before the first second temple were laid by Zerubbabel, and the passover of his ministry.|| Herod's temple was Jews who had availed themselves of the privilege fit for divine service in nine years and a half; but granted by Cyrus, returned to Jerusalem, Ezra a great number of labourers and artificers were i. 1-4, ï. 1, iii. 8–10. They had not pro- still employed in carrying on the out-buildings, ceeded far, however, before they were obliged to all the time of our Saviour's abode on earth, and desist, on account of an order from Artaxerxes, even till the appointment of Gessius Florus as king of Persia, which had been procured through governor of Judea. the misrepresentations of the Samaritans and 2. The temple of Herod was considerably larger others, chap. iv. l. During fifteen years the work than that of Zerubbabel, as that of Zerubbabel stood still (ver. 24), but in the second year of was larger than Solomon's. For whereas the Darius it was recommenced ; and on the third second temple was 70 cubits long, 60 broad, and day of the month Adar, in the sixth year of 60 high; this was 100 cubits long, 70 broad, and Darius, it was finished and dedicated (Ezra vi. 100 high. The porch was raised to the height of 15, 16), twenty-one years after it was begun, 100 cubits, and was extended 15 cubits beyond B. C. 515.The dimensions of this temple in each side of the rest of the building. All the breadth and height were double those of Solo- Jewish writers praise this temple exceedingly for mon's. The weeping of the people at the laying its beauty, and the costliness of its workmanship; of the foundation, therefore (Ezra iii. 12, 13), and for it was built of white marble, exquisitely the diminutive manner in which they spoke of it, wrought, and with stones of large dimensions, when compared with the first one (Hag. ii. 3), some of them 25 cubits long, 8 cubits high, and were not occasioned by its inferiority in size, 12 cubits thick. To these there is no doubt a but in glory. It wanted the five principal things reference in Mark xii. 1; Luke xxi. 5 : “ And as of the former, viz., the ark and mercy-seat he went out of the temple, one of his disciples -the Divine Presence, or visible glory of the saith unto him, Master, see what manner (Luke, shechina)—the holy fire on the altar—the Urim goodly) of stones, and what buildings are here !" and Thummim-and the spirit of prophecy. In 3. Of the several parts and courts of this temple the year A. M. 3837, this temple was plun- it is unnecessary that we should here speak. They dered and profaned by Antiochus Epiphanes, who have been already described, with some little ordered the discontinuance of the daily sacrifice,

* Lightfoot, Prospect of the Temple, chap. xxiii. Brown's Antiquities, vol. i., sect. vi.

† Lightfoot, Chronicle, in loco.

# Josephus, Antiq., b. xv., chap. i., xi, ; Prideaux, A.A.C. 37. || Ibid., b. xv., 11 ; Prideaux, A. A.C. 17; John ij. 20.

© Josephus, Wars, b. vi., chap. ii.

Josephus, Antiq. b. xv., chap. xi.

mon.

nances.

variation, in our account of the temple of Solo- | instructions, happened to say, “Destroy this tem

We

may add, however, that the vast sums ple, and in three days I will raise it up again” which Herod laid out in adorning this structure (John ii. 19); it was construed into a contempgave it the most magnificent and imposing form. tuous disrespect, designedly thrown out against the " Its appearance," says Josephus, “had every thing temple; his words instantly descended into the that could strike the mind, and astonish the sight. heart of a Jew, and kept rankling there for seveFor it was on every side covered with solid plates ral years; for upon his trial, this declaration, of gold, so that when the sun rose upon it, it which it was impossible for a Jew ever to forget reflected such a strong and dazzling effulgence, or to forgive, was alleged against him, as big with that the eye of the beholder was obliged to turn the most atrocious guilt and impiety, Matt. xxvi. away from it, being no more able to sustain its 61. Nor was the rancour and virulence which radiance than the splendour of the sun.” To this expression had occasioned, at all softened by strangers who approached the capital, it appeared all the affecting circumstances of that excruciating at a distance like a huge mountain covered with and wretched death they saw him die ; even as snow; for where it was not decorated with plates he hung upon the cross, with infinite triumph, of gold, it was extremely white and glistening.* scorn, and exultation, they upbraided him with it, The historian, indeed, says that the temple of contemptuously shaking their heads, and saying, Herod was the most astonishing structure he had “O thou, who couldst demolish our TEMPLE, and ever seen or heard of, as well on account of its rear it up again, in all its splendour, in the space architecture as its magnitude, and likewise the of three days, do now save thyself, and descend richness and magnificence of its various parts, and from the cross !" Matt. xxvii. 40. Their superthe fame and reputation of its sacred appurte- stitious veneration for the temple further appears

And Tacitus calls it immensæ opulentio from the account of Stephen. When his advertemplum-a temple of immense opulence. Its saries were baffled and confounded by that suexternal glory, indeed, consisted not only in the perior wisdom and those distinguished gifts he opulence and magnificence of the building, but possessed, they were so exasperated at the victory also in the rich gifts with which it was adorned,+ he had gained over them, that they went and and which excited the admiration of those who suborned persons to swear that they had heard beheld them, Luke xxi. 5.

him speak blasphemy against Moses and against 4. This splendid building, however, which was God. These inflaming the populace, the magisonce the admiration and envy of the world, has trates, and the Jewish clergy, he was seized, for ever passed away. According to our blessed dragged away, and brought before the Sanhedrin. Lord's prediction, that “there should not be left Iere the false witnesses, whom they had proone stone upon another that should not be thrown cured, stood up, and said, “ This person before down” (Mark xiii. 2), it was completely demo- you is continually uttering the most reproachful lished by the Roman soldiers, under Titus, A. D. expressions against this SACRED PLACE” (Acts 70, on the same month, and on the same day of vi. 13), meaning the temple. This was blasphemy the month, on which Solomon's temple was de- not to be pardoned. A judicature composed of stroved by the Babylonians.

high-priests and scribes would never forgive such V. Of the high veneration which the Jews impiety. We witness the same thing in the cherished for their temple, Dr. Harwood has col- case of Paul, when they imagined that he had lected some interesting particulars from Philo, taken Trophimus, an Ephesian, with him into the Josephus, and the writings of Luke. Their re- temple, and for which insult they had determined verence for the sacred edifice was such, that, to imbrue their hands in his blood, Acts xxi. rather than witness its defilement, they would 28, &c. cheerfully submit to death.|| They could not VI. We have only to add, that from several pasbear the least disrespectful or dishonourable thing sages of Scripture it appears that the Jews had a to be said of it. The least injurious slight of it, body of soldiers who guarded the temple, to prereal or apprehended, instantly awakened all the vent any disturbance during the ministration of choler of a Jew, and was an affront never to be such an immense number of priests and Levites. forgiven. Our Saviour, in the course of his public To this body of men, whose office it was to guard

the temple, Pilate probably referred, when he

said to the chief-priests and Pharisees who waited * Wars, b. V., chap. v.

on him to desire he would make the sepulchre + Josephus, Antiq. b. xv., chap. xi.

Josephus, Wars, b. vi., chap. iv.
|| Philo and Josephus, in several places,

8 Harwood's Introduction, vol. i., 103 - 173

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