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chap. x. 34. See also chap. xiii. 30, 31.* In mentions the ten sons of Haman, he repeats them addition to these fasts and festivals, the modern rapidly, without taking breath, to show that these Jewish calendar is crowded with a multitude of ten persons were destroyed in a moment. Whenothers; but as there is no mention of them ever the name of Haman is pronounced, the in Scripture, it is no part of our business to children furiously strike the benches with mallets, notice them. There are two festivals, however, or stones, and make lamentable cries. It is said which we have not enumerated in those above that they used to bring into the Synagogue a great mentioned, that demand a specific notice, viz., stone, with Haman written on it, and that all the the Feast of the Dedication, and the Feast of while the book of Esther was reading, they struck Purim.
it with other stones, till they had beaten it to 1. The Feast OF THE DEDICATION, which was pieces. After the reading is concluded, they appointed by Judas Maccabeus, as a new dedi- return home, where they make a meal rather of cation of the temple and altar, after they had milk-meats than of flesh. Early on the following been polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes, on the morning, they again repair to the Synagogue, 25th of the ninth month ( Chisleu), B. C. 170,+ where, after reading the account of the war of lasted for eight days. From the general illumi- Amalek (Exod. xvii.), they again read the book nation which took place during the continuance of Esther, with a repetition of the ceremonies of this festival, it obtained the name of “the Feast we have noticed. After quitting the Synagogue, of Lights.” The greatest religious countenance they make good cheer at home, and pass the rest which was given to it while the temple stood, was
of the day in sports and dissolute mirth ; the men the singing the Hallel there every day, as long as
dressing themselves in women's clothes, and the the solemnity lasted. It is but once mentioned women in men’s, contrary to the express proin Scripture, viz., in John x. 22, where Jesus is hibition of Deut. xxii. 5. Their doctors have said to have been present at it.
decided that they may drink wine till they cannot 2. The Feast of Purim, or of Lots, which distinguish between “cursed be Haman“ and commemorated the deliverance of the Jews from
“ cursed be Mordecai," because it was by comthe plot laid against them by Haman, under the pelling Ahasuerus to drink, that Mordecai obreign of Artaxerxes, was celebrated on the 13th, tained the deliverance of the Jews. They compel 14th, and 15th days of the twelfth month Adar. all—men, women, children, and servants to be The 13th was held as a fast, being the day on present at the Synagogue; because all shared which they were to have been destroyed; and the in the deliverance, as all were exposed to the two following days as a feast, for their glorious
danger. and providential deliverance. We know not whether any particular sacrifices were offered at
SECTION IV. the temple on this occasion ; but it is probable that the Book of Esther was read through by some of the priests, in the court of the women. Calmet The Land of Israel – The Tabernacle-- The Temples of Solomon, has collected from Basnage, and Leo of Modena, Zerubbabel, and Herod-Synagogues. a number of particulars relative to the manner of observing this Jewish feast, the chief of which BEFORE we notice the sacred buildings of the follow. On the eve of the feast they give alms Jewish people, it may be necessary to remark, that liberally to the poor, that these also may enjoy the whole land was by them considered as sacred, the feast of Lots; and on the feast-day they send a and was thence termed the Holy Land. They share of what they have at table to those who need. divided the whole world into two general parts, On the evening of the 13th, they assemble in the the land of Israel and the land out of Israel, the synagogue, and light the lamps; and as soon as latter being considered as profane and unclean. the stars begin to appear, they begin to read the The whole land of Israel was holy, not excepting book of Esther, which they go through. There Samaria ; nor even Idumea, after its inhabitants had are five places in the text in which the reader embraced the Jewish religion. As for Syria, they raises his voice with all his might, and makes considered it between the two; that is, neither such a dreadful howling as to frighten the women quite holy, nor altogether profane. Besides the and children. When he comes to the place which holiness ascribed in Scripture to the land of Israel
in general, as it was the inheritance of God's
people, and the place appointed for His worship, * Jennings' Jewish Antiq., book iii., chap. 11. the Jews were pleased to attribute different de+ Prideaux, Connex. A. A. C. 170.
grees of holiness to its several parts, according to Lightfoot, Temple Service, chap. xvi., sect. 5
their different situations. Those parts, for in
stance, which lay beyond Jordan, were reputed a prodigious expense, so that it might be in some less holy than those that were on this side ; be measure suitable to the dignity of the Great cause the sanctity of a place was in proportion King, for whose palace it was designed ; and to to its contiguity to the temple.* Walled towns the value of those spiritual and eternal blessings, of were also considered as being more clean and which it was also designed as a type or emblem. holy than other places, because lepers were ex- 3. The value of the gold and silver only, used cluded from them, and the dead were not buried for the work, and of which we have an account there. Even the
very dust of Israel was esteemed in Exod. xxxviii. 24, 25, amounted, according to to be pure, while that of other nations was con- Bishop Cumberland's reduction of the Jewish sidered as polluted and profane. This will per- talent and shekel to English coin, to upwards of haps explain the direction given by our Saviour £182,568. If we add to this the vast quantity to his apostles, that when they departed out of of brass or copper that was also used; the shittimany house or city that would not receive them, wood, of which the boards of the tabernacle, as they should shake off the dust of their feet, as a well as the pillars which surrounded the court, testimony against the inhabitants, and as an inti- and sacred utensils, were made; as also the rich mation that they were now on a level with embroidered curtains and canopies that covered heathens and idolaters.t
the tabernacle, divided the parts of it, and sur
rounded the court; and if we further add the § 1.—The Tabernacle.
jewels that were set in the high-priest's ephod
and breast-plate, which are to be considered as 1. We have an account of three public taber- part of the furniture of the tabernacle; the value nacles among the Jews, prior to the building of of the whole materials, exclusive of workmanship, Solomon's temple. The first, which Moses erected must have amounted to an immense sum. This for himself, is called “the tabernacle of the con- was raised partly by voluntary contributions and gregation.” In this he gave audience, heard presents, and partly by a poll-tax of half a shekel causes, and inquired of God. Perhaps the public a-head for every male Israelite above twenty years offices of religious worship were also performed old (ch. xxx. 11–16), which amounted to 100 in it for some time, and hence its designation. talents, and 1775 shekels, that is, £35,359 78. 6d. The second tabernacle was that which Moses built sterling, ch. xxxviii. 25. for God, by his express command, partly to be 4. The learned Spencer|| imagined that Moses the place of his residence as king of Israel (Exod. borrowed his design of the tabernacle from Egypt. xl. 34, 35), and partly to be the medium of that But this notion, as Jennings has shown, is disolemn worship which the people were to render rectly at variance with matter of fact, the structo him, ver. 26–29. The third public tabernacle ture of Moses differing most essentially from those was that which David erected in his own city, used in the heathen worship, in situation and for the reception of the ark, when he received it form, as well as in typical design and use, as from the house of Obed-edom, 2 Sam. vi. 17; pointed out by the apostle in the ninth chapter of 1 Chron. xvi. 1. But it is of the second of these the Hebrews.ş tabernacles that we have to treat, which was 5. The building itself was of an oblong rectancalled the Tabernacle, by way of distinction. I gular form, thirty cubits long, ten broad, and ten
2. Moses, having been instructed by God to in height (Exod. xxvi. 18—29, xxxvi. 23–34); rear this structure according to the pattern shown that is, according to Bishop Cumberland, fifty-five to him in the mount, called the people together, feet long, eighteen broad, and eighteen high. The and informed them of his purpose, with a view to two sides and the western end were formed of afford them an opportunity of contributing to- boards of shittim-wood, overlaid with thin plates wards so noble and honourable a work (Exod. of gold, and fixed in solid sockets, or vases of xxv. 2; xxxv. 5). And so liberally did the peo- silver. Above, they were secured by bars of the ple bring their offerings, that he was obliged to same wood, overlaid with gold, passing through restrain them in so doing (ver. 21—xxxvi. 7). rings of gold, which were fixed to the boards. On The building we are now about to describe was the east end, which was the entrance, there were constructed with extraordinary magnificence, and at no boards, but only five pillars of shittim-wood,
whose chapiters and fillets were overlaid with gold,
having hooks of gold, standing on five sockets of * See Lightfoot, Temple Service, chap. i. + Reland. Palestina, chap. iv., &c. ; Beausobre and L'Enfant, Introd. 45, quarto.
|| Legibus de Hebræorum, lib. iii., dis. I, c. 3; vi. 1. # Jennings's Jewish Antiq., b. ii., ch. 1.
f Jewish Antiquities, b. ii., ch. 1.
bruss. The tabernacle, thus erected, was covered the court, of fine twined white linen yarn (Exod. with four different kinds of curtains. The first xxvii. 9, xxxviii. 8, 16); except that at the enand inner curtain was composed of fine linen, trance on the east end, which was of blue, and magnificently embroidered with figures of cheru- purple, and scarlet, and fine white twined linen, bim, in shades of blue, purple, and scarlet : this with cords to draw it either up or aside, when the formed the beautiful ceiling. The next covering priests entered the court, Exod. xxxix. 40. was made of goats' hair ; the third, of rams' skins, 8. Within this area stood the altar of burntdyed red; and the fourth and outward covering offerings,t and the laver and its foot. The former was made of badgers' skins, as our translators have was placed in a line between the door of the it, but which is not quite certain; the original court and the door of the tabernacle, but nearer denotes only skins of some description, dyed of a the former (Exod. xl. 6, 29); the latter stood particular colour. * We have already said, that between the altar of burnt-offering and the door the east end of the tabernacle had no boards, but of the tabernacle, Exod. xxxviii. 8. only five pillars of shittim-wood; it was therefore 9. We now proceed to describe the furniture enclosed with a richly embroidered curtain, sus
which the tabernacle contained. pended from these pillars, Exod. xxvii. 16. (1) In the holy place were three objects worthy
6. Such was the external appearance of the of notice, viz., the altar of incense, the table for sacred tent, which was divided into two apart- the shew-bread, and the candlestick for the lights. ments, by means of four pillars of shittim-wood, 1. The altar of incense was made of shittim-wood, overlaid with gold, like the pillars before de- and completely covered with plates of gold. It scribed, two cubits and a half distant from each was a cubit square, and two cubits in height; the other ; only they stood on sockets of silver, instead horns at its corners being also of the same mateof sockets of brass (Exod. xxvi. 32, xxxvi. 36); rials. The crown or ornamental cornice was of and on these pillars was hung a veil, formed of gold; and under this were placed four rings of the same materials as the one placed at the east the same precious metal, for the purpose end, Exod. xxvi. 31–33, xxxvi. 35. We are not ceiving the staves of shittim-wood and gold, by informed in what proportions the interior of the which it was to be carried from place to place, tabernacle was thus divided; but it is generally Exod. xxx. 1–5, xxxvii. 25—28. The position thought to have been divided in the same pro- of this altar was in the middle of the sanctuary, portion as the temple afterwards built according before the veil (Exod. xxx. 6—10, xl. 26, 27), to its model; that is, two thirds of the whole and on it the incense was burned morning and length being allotted to the first room, or the holy evening, Exod. xxx. 34–38. On the north side place, and one third to the second, or most holy of the altar of incense, that is, on the right hand place. Thus the former would be twenty cubits of the priest as he entered, stood, 2. The table for long, ten wide, and ten high ; and the latter ten the shero-bread, Exod. xxvi. 35, xl. 22, 23. This cubits
every way. It is observable that neither was made of the same materials as the altar, and the holy nor the most holy place had any win-was two cubits in length, a cubit in breadth, and dow. Hence the need of the candlestick in the a cubit and a half in height, having a crown or one, for the service that was performed therein : ornamental cornice round about, and a border and the darkness of the other would create reverence, a second crown above this, Exod. xxv. 23—25, and might, perhaps, have suggested the similar xxxvii. 10-12. The staves and rings belonging contrivance of the Adyta in the heathen temples. to it were of the same description as those be
7. The tabernacle, thus described, stood in an longing to the altar; and its dishes, spoons, covers, open space, of an oblong form, 100 cubits in and bowls were all of pure gold, Exod. xxv. 26— length and 50 in breadth, situated due east and 30, xxxvii. 13–17. 3. The golden candlestick west (Exod. xxvii. 18); and surrounded by pillars stood on the south side of the holy place, and was of brass
, filleted with silver, at the distance of of beaten gold, consisting of seven branches for five cubits from each other. The sockets of these lights
, Exod. xxv. 23–30. These, with their pillars were of brass; and they were fastened to snuffers and snuff-dishes, were made of a talent, the earth by pins of the same metal, Exod. xxxviii. or 125 pounds troy, of pure gold (ver. 31–39, 10, 17, 20. Their height is not stated, but it was xxxvii. 17—24; Numb. viii. 2–4), which, at probably five cubits, that being the length of the curtains that were suspended on them (Exod. xxxviii. 18), and which formed an inclosure round + The fire on this altar was regarded as sacred, having first
descended from heaven : it was therefore to be kept constantly burning, and never to go out, Lev. ix. 24, vi. 23. It was care
fully preserved till the time of Solomou, when it was renewed, * See Dr. A. Clarke, Comment, on Exod. xxvi. and the: ce coutinued till the capuvity.
Mr. Scott sup
four pounds sterling the ounce, would have been the blessed Trinity, with the human nature taken worth six thousand pounds sterling. The lamps into the divine essence, for the work of human were kept burning with pure beaten olive oil, redemption; making the work of creation and morning and evening, Exod. xxvii. 20, 21; Numb. providence evidently subservient to that end. I viii. 1-4.
Dr. Doddridge, Mr. Wesley, and Bishop Mant (2) In the most holy place there were also three consider them as hieroglyphics of the angelic things claiming attention ; viz. the ark, the mercy- nature. Dr. Priestley imagines them to have been seat, and the cherubim. 1. The ark was a chest representatives of all nature. of shittim-wood, overlaid within and without with poses them to have been emblems of the true pure gold. It was two cubits and a half in ministers of the gospel. Dr. A. Clarke regards length, a cubit and a half in breadth, and a cubit them as the representatives of the All Mighty, and a half in height, having an ornamental cornice and those creatures by whom he produced the of gold round the top, and four rings for the great effects of his power, to whatever order of staves, to carry it; which were of shittim-wood, beings they may belong; while Pyle, Hall, and overlaid with gold. These staves always remained, Faber consider them as emblematical representabut drawn so far towards the veil, as to allow the tions of the body of true believers, of both disark to stand at the wall of the apartment (Exod. pensations, legal and evangelical. It is observxxv. 10–15, xxxvii. 1–5.) Into the ark were able that one leading idea runs through most of put, by divine appointment, the testimony, or the interpretations, which refers them to the plan tables of the covenant (Exod. xxv. 16–21 ; Deut. of redemption, either in its authors, its agents, its x. 1–5); a golden pot, containing an omer of subjects, or its general history. the manna with which the Israelites were fed in 10. This remarkable and costly structure was the wilderness, to be kept as a testimony of that erected in the wilderness of Sinai, on the first wonderful event (Exod. xvi. 32–34; Heb. ix. day of the first month of the second year, after 4); and Aaron's rod that budded (Numb. xvii. the Israelites left Egypt (Exod. xl. 17); and when 6_11; Heb. ix. 4).* In the side of the ark was erected, was anointed, together with its furniture, a place where Moses enjoined that a copy of the with holy oil (ver. 9–11), and sanctified by law should be kept (Deut. xxxi. 24–26). 2. blood (Exod. xxiv. 6, 8; Heb. ix. 21). The altar The mercy-seat was a covering to the ark, made of of burnt-offering, especially, was sanctified by pure gold (Exod. xxv. 17–21, xxvi. 34, xxxvii. sacrifices during seven days (Exod. xxix. 37), 6); and upon this were placed, 3. The cherubim, while rich donations were given by the princes two figures of a singular appearance, each having of the tribes, for the service of the sanctuary, four faces, viz., the face of a lion, the face of a Numb. vii. man, the face of a calf, and the face of an eagle- 11. We must not omit to notice, that the taberall attached to a human body with four wings, and nacle was so constructed as to be taken to pieces four hands under the wings, and standing on feet re- and put together again, as occasion required. This sembling those of a calf or an ox (Ezek. i. 5–14). was indispensable; it being designed to accomThey were of pure beaten gold; two of their wings pany the Israelites during their travels in the covered their bodies, and the other two were ex- wilderness, till their arrival in the promised land. tended over the mercy-seat, while their faces As often as they removed, therefore, the tabernacle looked inward and downward upon it. It was was taken down, and borne in regular order by from between these that Jehovah promised to meet the Levites (Numb. iv.). Whenever they enthe Israelites as their lawgiver and covenant God, camped, the tabernacle was pitched in the midst
, and to deliver the commandments which he might the tribes taking their stations around in a quadthink proper to give them, Exod. xxv. 18—22, rangular form, under their respective standards, at xxxvii. 7–9.7 Nothing, perhaps, has afforded a the distance of two thousand cubits; while Moses greater scope for the ingenuity of commentators than and Aaron, with the priests and Levites, occupied a these cherubic emblems. Without adverting to the place between the camp and the sacred structure. opinions of ancient theologians, we find sufficiently discordant ones among those of the most eminent modern writers. Hutchinson, Bate, and Park
# See Hutchinson's works ; Bates's Inquiry into the occahurst maintain that they were representations of
sional and standing similitudes of the Lord; Parkburst's Heb.
, || See their respective commentaries ; Hales's Analysis ; and
Faber's Horæ Mos. For a well-written paper in support of the * The two latter had been removed from the ark before the last-mentioned opinion, see Gentlenian's Mag. vol. xciii., pp. time of Solomon. See 1 Kings viii. 9.
118-122, or Critica Biblica. vol. i., † Brown's Antiq, vol. i , p. 22.
Lamy's App. Bib., b. i, chap. 4.
12. Before we close this section, we may advert, through the wilderness of this world. Nor could to the spiritual reflections which the tabernacle they overlook the mercy-seat, as pointing out the and its furniture might excite in the minds of divine goodness to offending sinners ;* and the pious Israelites; for the apostle instructs us, that cherubim of glory, which, by looking down to that they were “a shadow of good things to come" propitiatory, represented the delight of the Trinity (Heb. ix. 9, x. 1). The curtains, then, around the in this their work of mercy and love.t tent, might teach them a holy reverence for divine things; the altar of burnt-offering pointed to the perfection of the Messiah’s sacrifice ; and the laver
§ 2.- The Temple. taught them the necessity of regeneration, and of daily application to that fountain which was I. Having surveyed the tabernacle, we proceed opened in the house of David, and to the in- to the temple at Jerusalem, which was formed habitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for unclean- upon the model of the former edifice, but built ness. The tabernacle in general, where Jehovah upon a much more extended and magnificent condescended to reside, was a type of the body of scale. It has been thought that there were three Christ, in which, as in a tent, he tabernacled different temples: the first being built by David while on earth. The silver sockets, forming the and Solomon; the second, by Zerubbabel and foundation, might remind them of those important Joshua the high-priest; and the third, by Herod, doctrines on which all evangelical religion is a little before the birth of Christ. The Jews, founded; and, by being made of the half shekels however, acknowledge but two, not allowing the exacted of every male in Israel, they were calcu- third to be a new temple, but only the second one lated to show the personal interest that each should repaired and beautified. And this is thought take in religion and its worship. The outer cover- best to agree with the prophecy of Haggai (chap. ing of goats
' hair might point out the unattractive ii. 9), “The glory of this latter house shall be appearance of religion to the men of the world ; greater than that of the former;” which is genethe beautiful under-covering might indicate its rally interpreted with reference to the Messiah's glory as seen by the saints; the covering of rams' honouring it with his personal presence and skins, dyed red, might remind them of the efficacy ministry. I of the Messiah’s blood, as a hiding-place from the wind, and a covert from the tempest; while the covering of badgers' skins, which the Jewish tra
• The Heb. cophorelh is derived from a word which signifies ditions say was blue, might point out to them to cover or overspread, because, by an act of pardon, sins are
represented as being covered, so that they no longer appear in that true tabernacle which God had pitched, the eye of divine justice, to displease and call for punishinent; and not man.
Nor was spiritual instruction to be and the person of the offender is covered, or protected from the less derived from entering the sacred tent. For, stroke of the broken law. In the Septuagint, the word hilas
terion is used, which signifies a propitiatory, and is the naine in the holy place, the table of shew-bread was a
used by the apostle, Heb. ix, 5. As the word hilasterion, constant acknowledgment of God, as the giver of mercy-seat or propitiatory, is applied to Christ (Rom. iii. 25), every temporal blessing; the candlestick, with the “ whoin God hath set forth to be a PROPITIATION (hilasterion) lamps, pointed to the seven spirits of God, whence through faith in his blood—for the remission of sins that are
past,” we learn that Christ was the true mercy-seat, the thing all spiritual illumination proceeded ; and the altar signified by the caphoreth, to the ancient believers.
And we of incense taught them the efficacy of prayer, learn further, that it was by his blood that an atonement was to when offered up from a pure heart, and perfumed be made for the sins of the world. And as God showed himself with the incense of the Messiah’s merits. Nor it is said, “ God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto him
between the cherubim, over this propitiatory or mercy-seat, so were the instructions which might be derived from self," 2 Cor. v. 19, &c. See Dr. A. Clarke on Exod. xxv. 17. the most holy place less important; for the veil, + Brown's Antiq. vol. i., p. 33, &c that separated the two apartments, not only in- # Jennings' Jewish Antiq., b. ii., chap. 1. It is difficult to dicated the partition wall which divided the Jews reconcile this with the fact of Herod's rebuilding the temple of from the rest of the world, and was taken away b. xv., c. 11. For if he pulled down the old temple to its
Zerubbabel, as he is stated to have done by Josephus, Ant., by the death of Christ, but also that veil which foundations, and erected a new one, it is plain that this was a still conceals from mortal view the place of God's building as totally distinct from that of Zerubbabel, as that of peculiar residence; the tables of the law were an
Zerubbabel was from the temple of Solomon. How then are instance of God's condescension to his chosen Saviour did not appear while the second temple was standing?
we to reconcile the prophecy above cited, with the fact that our people; the rod that budded was emblematical of for we can hardly suppose that the Jewish historian has erred the unrivalled honour and unfading glory of a
in the statement which he has here made, corroborated as that greater than Aaron ; and the pot of manna, de- statement is by the evangelist in John ii. 20. Dr. Blaney has posited in the ark, typified the hidden manna, of brew," he remarks, the words will be found to stand precisely
attempted to do this by a different rendering. “In the He which all the saints are partakers, while travelling thus: Great shall be the glory of this house, the latter more