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Chap. I.-THE MEDIA OF DIVINE REVELATION.

Divine Revelation originally vouchsafed to Individuals-Cessation of Personal Revelations-The Bible the only

Medium of Revelation-Inspiration of the Scriptures—Various Theories of Inspiration—The Author's Theory

of Inspiration-Discrepancies in 'the Gospels Proofs against their Plenary Inspiration, but Attestations of their

Genuineness and General Authenticity-Character and Claims of the Bible

243

Chap. II.-THE OBJECT OF DIVINE REVELATION.

The Necessity for a Divine Revelation Stated–The great Objects of Revelation- The Harmony subsisting

amongst the various Portions of Revelation-The Law Introductory and Preparatory of the Gospel-Divine

Revelation Gradually developed-Its Congeniality with the Nature and Destinies of Man

Chap. III.-THE EVIDENCES OF DIVINE REVELATION.

SECTION 1.--The Accumulated and Concurrent Evidence of Revelation

251

Section 2.- The Genuineness of the Biblical Books

254

SECTION 3.--External Evidences of the Genuineness of the Biblical Books

255

SECTION 4.--Internal Evidences of the Genuineness of the Biblical Books

SECTION 5.- The Authenticity of the Biblical Books demonstrated

260

SECTION 6.-The Integrity of the Biblical Text

Section 7.---The Divine Authority of the Biblical Books

. 270

Chap. IV.-SACRED INSTITUTIONS.

Section 1.- The Church, Patriarchal, Jewish, and Christian.--Members of the Church--The Patriarchal

Church - The Jewish Church-Members of the Jewish Church-Corrupt Judaism— Jewish Sects, The Chris-

tian Church-Its Constitution --Its Plurality-The Equality of its Members ---Its Submission to Divine Authority 279

SECTION 2.-Spiritual Duties-- Divine Worship-- Prayer Thanksgiving—Singing

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Chap. I.-HISTORICAL MEMOIRS.

The Bible the Highest Source of Historical Knowledge-Character of the Sacred Historians—The Events
Narrated in Scripture, with their Collateral Evidence-Biblical History a Clue to all other History—Fidelity of
Narration-Penetration of the Sacred Writers

S33

Chap. II.--NOTATIONS OF TIME.

Dirisions of Time : Days; Weeks ; Months; Years—The Computation of Time-General Chronology-

Chronological Tables : Hebrew Cycles; the most Remarkable Eras; Empires, States, and Sovereigns con-

Lected with Sacred History; Sacred and Profane History ; The Asmonean and Idumean Princes

336

Chap. III.--HISTORICAL MEMORANDA.

SECTION 1.-Forms of Government.-Patriarchal-Democratical—The Hebrew Commonwealth- Tributary

Condition of the Hebrews–Maintenance of their Kings

382

SETION 2.- Jurisprudence, and Forms of Legal Procedure.-- Perfection of the Jewish Law-Courts of Judi-

cature and Legal Proceeding : Tribunals ; Judicial Procedure ; the Sacred Lot ; Judicial Usages of the Romans

- The Criminal Law of the Hebrews—The Civil Law-Modes of Punishment, and the Treatment of Prisoners 384

A Harmony of the Mosaic Law

398

SECTION 3.–Military Affairs.—The whole Hebrew Nation liable to be called to Arms—Exemptions from Mili-

tary service—Strength of the Hebrew Armies— Military Officers-Order of Battle and of Encampment—Treat-

ment of Enemies-Division of the Spoil-Arms-Chariots—Qualifications of a Warrior--- Return of a Conquering

Armr-Reward of the Victors

401

Baltios 1.- Tribute and Money.–Under Moses–After the Captivity—The Publicans

CHAP. IV.-HISTORICAL AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

SECTION 1.—The Holy Land.–Names—Situation and Limits---Inhabitants—Divisions-Face of the Country:

Rivers ; Mountains ; Valleys; Plains ; Deserts --Atmosphere and other Phenomena : Climate ; Rains ; Winds;

Tornadoes, &c.-Fruitfulness of the Country

409

SECTION 2.-Countries beyond Judea, mentioned in Scripture.--Asia : Arabia ; Armenia; Assyria ; Asia
Minor; Chaldea ; Media ; Mesopotamia ; Parthia ; Persia ; Phænicia ; Syria.-Europe: Greece; Illyricum ;
Itals; Macedonia ; Spain--- Islands : Crete; Claudia ; Melita ; Samothrace ; Sicily.-AFRICA: Egypt; Ethiopia ;
Libra

SETION 3.—Provinces, Cities, and Towns, mentioned in Scripture, alphabetically arranged

407

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530

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Chap. III.-SOCIAL CUSTOMS.
Section 1.-Clothing and Personal Ornaments.-Materials used for Clothing-Coloured Cloths-Various

Parts of the Oriental Dress: the Upper Garment; Head-dress ; Tunic; Girdles ; Shirts ; Veils–Painting of

the Eyes—Treatment of the Hair and Beard-Phylacteries–Nose-rings and Earrings-Bracelets, &c.

SECTION 2.-Jewish Marriages, and Treatment of Children.- Marriages : Espousals–Purchasing the Bride -

Marriages contracted at an Early Age–Marriage Ceremonies—Public Processions-Nuptial Entertainments-

The Parable of the Ten Virgins Illustrated--Polygamy-Divorce-The Support of Widows- Laws Relative to

Marriage—Treatment of Children; Birth; Circumcision; Religious Instruction ; Trades; The First-born ;

Adoption

Section 3.—Modes of Travelling.— Travelling Provisions-Hospitality shown to Travellers— Eastern Cara-

vans--Illustration of the Exodus-Preparations for the Journeyings of Eastern Monarchs

Section 4.–Funereal Rites.-- Jewish Notion of Death-Embalming—Public Mourning-Coffins, or Biers-

Funeral Entertainments-Jewish Cemeteries-Jewish Notions of a Future State

SECTION 5.-Domestic Economy and Repasts.—Bread — Wines-Milk-Butter-Butter-milk, &c.—Meals and

Repasts of the Jews- Manner of Eating-Posture at Table-Portion sent to the Absent-Grace at Meals

Section 6.-Social Intercourse.-Forms of Politeness ; Salutations; Prostrations; Presents made to Supe-

riors--Manner of conducting Visits – Marks of Honour-Presentation of Raiment – Marks of Disgrace-Cutting

the Beard-Clapping the Hands and Hissing-Refusing the Rites of Sepulture-Disinterment of the Dead

Section 7.-Commerce.-Early Commerce-Caravans-Commerce of the Phænicians-Arabian Merchants —

Commerce of the Hebrews-Exchange or Barter-Money -Measures of Capacity and Length mentioned in

Scripture-Hebrew Weights

istic Notes

THE

BIBLICAL COMPANION.

PART I.

BIBLICAL LITERATURE.

CHAPTER I.

TIIE REVIVAL AND PROGRESS OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE.

Revival of Biblical Learning in the Fifteenth Century--Impetus | gians, who by a perverse use of the Aristotelian and Illostrative Writers Present state of Biblical Learning pliilosophy reduced the doctrines of religion to a -Character of Works on Biblical Interpretation – Advan number of absurd subtleties, incomprehensible by tazes derivable from Biblical Studies — Divisions of Biblical all minds—not excepting their own; and the bihLeaming-Object and Plan of the present Work.

lical doctors, who by a system of mystical and 1. The progress of sacred literature in modern allegorical interpretation perverted and darkened times furnishes a topic of gratifying and instructive the sublime truths of Scripture, and rendered their inquiry, and is fraught with considerations emi- meaning a matter of doubt and uncertainty. The nently calculated to excite the gratitude and insane religious wars called the crusades were not strengthen the convictions of the Christian stu- without their use, being overruled by Providence dent. A few remarks upon this subject will there to the most beneficial purposes. By introducing fore appropriately introduce the various scriptural into Europe a number of learned Greeks, they topics described and treated of in the present originated a spirit of inquiry in Italy and elsevolume.

where ; while the universities that were shortiy 2. From the fifth to the fifteenth century, afterwards established, and in which the oriental biblical learning was in a deplorably low state. languages were cultivated, tended greatly to the Religious feuds were the curse and disgrace of revival of learning, and prepared the way for an Christendom. Bitter controversies touching the improved system of interpretation for the sacred forms of religion, or, more properly speaking, volume. touching the powers and functions of those who 3. As early as the latter end of the fifteenth assumed to be its authorized and exclusive pro- century, some vigorous efforts were made to propounders and guardians, absorbed the attention of mote the rational interpretation of the sacred the Christian world. The Scriptures were only writings. The labourers, however, were few, and resorted to as the arsenal in which were deposited the aids they possessed for the elucidation of the the argressive arms of the spiritual combatants; text were scanty and imperfect. Early in the and these were used against each other in the seventeenth century, their numbers were greatly most arbitrary and unskilful manner. All desire increased, and we find many names distinguished for true learning became extinct ; the principles of in the republic of letters, who were then successinterpretation were lost sight of and forgotten; and fully cultivating this branch of learning. By the there were few who could even read, and much middle of this century, the number of biblical stu less understand, the text of the sacred books. In dents was considerably augmented, and the result of the twelfth century, the Scriptures were torn in their labours was proportionately increased. After pieces between two parties: the scholastic theolo-1 all, however, those who were at this time devoted to

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the pursuit of scriptural inquiries formed but an established that new era of sacred criticism which insignificant band, and were regarded by their Mr. Harmer anticipated. contemporaries as the students of an isolated branch 6. From this period, the sphere of biblical reof learning, too uninteresting in its aspect and too search and illustration has been gradually enlarglimited in its results to command or reward general ing. The metaphysician and the naturalist, the attention.

antiquary and the traveller, the philologist and 4. Towards the close of the seventeenth cen- the historian, have contributed their respective tury, biblical learning was brought into more shares towards the criticism and exposition of the general favour, and assumed a more popular and Bible. The materials now collected for elucidating inviting form. It was no longer viewed as the the sacred text are numerous and valuable, and exclusive possession of the clerical body, but as scarcely a month passes without furnishing the forming part of the common property of the re- most unquestionable evidence that their value is public of letters. Numerous and valuable acqui- well understood by those competent to employ sitions were made to the previously existing stock them, in removing obscurities, clearing up difof materials for the criticism and interpretation of ficulties, eliciting new beauties, or educing further the Bible, and the success with which these were instruction from that Book which is above all applied, stimulated numerous minds to further in- price. But such persons are comparatively few; quiries and research for the discovery of new and much remains to be done before the aids we sources of information.

possess for interpreting and illustrating the Scrip5. The enlightened and indefatigable exertions tures can be rendered available for general use. of Mill, Wetstein, Griesbach, and Kennicott, were 7. Hitherto, with but one or two exceptions, the directed to a restoration of the integrity or purity method in which the several branches of criticism of the sacred text; while the learned and ingeni- and interpretation have been treated, has had the ous Shaw, whose “Travels and Observations, re- effect of restricting the study of these topics to those lating to several parts of Barbary and the Levant,” whose professional engagements have rendered such appear to have attracted the notice of the cele- study imperative; or to those whose learning brated Harmer, pointed out a new source of bib- and leisure have induced them to look upon lical illustration. The “Observations on various the study as a source of mere intellectual enpassages of Scripture, placing them in a new light, joyment. It does seem strange that it should and ascertaining the meaning of several not deter- scarcely have entered into the minds of those who minable by the methods commonly made use of have written upon these topics, that the great bulk by the learned, from relations incidently mentioned of the Christian community is individually and in books of voyages and travels into the East,” are immediately interested in them, and that the stores too well known and valued to require more than of learning which have now been thrown open, this passing remark. The hope expressed by the might be rendered available for the purposes of indefatigable author, as to the result of his labours, general instruction. Treatises on biblical criticism has been fully realized : “ If my design succeeds, and interpretation are, with scarcely an exception, commentators will not, I hope, for the future, think so elaborate and profound, so abstruse and technithey have extended their inquiries far enough, cal, that an ordinary mind, unused to severe study, when they examine a text with grammatical nicety; cannot fail of being deterred from making an they will, along with that, pay an unbroken attention attempt to investigate the principles of these into the customs of the eastern people, and look upon teresting and important themes. this additional care as absolutely necessary to make 8. It must not be inferred from what is here a good commentator.” About the same period, the said, that it is conceived to be possible for any learned Michaelis was engaged in a similar course, valuable acquisitions to be made in this departon a large scale, for the illustration of the Serip-ment of learning, without a close application to tures; and he had induced the king of Denmark study; or that a competent knowledge of its printo send a deputation of learned travellers, to pursue ciples may be attained by a mind naturally slugthe necessary inquiries, under his directions, in gish or obtuse. But on the other hand, it may Egypt and Syria. The result of their voyage was be maintained, without fear of successful contragiven, in French, by Mons. Neibuhr, in a work diction, that much of that description of learning which, as to the part connected with these sub- which the art of interpretation requires may be jects, was never translated into English. The brought within the reach and be adapted to the labours of Michaelis and his followers, on the con- comprehension of persons whose minds are not tinent, and those of Mr. Harmer and his successors above the ordinary standlard, and whose circumin England, aided by the observations of a series of stances require that much of their time and atintelligent and learned travellers, have completely tention should be given to other affairs.

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