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brated seven weeks, or a week of weeks, after the the Hebrews of their fathers dwelling in tents in celebration of the former feast. It was also called the wilderness, Lev. xxiii. 40_43; and (2) to be “ the feast of harvest,” and “the day of first- a yearly thanksgiving after the ingathering of the fruits,” because the Jews then offered thanks to harvest, Exod. xxxiv. 22, &c. God for the bounties of the harvest, in bread 2. The mode of celebrating this festival was as baked of the new corn, Exod. xxiii. 16; Lev. follows. On the first day of the feast, which was xxiï. ; Numb. xxviii. Its object was to comme- accounted a sabbath, the people abstained from morate the giving of the law on Mount Sinai. all servile work, that they might have time to

2. The day on which the feast of Pentecost was construct their booths. These being erected, they celebrated was separated from a common to a sa- attended the public worship of the several days, cred use. All the males of Judea were ordered to and offered in their order the appropriate sacriattend at Jerusalem ; two wheaten cakes were fices, which were remarkable in the decrease presented as the first-fruits of the wheat-harvest, which took place on each successive day. Besides for the whole nation; and every individual laid the daily morning and evening sacrifices, which his first-fruits on the altar, as a token of gratitude were indispensable, they offered on the first day for the bounties of Providence. Another thing thirteen bullocks, two rams, fourteen lambs, and was the burnt-offering for the day, consisting of a kid of the goats, with their meat and drinkseven lambs of the first year, without blemish, offerings, Numb. xxix. 12–16. These offerings one young bullock, and two rams, and their ac- the six successive days were regularly decreased companying meat and drink-offerings. After this, one bullock on each day. But on the eighth day, a kid of the goats was offered for a sin-offering, which was accounted a sabbath, there were only and two lambs of the first year for a peace-offer- one bullock, one ram, seven lambs, and a kid of ing. The Hallel, or the whole of the Psalms, the goats, with their meat and drink-offerings : from cxij. to cxviii. inclusive, was then sung,

Numb. xxix. 17–38. which terminated the duties of the day.*

3. In the time of our Saviour some variations 3. The Christian church also celebrates the had been effected in the manner of observing this feast of Pentecost fifty days, or seven weeks, feast, through the traditions of the Pharisees. The after the Passover, or the resurrection of our Sa- first thing they did on the first day of the feast viour. There is little doubt but that the Pente- was to procure some palm and myrtle branches, cost after our Saviour's death fell on a Sunday.t and then go to a place a little below Jerusalem, The tradition among the Fathers is express, that on the brook of Kedron, for two willow branches on this day the church has always celebrated this each; one for his luleb, or bunch of palms and festival. There seems to be a remarkable corre-myrtle, bound up by means of a twig, a cord, a spondence between the giving of the law on Sinai, silver or golden thread, according to the taste of and the descent of the Holy Ghost on the day of the individual; the other to place at the side of Pentecost. The former was accompanied with the altar. Their lulebs they constantly carried in thunderings and lightnings, and the latter with a their right hands during the first day of the feast, mighty rushing wind and the appearance of and in their left a branch of the citron, with its tongues of fire.

fruit. The first place they resorted to was the IV. THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES.

temple, to attend the morning sacrifice. When 1. This was the last of the three great festivals, the parts of the sacrifice were laid on the altar, and, like the passover, lasted for a week, during the singular ceremony of pouring out the water which time the people left their ordinary dwell- commenced, the manner of doing which was as ings to abide in booths, or arbours, made of “ the follows :-One of the priests, with a golden flafruits of goodly trees, branches of palm-trees, gon, of three logs (or eighteen egg-shells full), boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook," | went to the pool of Siloam, where, filling it with Lev. xxiii. 40. Hence it is called by the evan- water, he returned to the court of the priests, by gelist, scenopegia, or the “ feast of tents,” John the gate on the south side of the court of Israel, vii. 2. The booths were erected in the temple, thence called the water-gate. The trumpets in the public places, in courts, and on the flat sounded on his entering the court, and he asroofs of the houses. The time appointed for the cended to the top of the altar, where were placed celebration of this feast was the 15th of the two basins, the one with wine, for the ordinary month Tizri; its design being (1) to remind drink-offering, and the other for the water which

he had procured. Pouring the water into the empty bason, he mixed the wine and the water | gate, the priests turned themselves rourd to the together, for the libation. When he raised the temple, and uttered the following words: “Our bason for the purpose of pouring forth its con- fathers which were in this place turned their tents, the people cried, “ Hold up thy hand:” backs upon the temple of the Lord, and their faces this was for the purpose of seeing whether he did towards the east, towards the sun; but as for us, it in a proper manner; for a Sadducee, in con- we are towards him, and our eyes are towards tempt of their traditions, instead of pouring it him.” They then returned to the court of Israel, over the altar, had once poured it upon his own by the court of the women, and entered the court feet. At the time of this libation they sang the of the priests by the gate Nicanor. Hallel (Ps. cxii.—cxviii. inclusive); and when 5. It is difficult to account for the excessive joy they came to the beginning of Ps. cxviii., “O give manifested on the occasion of pouring out the thanks unto the Lord,” the people expressed the water, as above related. There is, however, one ardoar of their feelings by shaking their branches. remarkable passage in the Talmud : “Rabbi Levi

* Lightfoot's Temple Service, ch. xiv., sect. 3.

† See Holden on the Sabbath, p. 233, &c.

Lightfoot's Temple Service, chap. xvi., sect. I.

4. Immediately after this part of the service saith, why is the name of it called the drawing of was concluded, the people joined in the peculiar rater ? Because of the drawing or pouring out service of the day, while the burnt-offering, which of the Holy Ghost : according to what is said, we have before described, was consuming, the With joy shall ye draw water out of the wells of Levites sung the one hundred and fifth psalm. salvation,' Isai. xii. 3.” This will serve to illusThe offering for the prince was next presented, trate John vii. 37, 38, which plainly alludes to the and the people were allowed to return home. As custom. On the last and great day of the feast, they departed from the temple, they went in suc- when they had for seven days rejoiced over the cession round the altar ; set one of their willow drawing and libation of water, which they referred branches against it, repeating aloud, “Save now, to the pouring out of the Holy Spirit, our Saviour I beseech thee, O Lord; O Lord, I beseech thee, “stood and cried, “If any man thirst, let him send now prosperity” (Ps. cxviii. 25); and return- come to me and drink : he that believeth on me, ing through the gates in the court of Israel, nearest out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water.' the altar, they exclaimed, “Beauty be to thee, But this spake he of the Spirit,” &c.* () altar: beauty be to thee, O altar.” At the time 6. The learned Joseph Mede is of opinion, that of the evening sacrifice they again assembled in this feast was celebrated at the time of the year

in the temple ; after which, and near night, they which the Saviour was to appear, and that the observed the rejoicing for the pouring out of the dwelling in tabernacles was designed as a type of water." The manner of performing the ceremony his incarnation. In support of his opinion the was this : They all met in the court of the women; evangelist John is cited, who, speaking of the inthe women in the balconies which surrounded the carnation of the Son of God, says, “ The word three sides of the court, and the men below, on was made flesh, and dwelt (rue normwoev ev nuwv) the ground. The court was lighted by a large —tabernacled in or among us,” John i. 14. golden candlestick with four lamps, one on each

V. THE FEAST OF THE NEw Moon. side, which were raised to a great height. Every Although Moses appointed particular sacrifices thing being arranged, the pipe of the temple began to be offered on the first day of every month to play; the Levites, with their instruments, took (Numb. xxviii. 11, 12), he gave no directions for their seats on the steps which led from the court its consecration as a holy day, on which the people of the women up to the gate of Nicanor ; while were to abstain from servile labour. That it at those who could join in the vocal department also length obtained this character, however, is evident took their stations. They then sang the “Psalms from Amos viii. 5, where the avaricious man is of degrees, from cxx.—cxxxiv, inclusive, while all represented as waiting for the termination of the the people of rank and piety leaped and danced, day, that he may sell corn. Of this festival there with torches in their hands, for a great part of the is frequent mention made in the Old Testament, night; while the women and common people where it is called “the beginning of months,

At the time appointed for concluding and on which it seems to have been customary this rejoicing, two priests appeared in the gate for the people to resort to the prophets, for the Nicanor, with trumpets in their hands, which they purpose of hearing the word of God (2 Kings sounded. They then descended to the tenth step, iv. 2), and also to hold some kind of entertainand sounded a second time; then to the court of ment.

See 2 Sam. xx. 5, 18. The new moon the women, and sounded a third time; after which they advanced towards the east, or beautiful gate, sounding as they went. The people then retired

* Lightfoot, Temple Service, chap. xvi. ; Calmet's Bib. Ency. ; before them, and when they had reached the east | Jennings's Jewish Antiq. b. iii., c. 6.

looked on.

mentioned in Ps. lxxxi. 3, was probably that at the sin-offering for the high-priest and his family, the beginning of the month Tizri, which was dis- and the two goats which the priest was to receive tinguished from the rest by peculiar rites, of which from the congregation; one of which he was to we shall presently speak.

offer for their sins, and the other to send by the VI. THE FEAST OF TRUMPETS.

hands of a fit man into the wilderness. The This feast was held on the new moon which manner of selecting the goat for the sacrifice does began the month Tizri, the first of the civil year, not appear in Scripture; but according to the and was so called from the blowing of trumpets, rabbins, it was by the casting of lots. When this which lasted during its continuance, Lev. xxiii. was done, the high-priest offered the prescribed 24; Numb. xxix. 1. On this festival all servile sacrifice as a sin-offering for himself and his work was prohibited, and a holy convocation of family, taking some of the blood into the most the people for religious purposes was held. The holy place, and sprinkling it with his finger upon peculiar sacrifices for the day are enumerated in the mercy-seat, and before it, seven times (Lev. Numb. xxix. 25. The Scriptures nowhere xvi. 12, 13), for the purpose of purifying it from assign the reason of this festival, and the learned the pollution which it may have contracted from are much divided upon it. Maimonides conceives his sins during the preceding year. I It should that it was designed to awaken and arouse the be observed, that the most holy place had been people to repentance against the great day of ex- previously filled with the smoke of the incense, piation, which occurred nine days afterwards for the purpose of preventing a sight of the mercyOthers affirm that the blowing of the trumpets seat. The high-priest then returned into the court was a commemoration of the substitution of the of the priests, to fetch the blood of the goat which ram in the place of Isaac, for a sacrifice on Moriah. was appointed for the sin-offering of the congreSome of the Christian Fathers, particularly Basil gation, to do with it as he had done with the and Theodoret, consider the sounding of the trum-blood of the bullock (Lev. xvi. 7-9, 15, 16). pets to have been a memorial of the giving of the The next thing was to make an atonement, in like law on Mount Sinai, which was accompanied with manner, for the tabernacle of the congregation, the sound of a trumpet. But the more general or court of the priests, and for the altar. This opinion is, that the festival was designed as a com- being done, the scape-goat was to be sent away memoration of the creation of the world, which into the wilderness; which was done in the folis supposed to have taken place at this season of lowing manner: the high-priest and the stationary the year. So that the feast of trumpets was the men who represented Israel, laid their hands upon new year's day, on which the people were solemnly its head,|| and confessed over it all the iniquities called to rejoice in a grateful remembrance of all of the people, and all their transgressions in all God’s benefits to them through the past year, as their sins, putting them on the head of the goat well as to implore his blessing for the one en-|(Lev. xvi. 20, 21); after which it was delivered

to the person appointed to lead it away, that it VII. THE FAST OF EXPIATION, or Day of might bear all their iniquities to a land of sepaATONEMENT.

ration, where they should be remembered no more, 1. This fast was celebrated on the tenth day of ver. 22. the month Tizri, according to Lev. xvi. It was to

3. The whole of this solemn proceeding afbe observed as a strict fast; the people abstaining forded a lively representation of the atonement from all servile work, taking no food, and afflicting which was to be made for the sins of men, by the their souls, ver. 29. This is thought to be the blood of Jesus Christ; and a remarkable analogy

fast mentioned in Acts xxvii. 9. Of all the sacri- to it may be traced in the course of our Lord's fices ordained in the Mosaic ritual, the sacrifice of ministry. He began it with personal purification the atonement was the most important. On this at his baptism, to fulfill all legal righteousness, day the high-priest was to perform the most solemn part of his ministry, for which he was prepared by a number of significant ceremonies. 2. The victims offered on this day, including

This was the only time during the course of the year in the daily burnt-offerings, were fifteen : of these which the high-priest was permitted to enter the sanctuary. He

was not to be dressed in his pontifical garments, but in the we can notice only the most remarkable, viz., simple sacerdotal vestments, because it was a day of humiliation

suing. *

and contrition.

|| By this ceremony the sinner deprecated the wrath of God, • Jenning's Jewish Antiq. b. iii., ch. 7.

and prayed that it might fall on the head of that victim, which

he put in his own stead. Witsius on the Covenants, rol. ii., See Lightfoot, Temple Service, chap. 15.

p. 217.

Matt. iï. 13–15. Immediately after his bap- like manner thou shalt deal with thy vineyard, tism, he was led, by the impulse of the Holy and with thy olive-yard," Exod. xxiii. 10, 11. Spirit, into the wilderness, as the true scape-goat, During this period, therefore, the land was to lie who bore array our infirmities, and carried off our fallow, and “enjoy its sabbath.” Michaëlis will diseases, Isai. liii. 46; Matt. viii. 17. Imme- not allow that this institution was designed to diately before his crucifixion, he was afflicted, and teach the doctrine of a special providence towards his soul ras exceeding sorrowful unto death, when the inhabitants of the land: but that it was so, he was to be made a sin-offering, like the allotted seems clear from Lev. xxv. 20, 21 : “And if ye goat (Ps. xl. 12; Isai. liii. 7; Matt. xxvi. 38; shall say, What shall we eat the seventh year? 2 Cor. v. 21; Heb. i. 3); and his sweat, as great Behold, we shall not sow nor gather in our indrops of blood falling to the ground, corresponded crease ; then will I command my blessing on you to the sprinkling of the mercy-seat (Luke xxii. upon the sixth year, and it shall bring forth fruit 44); and when, to prepare for his own sacrifice, for three years.” As long, therefore, as the sabhe consecrated himself in prayer to God (John batic year should be kept by the inhabitants of xvii. 1–5; Matt. xxvi. 39_46), and then prayed Judea, God would be performing a perpetual mirafor his household, his apostles, and his disciples cle, which none of them could mistake. The (John xvii. 6_9), and for all future believers, seventh year was the year of release from perver. 20-26. He put off his garments at his sonal slavery (Exod. xxi. 2), and of the remission crucifixion, when he became the sin-offering (Ps. of debts (Deut. xv. 1, 2). It was also during Ixii. 18; John xix. 23, 24); and as our spiritual this year that the law was read to the people at high-priest he entered once for all into the most the feast of tabernacles, Deut. xxxi. 10–13. holy place, heaven, to make intercession with God 2. It is observable that there is no express for all his faithful followers, Heb. vii. 24–28; ix. mention of the observance of this institution in the 7–15: Who died for our sins, and rose again for sacred writings; and it is probable, therefore, that our justification, Rom. iv. 25. It is observable the faithlessness of the people led them to disthat the troo goats seem to make only one sacrifice, trust the promise of God, and to sow and gather yet only one of them was slain. Thus they pointed during the seventh, as well as other years. Moses, out both the divine and human natures of Christ, indeed, seems to have anticipated this ; for when, and showed both his death and resurrection. The in Lev. xxvi., he threatens the Israelites, among goat that was slain prefigured his human nature other judgments for disobedience, with the desoand his death, and the scape-goat pointed out his lation of their land, he says (ver. 34), “Then shall resurrection; the one represented the atonement the land hold the sabbaths which it had not held made for the sins of the world, as the ground of before.” And the breach of this law is specified justification; the other, Christ's victory, and the as one of the national sins which brought on the removal of sin, in the sanctification of the soul. captivity, that the land might enjoy her sabbaths, The divine and human natures in the person of 2 Chron. xxxvi. 21. After the return to Judea, the Saviour were essential to make an expiation they are known to have observed this institution ; or atonement for the sins of mankind; yet the and Alexander the Great granted an exemption human nature alone suffered ; for the divine could from taxes in the sabbatical years, t 1 Macc. vi. 49, not suffer ; but its presence in the human nature

53. made the sacrifice and death of Christ to be a full,

IX. THE JUBILEE. perfect, and sufficient oblation and satisfaction for 1. This was the grand sabbatical year, celebrated the sins of the whole world.*

every forty-ninth and fiftieth year; and was VIII. THE SABBATICAL YEAR.

ushered in with trumpets, throughout all the land 1. The statute relative to this extraordinary festi- of Israel, on the tenth day of the month Tizri, ral is as follows: “Six years thou shalt sow thy or the day of annual expiation, Lev. xxv. 9. All land, and shalt gather in the fruits thereof; but debts were now to be cancelled, and all slaves and the seventh year thou shalt let it rest and lie still, captives to be set at liberty; for the Hebrews that the poor of thy people may eat; and what were to“ proclaim liberty throughout all the land, they leave, the beasts of the field shall eat. In and to all the inhabitants thereof,” Lev. xxv. 10.

Such estates as had been mortgaged, or otherwise pledged, now reverted back to their original proprietors, except houses in walled towns, to which the liberty of returning to our own possession, to this privilege did not extend, Lev. v. 30. which, having incurred a forfeiture by sin, we had

* See Hales' Analysis of Chronology, vol. ji, b. 1, p. 274, &c.; Godwyn's Moses and Aaron, b. iii., chap. 8; Lamy's App. Bib., b. i., chap. 6; Jennings' Jewish Antiq., b. iii., ch.8; + Josephus, Antiq., b. xi., ch. 8, xii. 9, xiii. 8, xiv. 16. See Witsius on the Covenants, vol. ii., b. iv., chap. 6, § 48; Beau- also Michaëlis on the Laws of Moses, vol. i., pp. 387, &c.; sobre and L'Enfant's Introd., p. 143, &c., 4to.

and Jennings Jewish Antiq., b. iii., chap. 9.

2. The reason and design of the law of jubilee, lost all right and claim.* says Dr. Jennings, was partly political, and partly 4. What was remarked concerning the nontypical. It was political, to prevent the two great observance of the sabbatical year by the Jewish oppression of the poor, as well as their being people, may also be extended to the year of liable to perpetual slavery. By this means the jubilee. Nowhere in history is its celebration rich were prevented from accumulating lands either mentioned or insinuated. Nowhere do upon lands, and a kind of equality was preserved the sacred writers reckon by years of jubilee, through all their families. Never was there any which would have been a much more convenient people whose liberty and property were so effec- chronology than to date by the reign of their tually secured as the Israelites. God not only kings. From 2 Chron. xxxvi. 21, Michaëlis infers engaged to protect those invaluable blessings by that the celebration of the sabbatical year was his providence, that they should not be despoiled intermitted for seventy times in succession ; and of them by others; but provided in a particular the jubilee, of consequence, for ten times. He manner, by this law, that they should not be remarks, “after it is there said, that for seventy thrown away through their own folly ; since the years the land had, during the Babylonian capproperty which every man or family had in their tivity, kept sabbath, that is, lain fallow, it is dividend in the land of Canaan, could not be related, even until she should comfort herself for sold or in any way alienated for more than half a her disturbed sabbaths, and be as it were satisfied;" century. By this means, also, was the distinction or, as he proposes to render it, “ until she had of tribes preserved, in respect both to their numbered her unkept sabbaths." Here there is a families and possessions ; for this law rendered it manifest reference to Lev. xxvi. 34, 35: “Then necessary for them to keep genealogies of their shall the land enjoy her sabbaths, as long as it families, that they might be able, when there was lieth desolate, and ye be in your enemy's land; occasion, in the jubilee year to prove their right even then shall the land rest, and enjoy her to the inheritance of their ancestors. By this sabbaths : as long as it lieth desolate it shall rest ; means it was known to a certainty of what tribe because it did not rest in your sabbaths, when ye and family the Messiah sprung. Upon this dwelt


it.”+ Dr. Allix observes, that God did not suffer them X. Besides the festivals appointed by the to continue in captivity out of their own land Mosaic law, we find intimations of the observance for the space of two jubilees, lest by that means of other festivals and fasts by the Jewish people, their genealogies should be lost or confounded. in various parts of Scripture. Thus Jeremiah A further civil use of the jubilee might be, for speaks of the fast of the fourth month, on account the readier computation of time. For, as the of the taking of Jerusalem by the Chaldeans Greeks computed by olympiads, the Romans by (chap. lii. 6, 7); and of the tenth month, when lustra, and we by centuries; the Jews probably the Babylonian army began the siege of Jerusalem, reckoned by jubilees; and it might be one de

We also read of the fast of the fifth sign of this institution to mark out these large month, on account of the burning of the city and portions of time for the readier computation of temple by the Chaldeans (2 Kings xxv. 8), and successive years

of the seventh month, in memory of the murder 3. The typical use and design of the jubilee of Gedaliah, ver. 25. These fasts are all menis pointed out by the prophet Isaiah, when he tioned together in Zech. viii. 19, to which we says, in reference to the Messiah, “The Spirit of may, perhaps, add the feast Xylophoria, or of the the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord hath wood-offering, when the people brought great anointed me to preach good tidings unto the store of wood to the temple for the use of the meek; he hath sent me to bind the broken- altar. This is said to be grounded on the followhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and ing passage in Nehemiah : “We cast the lots the opening of the prison to them that are bound, among the priests, the Levites, and the people, for to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord,” the wood-offering, to bring it into the house of Isai. Ixi. 1, 2. Here," the acceptable year of our God, after the house of our fathers, at times the Lord,” when “liberty was proclaimed to the appointed year by year, to burn upon the altar of captives,” and “the opening of the prison to them the Lord our God, as it is written in the law," that were bound,” evidently refers to the Jubilee ; but, in the prophetic sense, it means the gospel state and dispensation, which proclaims spiritual Jewish Autiquities, b. iii., chap. 10.

* Godwyn's Moses and Aaron, b. iii., chap. 10; Jennings liberty from the bondage of sin and Satan, and + Michaelis on the Law of Moses, vol. i, p. 415.

ver. 4.

of ages.

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