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Ancus Martius.

3364610 XXXV. 1 114 3365 639

2 115 3300038

3 116 3:367 637

4 117 3368 636 XXXVI. 1 118 3369 635

2 119 3370 631

3 120 3371 633

4 121 3372 632 XXXVII. 11 122 3373631

2 123 3374 630

3 124 3375 629

+ 125 3376 628 XXXVIII. ] 126 3377627

2 127 3378 626

3 128 3379 625

4 129 3380624 XXXIX. 1 130 3:381623

2 131 3382 622

3 132 3383 021

1 133 338+1020

XL. 1 13+ 3385 619

2) 135 3386618

31 136 33871617

4 137 3388 616 XLI. 1 138 3389 615

2 139 3390 611

3 140 3391 613

4 111 3392 612 XLII. 1 142 3333611

2 113 3394 610

3 144 3395 609

4 145 3396608 XLIII. 1 146 33971007

JOSIAH. 2 Philip succeeds Argeus in the throne of Macedon, and reigns 3 thirty-eight years.

4 The celebrated Solon was born about this time. He died B. C. 55 558, at the age of 80.

6
7
8 Josiah (only 16 years of age) begins to manifest great zeal

9 towards the pure worship of Jehovah.
9 10
10 11 Sadyattes succeeds Ardysus II. in the Lydian throne.
11 12 Josiah commences a thorough reformation in the religion of Judea,
12 13 which is completed in his eighteenth year. Cyrene built by Battus.
13 14
1+ 15
15 16

[Media and Persia, and reigns 40 years. 16 17 Cyaxares, or Cyaraxes, succeeds Phraortes in the kingdom of 17 18 Josialı repairs the temple, destroys the vessels of Baai and Asherah, 18 19 puts down the idolatrous priests, breaks down the houses of the 19 20 Sodomites and the high places, defiles Topheth, takes away the . 20 21 horses of the sun, destroys Jeroboam's altar, and celebrates a 21

22 great passover. 122 23 Alyattes II. of the family of the Mermnadæ, and father of the cele23 24 brated Creesus, succeeds to the Lydian throne, and reigns 57 124 25 years. This king drove the Cimmerians from Asia, and made war

126 against the Medes. An eclipse of the sun terminated a battle 23 27 between him and Cyaxares. He died when engaged in a war 3. 28 against Miletus.

29 30 31

1 JEHOAHAZ. Reigned 3 months. 82 JEHOIAKIM. Reigned 11 years. 9 3

[his reign over Babylon. 10 4 Jeremiah foretels the 70 years' captivity. Nebuchadnezzar begins 11 5 Nineveh taken and destroyed by Cyaxares and his allies. 12 6 Agasicles succeeds to the throne of Lacedæmon, and reigns 41 years. 13 7 The Phænicians sailed round Africa by order of Necho. The age 14 8 of Arion, Pittacus, Alcæus, &c. 15 9 Æropas succeeds to the throne of Macedon, and reigns 20 years. 16 10 17 11 Birth of Sappho, the celebrated poetess, happened about this time. 18 1 JEHOIACHIN. Reigned 3 months and 10 days. 19 i ZEDEKIAH. Reigned 11 years. He was the last Jewish king. 20 2 and commenced his reign in the 8th year of Nebuchadnezzar. 21 3 The Scythians are expelled from Asia Minor by Cyaxares, king of 22 4 Media and Persia. 23 21 6 About this time Zedekiah rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar, king 25 7 of Babylon. 26 8 The Pythian games first established at Delphi. 27 9 Jerusalem besieged by Nebuchadnezzar; and two years after (viz., 28 10 in the 19th year of Nebuchadnezzar, Jer. lii. 12.), the city is taken, 29 11 the temple burnt, and the people carried away into captivity. CHAPTER III.

2 1 17 3398 600

3 118 3393 605

4 119 3400 604 XLIV. 1) 150 3101 603

2 151 3402 602

3 152 3103 601

4 153 3101 600

XLV. 11 15+ 3405599

2 155 3106 598

3 156 3407597

41 157 3408 596

XLVI. 1 158 3409 595

2 159 3410 594 341593

4 161 3412 592 XLVII. 1 162 3413 591

2 163 3414 590

3 164 3415 589

4 165 3116 588

XLVIII. 1 166

Thus ends THE KINGDOM OF JUDAH, after it had stood from the death of Solomon 387 years, and from the captivity of the ten tribes 133 years. About this time flourished Chilo, Anacharsis, Thales, Epimenides, Solon, the prophets Ezekiel and Daniel, Æsop, Stesichorus, &c. Nebuchadnezzar lived after the destruction of the temple 24 years.

31 160

*** This Table is taken from Dr. A. Clarke's Commentary, vol. ii., and will be found of great utility to the student of the Bible.

OF THE POETICAL BOOKS.

1. UNDER this denomination are comprehended when the history was committed to writing, critics those books which are termed by the Jews the are not agreed. Some are of opinion, that it was Hagiographa, or Holy Writings; viz., the Psalms, the earliest written of all the books of the Bible, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Solomon, and while others ascribe it to an origin subsequent to the book of Job. They are termed poetical, the captivity. It has been attributed to Moses, to because they are generally composed in measured Elihu, to Job himself, to Solomon, and to Ezra ; sentences, and possess the distinguishing character- Those who wish to investigate the claims of these istics of Hebrew poetry. They are placed in our different hypotheses, may consult the writings of Bibles between the historical and the prophetical Lowth, Warburton, Stock, Peters, Faber, Good. or books.

the “ Introduction" of Mr. Horne, where may be 2. In reading these parts of the Sacred Writings, found an ably written summary of the controversy much assistance will be derived from a strict on these interesting questions. attention to the peculiar structure of the sen- 3. Dr. Hales assigns the time of Job's trial to tences, of which we have fully treated in Part II., the period that intervened between the confusion ch. v., sect. 2.

of languages and the call of Abraham ; and in 3. Another thing demanding attention in read confirmation of this opinion, Mr. Townsend* has ing the poetical parts of the sacred writings, is the added several arguments of a moral character, change of persons, which often occurs without the which carry with them considerable weight. In least intimation being given by the writer. This the opinion of these writers, the book was written is occasioned in many cases by the form of com- by Job himself, or one of his contemporaries, and position- dialogue, or a kind of dramatic ode—in is supposed to have been obtained by Moses when which there are different characters introduced, in the land of Midian ; and, with some alterations, sustaining their respective parts. This observation addressed by him to the Israelites. The country applies more particularly to the book of Psalms, to in which the scene of the history is laid, is said to the remarks on which the reader is referred. be the land of Uz (chap. i. 1), which Mr. Good

has shown to have been Idumea. Of the cha

racter and structure of this extraordinary book, as SECTION I.

a literary composition, various opinions have been also entertained. Calmet, Warburton, and others

have regarded it as a drama ; Bishop Lowth con1. This is one of the most extraordinary books ceived it to be of a mixed character; but Mr. of the Holy Scriptures. Considerable diversity of Good considers it to be a regular epic poem, posopinion has obtained among biblical writers on its sessing all the prominent features of that species chronology, character, hero, and author. Some have of composition, as laid down by Aristotle himself. denied the actual existence of the venerable patri- 4. The general scope and moral of this sul»lime arch from whom it derives its name, and considered production, namely, that the troubles and afilicthe book as a fictitious narration, intended to in- tions of a good man are, for the most part, designed struct through the medium of parable. That such as tests of his virtue and integrity, out of which a notion should have been entertained by men who he will at length emerge with additional splendour credit the writings of Ezekiel or of James, is some- and happiness, are common to castern poets, and thing to excite surprise ; for both these inspired not uncommon to those of Greece. But, in variFriters speak of him as a real, and not as a ficti- ous respects, the poem of Job stands alone and tious, personage.

See Ezek. xiv. 14; James v. 11. unrivalled. In addition to every corporeal sufferTo this we may add, that he is also mentioned as ing and privation wiich it is possible for man to a real person in the apocryphal book of Tobit; endure, it carries forward the trial in a manner and and as such, he has been contemplated imme- to an extent which has never been attempted elsemorially in Arabia and Palestine. No good reason where, into the keenest faculties and sensations of can be given, why we should abandon an opinion the mind, and mixes the bitterest taunts and accuthus strongly supported.

2. With regard to the time when the events recorded in the Book of Job took place, and Arrangement of the Old Testament, vol. i. p. 29.

THE BOOK OF JOB.

sations of friendship with the agonies of family sign of the poem is, therefore, to teach men, that, bereavement and despair. The body of other having a due respect to the corruption, infirmity, , poems consists chiefly of incidents; that of the pre- and ignorance of human nature, as well as to the sent poem, of colloquy or argument, in which the infinite wisdom and majesty of God, they are to train of reasoning is so well sustained, its matter reject all confidence in their own strength and so important, its language so ornamented, the doc- righteousness, and to preserve on all occasions an trines it developes so sublime, and its transition unwavering and unsullied faith, submitting with from passion to passion so varied and abrupt, that becoming reverence to the divine decrees.t the want of incidents is not felt, and the attention 5. But independent of the important instruction is rivetted as by enchantment. In other poems which may be derived from a devout perusal of the supernatural agency is fictitious, and often in the Book of Job, it must be considered as a most congruous ; here the whole is solid reality, sup- invaluable document, containing a faithful delineaported in its grand outline by the concurrent tion of the patriarchal religion, and thus comtestimony of every other part of Scripture ; an pleting the Bible, by adding the dispensation of agency not obtrusively introduced, but demanded the earliest ages to the dispensations of the law by magnitude of the occasion ; and as much and the gospel, by which it was successively supermore exalted and magnificent than every other seded. On this principle the expediency of its kind of similar interference, as it is more veritable introduction into the Hebrew canon may be sucand solemn. The suffering hero is sublimely called cessfully shown, and the objections urged against forth to the performance of his part, in the pre- it, as an exotic production, effectually silenced. sence of men and angels; each becomes inter

6. The chief doctrines of the patriarchal religion, ested, and equally interested, in his conduct; the as collected from different parts of the poem by Almighty assents to the trial, and for a period Dr. Hales and Mr. Good, are as follow: withdraws his divine aid; the malice of Satan is (1) The creation of the world by one Supreme in its full career and activity; hell hopes, earth and Eternal Intelligence. See chap. xxxviii.—xli

. trembles, and every good spirit is suspended with

(2) Its regulation by his perpetual and superawful anxiety. The wreck of his substance is in intending providence. See chap. i. 9, 21, ii. 10, vain ; the wreck of his family is in vain ; the v. 8–27, ix. 4—13. scalding sores of a corroding leprosy are in vain ;

(3) The intentions of his providence carried the artillery of insults, reproaches, and railing, into effect by the ministrations of a heavenly hierpoured forth from the mouths of bosom friends, is archy. See chap. i. 6, 7, ü. 18, 19, v. 1, xxxiii. in vain. Though at times put, in some degree, off 22, 23. his guard, the holy sufferer is never completely

(4) The heavenly hierarchy, composed of varioverpowered. He sustains the shock without yield- ous ranks and orders, possessing different names, ing; he still holds fast his integrity. Thus ter- dignities, and offices. As obelim, servants; malaminates the trial of faith : Satan is confounded; chim, angels ; melizim, intercessors ; memitim, desfidelity triumphs; and the Almighty, with a mag- tinies or destroyers ; alep, the chiliad or thousand; nificence well worthy of the occasion, unveils his kedoshim, SANCTI, the heavenly saints or hosts generesplendent tribunal, and crowns the aflicted rally. See chap. iv. 18, xxxiii. 22, 23, v. 2, xv. 15. champion with his applause.* The scope of this

(5) An apostasy, or defection, in some rank or speech, says Bishop Stock, is to humble Job, and order of these powers (ch. iv. 18, xv. 15), of which teach others, by his example, to acquiesce in the Satan seems to have been one, and perhaps chief, Divine dispensations, from an unbounded confi- chap. i. 6–12, ii. 2—7. dence in his wisdom, equity, and goodness; an

(6) The good and evil powers or principles, end worthy the interposition of the Deity. On equally formed by the Creator, and hence equally the conclusion of the Almighty's address, Job denominated“ sons of God;" both of them emhumbles himself, acknowledges his ignorance, “ re- ployed by him in the administration of his propents as in dust and ashes," offers sacrifices for his vidence; and both amenable to him at stated friends, and is restored to double prosperity, com-courts, held for the purpose of receiving an account fort, and honour. Bishop Lowth is of opinion of their respective missions. See chap. i. 6, 7, i. 1. that the principal object of the poem is the third

(7) A day of future resurrection, judgment, and last trial of Job, from the unkindness and un- and retribution to all mankind.

See chap. xiv. justness of his accusing friends ; the consequence 13–15, xix. 25—29, xxi. 30, xxxi. 14. of which is, in the first place, the anger, indigna

(8) The propitiation of the Creator, in the case tion, and contumacy of Job, and afterwards his of human transgressions, by sacrifices (chap. i. composure, submission, and penitence. The de

† Lowth's Lectures on Hebrew Poetry, Gregory's Transl. * Good's Prelim. Dissert.

vol, ii. p. 383.

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xviii.

5, xlii. 8); and the mediation and intercession of others were probably written by Moses, Solomon, a righteous person. See chap. xlii. 8, 9.* Asaph, Heman, Ethan, Jeduthun, Ezra, and the

(9) The idolatrous worship of the heavenly sons of Korah. Upon the titles prefixed to many bodies a judicial offence, to be punished by the of the Psalms implicit confidence cannot be judge. See chap. xxxi. 26–28.

placed ; nor is it certain whether the Jews, who (10) The innate corruption of man; or what is attached these notices, intended to denote that the generally termed “ Original Sin.” See chap. xiv. respective psalms were written by, or for, such a 4, v. 1416, xxxv. 4.

person. 7. Several of these doctrines are more clearly de- 2. The right of the Book of Psalms to a place in Feloped than others, but the whole of them are fairly the sacred canon has never been disputed; and its deduced from the obvious meaning of the words. divine authority has been attested by the quota

8. Mr. Good, to whom we have been indebted for tions of our Saviour and his apostles, as well as by the foregoing outline, has remarked, that nothing the numerous predictions dispersed throughout it, can be more unfortunate for this most excellent and which have been subsequently fulfilled. composition than its division into chapters, and

3. In these compositions we are presented with especially such a division as that in common use; every variety of Hebrew poetry. Some of them in which, not only the unity of the general subject, were prepared for particular solemnities in the but, in many instances, that of a single paragraph, Jewish worship; others appear to have been deor even of a single clause, is completely broken in signed generally to celebrate the glorious perfections upon and destroyed.t Various other divisions of God; and a few to have been drawn forth by have been adopted. Dr. Hales, who excludes the the peculiar circumstances or experience of the inexordium and conclusion, divides it into five parts; spired writers. They abound in the most impresbut Mr. Good, who justly remarks that these are sive and consoling predictions. One greater than requisite to the unity of the composition, divides David is continually presenting himself, even Christ it into six. We follow his arrangement, only the Redeemer. Divine inspiration so guided the dividing his sixth part into two. We have then, Psalmist, that in many instances his words, at the 1. History of Job's character and trials (chap. same time that they referred with sufficient prei.-iii.) 2. First series of conversations or contro-cision to the circumstances of his own life,

pretersy_Eliphaz's address (chap. iv., v.); Job's figured, in terms the most accurate and sublime, answer (chap. vi., vii.); Bildad's address (chap. the humiliation, the sufferings, the triumphant viü.); Job's answer (chap. ix.—x.); Zophar's ad- resurrection, and the universal and eternal kingdress (chap. xi.); Job's answer (chap. xii.--xiv.) dom of the Messiah. Dr. Horsley has considered 3. Second series of controversyEliphaz's address the greater part of the Psalms as a kind of dra(chap. xv.); Job's answer (chap. xvi., xvii.); Bil-matic ode, consisting of dialogues between certain dad's address (chap. xviii.); Job's answer (chap. persons, sustaining certain characters, as the priests, six.); Zophar's address (chap. xx.); Job's answer Levites, singers, &c. “ The other persons intro(chap. xxi. 4.) 4. Third series of controversy— duced are Jehovah, sometimes as one, sometimes as Eliphaz's address (chap. xxii.); Job's answer (chap. another, of the three persons : Christ, in his incarxxiii., xxiv.); Bildad's address (chap. xxv.); Job's nate state, is personated sometimes as a priest, someanswer (chap. xxvi.—xxxi.). 5. Elihu's four times as a king, sometimes as a conqueror." # And speeches to Job (chap. xxxii.—xxxvii.) 6. Jeho- in these reciprocations and divisions of parts, we vah's first and second address to Job (chap. xxxvii. discern, according to Dr. Lowth, the immediate --xli.). 7. Humiliation of Job, and his final pros- cause of the disposition of the verse into equal perity (chap xlii.).

strophes or stanzas, and why these consisted for the most part of distichs, in a sort of parallelism

to each other, the last line responding to the first, SECTION II.

and seconding, educing, and enforcing the sense. A recent writer has very materially extended this

doctrine of parallelism, and, by an arrangement of 1. This collection of sacred hymns has been ever several of the psalms, has succeeded in showing held in the highest estimation, as containing in that each one is a complete parallelism, either of struction and comfort for the truly pious, whatever the alternate or the introverted kind. In some may be their experience, or the circumstances in cases, the parallelism will be found to depend on a which they are placed. The principal part of correspondence of the topic; sometimes on an these divine compositions, perhaps, was indited by agreement of the person : but whatever form the David, who has given name to the collection ; the composition may assume, it will be found suscept

THE BOOK OF PSALMS

* Good's Prelim. Dissert. p. Ixiv.

+ Ibid., p. xxi.

| Horsley's Psalms, vol. I, p. xii.

*

ible of great elucidation by the arrangement of 5. The following arrangement from the Scripture the parallelism.

Magazine, + is chiefly compiled from Mr. Town4. In studying the book of Psalms, it will be ne-. send's Historical and Chronological Arrangement cessary to ascertain, where it can be done, the author of the Old Testament. For an analysis of each by whom each ode was written, and the circum- of the Psalms, the student may consult Dr. A. stances in which he was placed when it was indited. Clarke's Commentary.

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xii. 15.

88.

Heman. Affliction of Israel in Egypt. Exod. ii. 25. 1531 90. Moses. Shortening of man's life.

Numb, xiv. 45. 1489 9. David. Victory over Goliath.

1 Sam. xviii. 4. 1063 11. Advised to flee to the mountains.

xix. 3. 1002
59.
Saul's soldiers surrounding the town.

17.
56.
With Philistines at Gath.

xxi. 15.
34.

Leaving the city of Gath.
142.
In the cave of Adullam.

xxii. 1.
17.
Priests murdered by Doeg.

19. 52. 109, 35. 140.

Persecution by Doeg 64. 31. Persecution by Saul.

xxii. 12. 1001
54.
Treachery of the Ziphites.

23,
57. 58.
Refusal to kill Saul.

xxiv. 22.
63.

Wilderness of Engedi.
141.
Driven out of Judea.

xxvii. 1. 1053
139.
King of all Israel.

1 Chron, xii, 4. 1048 68. First removal of the Ark.

2 Sam. vi. 11. 1042 132. Second removal of the Ark.

1 Chron. xv. 4. 105, 106. 96. Ark taken from Obed-Edom's.

xvi. 43.
2. 45. 22. 16. 118, 110.
Nathan's prophetic address.

xvii. 27.
60. 108.
Conquest of Edom by Joab. 1 Kings xi. 20.

1040 20. 21.

War with Ammonites and Syrians. 2 Sam. x. 19. 1036 51. Confession of adultery and murder.

1031 32. 33. 103.

Pardon and thanksgiving.
3.
His flight from Absalom.

xv. 29.

1023 7. The reproaches of Shimei.

xvi. 14. 42. 43. 55. 4. 5. 62. 143. By the Jordan, from Absalom.

xvii. 29. 144. 70. 71. 18. Conclusion of his wars.

xxii. 51. 1019 Dedication of Araunah's threshing- 1 Chron. xxi. 30. 30.

1017 floor. 91. After his advice to Solomon.

-xxvii. 10. 1015 145.

A review of his past life. 40. 41. 61. 65. 69. 78. Dates and occasions unknown.

-xxvii.21. 6.8.19.12.23.24.28.29.38. 39.86.95.101.104.120.

At some periods, after his accession. 121.122. 124.131.133. 72. The Coronation of Solomon.

xxix. 19. 47. 97. 98. 99. 100.

Solomon. Ark removed into the temple. 2 Chron. vii, 10. 1004 135. 136.

Dedication of Solomon's Temple. 82. 115. 46. Asaph and others. The reign of Jehoshaphat.

896 44.

Hezekiah. Blasphemous message of Rabshakeh. 2 Kings xix. 7. 710 73. 75. 76. Asaph. Destruction of Sennacherib's army.

19. 79. 74. 83. 94.

Burning of the Temple at Jerusalem. Jer, xxxix. 10. 588 137.130.80.77.37.67.49. 53.50.10.13.14.15.25. Asaph, Ethan, During the Babylonian Captivity.

Dan, vii. 28. { 541-53: and others. 26.27.36.89.92.93.123. 102. Daniel. Near the close of that Captivity.

ix. 27.

538 126. 85. Sons of Korah. Cyrus's decree for restoring the Jews. Ezra i. 4.

530 107. 87. 111. 112. 113. 114.116, 117. 125. 127. Various. Israel's return from the Captivity.

iii. 7. 128. 134. 84. 66. Sons of Korah. Foundation of the second Temple.

13.

535 129. Ezra or Nehem. Opposition of the Samaritans.

iv. 24.

5:34 138. Haggai or Zech. Rebuilding of the Temple.

vi. 13.

519 18. 81. 146. 147. 148. 7

Various. Dedication of the second Temple. Zech. viji. 23. 149. 150.. 1 and 119. Ezra. Manual of devotion.

Nch, xiii. 3.

xx, 26.

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