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ness of the other, can invalidate the truth of the tical or spiritual sense of Scripture prevails ; but general position, that the New Testament does upon this point those who admit the general not only assert the secondary and spiritual mean- principle are far from being agreed. A writert ing of much that is contained in the Old, but of high respectability in the Swedenborgian school authorizes and strengthens the legitimacy of such of divinity, contends that the principle is of uniinterpretation, by affixing the like sense to portions versal application, and that there is no part of the also of its own contents. **
Bible, whatever may be the subject on which it 3. “The extent to which subsequent writers of treats, that is not invested with a secondary and doctrinal and practical theology have considered spiritual meaning. themselves at liberty to pursue the same track, 6. Mr. Conybeare, on the other hand, who is is generally known,” says the same writer, “ to the most strenuous and successful advocate of the have varied very considerably, according to their secondary sense of Scripture which modern times age, school, genius, and other local or personal have produced, contends that it is only of limited circumstances. On the one hand, allegorical or application ; at least, that the utmost extent to spiritual meanings have been attached, not only which we can consider any secondary or spiritual to those passages of Moses and the prophets which sense as having a character strictly argumentative, our Lord and his disciples expressly refer to as is that for which we have the direct authority of typical or prophetical of the person and office of our Lord and his apostles.|| This is certainly the the Messiah, and the economy of his covenant, more sober and also the safer view of the subject, but to every part, whether historical or preceptive, while it leaves open to us, in the way of illustraof the Old Testament, and to much even of the tion and moral use, the whole contents of the New. It has been contended virtually, if not in Bible. While we cautiously avoid multiplying so many words, that whatsoever meaning of this the senses of Scripture, where we have neither nature the ingenuity or piety of the expositor express nor implied authority for so doing, there might affix to any given passage of Scripture, was is no reason why we should run into the opposite in reality the sense of that passage, the express extreme, and fail to draw those inferences and intention of him who gave it, and that in this make those moral applications which the nature mode of exposition and application alone was to of the book warrants us to do, and which we be found the spirit which giveth life, the wis- cannot neglect to do without sustaining considerdom which maketh wise unto salvation.'
able loss. 4. “On the other hand, many divines, even 7. In making these improvements and applicaamong those justly entitled to our respect and tions of scriptural subjects, the same sobriety of gratitude, fearful, perhaps, of the evils which might judgment and purity of taste must be exercised be supposed to result, both to those within and as in every other branch of interpretation. Remote those without, from the admission of a principle and far-fetched analogies should be carefully of interpretation so lax and variable, have kept, avoided, as such a practice vitiates the religious with a prudence bordering somewhat too much taste, and produces a morbid longing for ingenious upon coldness and timidity, what they esteemed explications, mystical meanings, and forced reseinthe safer path ; while of later years a school has blances; while it creates a strong disrelish for the arisen, happily not in our own church or country, pure milk of the word. In the interpretation of but yet a school which possibly may not be with parables and allegories, especially, this suggestion out its share of influence upon our theological should be attended to, because there is here, students, openly and professedly discarding as perhaps, a stronger temptation to give rein to irrational and uncritical, all spiritual and alle- the imagination than elsewhere. The general degorical interpretations whatsoever, and including sign of the composition should be ascertained, in one sweeping and indiscriminate censure, the which it usually may be, from the context, and human expositions of Origen and Augustine, of then the particular parts should each be referred Cocceius and Vitringa, and the inspired parallel to this.g Professor Stuart has laid it down as isms of the Epistle to the IIebrews.”+
# Mr. Noble: The Plenary Inspiration of the Scriptures 5. It becomes, therefore, a matter of grave im- Asserted, 8vo. Lond., 1825. portance to ascertain the extent to which the
|| Bampton Lectures, p. 322. $ It is gratifying to find that this sentiment was maintained by
the celebrated Jewish writer, Maimonides, who says, that “in * Conybeare's Bampton Lectures, pp. 82, 83. Pareau wholly explaining the Scriptures, and especially the parables, the genedenies this doctrine, but we do not think that his reasoning is ral scope and intention of the writer is to be regarded, and not at all conclusive. See his “ Principles of Interpretation,” Part every word and syllable of the parable.” He adds, “Should the II., sect. i.
expositor act contrary to this, he will lose his time in endea
vouring to explain what is inexplicable, or make the author say + Conybeare's Bampton Lectures, pp. 4-7.
many things he never intended. More Nev. in Pref.”
one of the most important principles in explaining is to supply the place of reasoning and philology? allegories, that comparison is not to be extended to And what riddle or oracle of Delphos could be all the circumstances of the allegory; and had this more equivocal, or of more multifarious signifirule been generally attended to by expositors, cancy, than the Bible, if such exegesis be admismany of the extravagances that have been put sible ? “ It is a miserable excuse which interforward as interpretations of Scripture, would have preters make for themselves," says the same writer, been withheld. Thus, “in the parable of the good “ that they render the Scriptures more edifying Samaritan, the point to be illustrated is the extent and significant by interpreting them according to of the duty of beneficence. Most of the circum- the mystic school. Are the Scriptures, then, to stances in the parable go to make up merely the be made more significant than God has made verisimilitude of the narration, so that it may give them ; or to be mended by the skill of the interpleasure to him who hears or reads it. But how preter, so as to become more edifying than the differently does the whole appear when it comes Holy Spirit has made them? If there be a semto be interpreted by an allegorizer of the mystic Dance of piety in such interpretations, a semblance school? The man going down from Jerusalem is all. Real piety and humility appear to the to Jericho, is Adam wandering in the wilderness best advantage, in receiving the Scriptures as they of this world ; the thieves who robbed and are, and expounding them as simply and as skilwounded him, are evil spirits; the priest who fully as the rules of language will render practicapassed by on the one side without relieving him, ble, rather than by attempting to amend and imis the Levitical law; the Levite, is good works; prove the revelation which God has made."* the good Samaritan, is Christ; and the oil and wine, are grace.” What may not a parable be made to mean, asks the Professor, if imagination
* Elements of Interpretation, pp. 116, 117.
We have already spoken of the value of that, therefore, that we should enlarge upon it here. description of information which it is intended to Presuming that our readers understand something comprise in this part of our work ; viz., that rela- of the aid which an interpreter may derive from tive to the authors, times of publication, im- this source, we shall at once proceed to notice the mediate object, historical connexion, and other several biblical books, and the particular circumcircumstances pertaining to the several books com- stances relating to them. * posing the sacred volume. It is not necessary,
OF THE PENTATEUCH.
1. The books comprised under this title are men- | above 2,553 years, according to the vulgar computioned in several parts of Scripture as “the Law," tation ; or of 3,765 years, according to the chronoand “the Law of Moses :" they are cited as the in- logy of Dr. IIales. It blends revelation and hisdisputable works of Moses, and have been received tory together, furnishes laws and describes their as such, by every sect of the Jewish and Christian execution, exhibits prophecies and relates their churches. Immediately after their composition, accomplishment. Some of the principal details they were deposited in the tabernacle, and thence of the Pentateuch are confirmed by pagan traditransferred to the temple, where they were pre- tion, and the earliest uninspired historical records served with the most vigilant care.
The Penta- which exist, can only be rendered intelligible by teuch was read every sabbath-day in the syna- the superior and more consistent histories of sogues, and again publicly and soleinnly every Moses. || serenth
year. The prince was obliged to copy it ; 2. The duty of studying these venerable records and the people were commanded to teach it to of antiquity results from their forming part of the their children, and to wear it “as signs on their revealed will of God, and from the circumstance hands
, and frontlets between their eyes.” By the that many of the events recorded in them adumspecial providence of God a sufficient number of brate others under the Christian dispensation. these books was always preserved ; and the high“. All these things happened unto them for ensamTeneration with which the Jews regarded every ples (or types), and they are written for our adletter , called forth numerous guardians to watch over
monition, upon whom the ends of the world are iz purity, and preserve its integrity.+ The Penta-come,” 1 Cor. x. 11. teach fürnishes us with a compendious history of the world, from the creation till the arrival of the Israelites on the verge of Canaan—a period of teuch, the reader may refer to Dr. Clarke's Commentary, Vol. I.
# For a tabular exhibition of the chronology of the Penta
|| After all the vaunting of infidels respecting the high an. Soune remarks upon the division and arrangement of tiquity of the Hindoo Chronology, the fact appears to be, that Be biblical books have been offered in Part 1., chap. ii.
, the records of the Hindoos go to confirm the truth of the
Mosaic writings. In a work on the “ Hindoo Astronomy,” by . The reader will find a variety of interesting information Mr. Bentley, of Calcutta, it is shown that, according to the relative to the Masora, and also some good remarks on the Hindoo system of Chronology, the creation took place in the authenticity of the Pentateuch, in Butler's “ Horæ Biblicæ.”
very year of the Mosaic Deluge !
A GENERAL VIEW OF ALL THE SECTIONS OF THE LAW, AND OF THE PROPHETS,
As reail in the different Jewish Synagogues, for every Sabbath of the Year.
PARESHIOTH, or sections of the Law.
,Toledoth noach תולדת נח .ii
,Vaiyera וירא .iv
Toledoth תולדת .vi
Sec. i. nwy Bereshith, ........ i. 1 to vi. 8.......
. n , vi. 9 to xi. 32.
xii. I to xvii. 27.
xviii. I to xxii. 24. 1779 "TT Chaiyey Sarah,.... xxiii. I to xxv. 18. .
xxv. 19 to xxviii. 9.... vii. 28*7 Vaiyetse,
xxviii. 10 to xxxii. 3. viii. aku Vaiyishlach, ....... xxxii. 4 to xxxvi. 43. ix.
xxxvii. I to xl. 23. X.
xli. I to xliv. 17. . ,
xliv. 18 to xlvii. 27........... xii. "1797 Vayechi,
xlvii. 28 to l. 26.
HAPHTAROTH, or sections of the Proprets. Portuguese and Italian Jews. German and Dutch Jeus. Isai. xlii. 5-21.........
Isai. xlii. 5–25; xliii. 10. Isai. liv. 1-10.
Isai. lly. 1-17; lv. 145. Isai. xl. 27-31; xli. 1-16. Ditto. 2 Kings iv. 1-23.
2 Kings iv. 1-37.
Hos. xii. 12-14; xiii. 1-16.
Ditto. 1 Kings iii 15--28; iv. 1......... Ditto. Ezek. xxxvii. 15-28.
Ditto. 1 Kings ii. 1-12. ......
.,Mikkets מקץ ,Vaiyiggash ויגש .xi
,Bo el Paroh בא אל פרעה
xiii. niw Shemoth,.
i. I to vi. 1...... xiv. 1981 Vaera,
vi. 2 to ix. 35. XV.
, x. I to xiii. 16. xvi. nywa Beshallach, .......... xiii. 17 to xvii. 16. xvii. ' Yithro,
xviii. I to xx. 26. xviii. D'Urvir Mishpatim,
xxi. I to xxiv. 18..... xix. 179777 Terumah,
xxv. I to xxvii. 19. XX. 1773 Tetsavven,
xxvii. 20 to xxx. 10. xxi. Xun Ki thissa,
xxx. 11 to xxxiv. 35. xxii. 5.707 Vaiyakhel, ......... xxxv. I to xxxviii. 20. xxiii. '77po Pekudey, ......... Xxxviii. 21 to xl. 38.
Jer. i. 1-19; ii. 1-3.
Isai. xxvii. 6 to xxix. 23.
Judg. iv. 4 to v. 1–31.
Isai. vi. 1--13; vii. 1-6; ix. 6,7.
1 Kings xviii. 1-39.
1 Kings vid. 40_50. 1 Kings vii. 40-50.
1 Kings vii. 51; viii. 1-21.
,Vaiyikra Tsav ויקרא צו
,Tazria תזריע .xxvii
xxiv. X7p" Vaiyikra, .
i. I to vi. 7..... XXV.
vi. 8 to viii. 36. xxvi. w Shemini,
ix. I to xi. 47. . ,
xii. I to xiii. 59. xxviii. 1972 Metsora,
xiv. 1 to xv. 33... xxix. 113 x Acharey Moth, .. xvi. I to xviii. 30. XXX. C*
Vp Kedoshim, .......... xix. I to XX. 27. xxxi. 3X Emor,
xxi. I to xxiv. 23. xxxii. 30 773 Behar Sinai, ...... xxv. I to xxvi. 2. xxxiii. npna Bechukkothai,...... xxvi. 3 to xxvii. 34.
Isai. xliii. 21–28; xliv. 1-25. .. Ditto.
2 Sam. vi, 1-23; vii. 1-17.
Ezek. xxii. 1-19.
Amos ix. 7-15.
i. I to iv. 20. xxxv. Naso,
iv. 21 to vii. 89.. xxxvi. 9. Behaaloche ha,.... viii. I to xii. 16. xxxvii. 7 Shelach,
xiii. I to xv. 41.... xxxviii. 77 Korach,
xvi. I to xviii. 32. ..., xxxix. Opn Chukkath,
xix. I to xxii. l. .
xxii. 2 to xxv. 9. xli. 077) Pinechas,
xxv. 10 to xxx. 1........ xlii. 7703 Mattoth,
... XXX. 2 to xxxii. 42. xliii.
Hos. i. 10, 11; ii. 1--20......... Ditto.
,Balak בלק .xl
xxxiii. I to xxxvi, 13. .......
Jer. ii. 28; iii. 4.
,Ekeb עקב .xlvi
,Haazinu האזינו .liii
xliv. 0727 Debarim, .......... i. I to iii. 22.
, Isai. i. 1-27.
Ditto. xlv. Pri Vaethchannan, .... iii. 23 to vii. 11. .....
xl. 1- 26.
xlix. 14-26; 1. 1-3.
Ditto. xlvii. 1787 Reeh, xi. 26 to xvi. 17.
liv. 11-17; lv. 1-5.
Ditto. xlviii. D'Obw Shophetim, ........ xvi. 18 to xxi. 9.
li. 12-23; lii. 1-12.
Ditto. xlix. Xin Tetse, xxi. 10 to xxv. 19.
Ixi. 10,11; Ixii. 1-12; Ixiii. 1--9. Ditto.
xxxi. I to xxxi. 30.
Hos. xiv. 1-9; Micah vii. 18-20. Isai. Iv. 6-13; lvi. 1-8. . ,
xxxii. I to xxxii. 52.
2 Sam. xxii. 1-5). Some say Hos. xiv. 1-9; Joel ü. 1-27.
Ezek.xvi. 22-24; xviii. -32. liv. 1700 0 Vezoth Habberachah, xxxiii. I to xxxiv. 12. Josh. i. 1–18; Eccles. i.-xii, inclusive. Ditto. In the above chapters and verses I have, in general, followed the others. It was from this custom of the Jews, that the primitive Chris. divisions in the best Masoretic Bibles, from which our common English tians adopted theirs of reading a lesson every sabbath out of the Old Bibles will in some cases be found to differ a little.
and New Testaments ; and on this custom, the practice of the church In the synagogues the law is read entirely through in the fifty sah
in our own country, in reading certain portions of the epistles and baths of their lunar year; for they join certain sections together, which gospels every Sunday in the year was founded. are noticed at the end of the tables. But in their intercalated years, As a proper knowledge of these Haphtaras or prophetical sections in which they add a month, they have then filty-four sabbaths, and may sometimes help to fix the chronology of some events in the New this is one reason why we find fifty-four Pareshahs, and fifty-four Testament, it hath been deemed proper to give a table of them in conHaphtaras, instead of fay-two. See the concluding tables.
nexion with the Pareshioth or sections of the law, in the place of which It has already been observed that when Antiochus Epiphanes con- they were originally read; and with which, ever since the days of the quered the Jews about the year 163 before the Christian Era, he for- Asmoneans or Maccabees, they continue to be read in the various bad the law to be publicly read in the synagogues, on pain of death. synagogues belonging to the English, Portuguese, Italian, Dutch, and The Jews, that they might not he wholly deprived of the word of God, German Jews. selected from other parts of the sacred writings fifty-four portions, From the above tables the reader will perceive that though the Jews which were termed HAPATARAS, noen haphturoth, from 705 are agreed in the sections of the law that are read every sabbath, yet patar, he dismissed, let loose, opened--for though the Law was dis- they are not agreed in the Haphtaras or sections from the prophets ; as missed from their synagogues, and was closed to them by the edict of it appears above, that the Dutch and German Jews differ in several this persecuting king, yet the prophetic writings, not being under the cases from the Italian and Portuguese ; and there are some slighter interdict, were left open, and therefore they used them in place of the variations besides those above, which I have not noticed.
* From Dr. A. Clarke's Comment. vol. 1. p. 839.