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sented, that Ahab should be so smitten; as the at least a fivefold degree. A great number of unbelief of the former, followed by his destruc- words are introduced, which have nothing to do tion, represented the unbelief of the king, who with symbols, and can therefore only tend to distherefore should perish in the same manner. So tract the attention and bewilder the mind of the Isaiah (chap. xx.) walked naked and barefooted, student. The best work we have seen is “A to represent, symbolically, the captivity of the Key to the Symbolical Language of Scripture," Egyptians and Ethiopians, upon whom the Israel- by Thomas Wemyss (Edinburgh, 1835), in which ites trusted too much, instead of wholly confiding the labours of preceding writers have been judiin God. The prophet Ezekiel (chap. iv.) is also ciously appropriated. The Vocabulary of Scripcommanded to do several things which would be ture Symbols, at the end of this volume, was first absurd were they not symbolical. Hosea's drawn up from careful examination and comparimarriage with a loose woman was literal, but the son of the Bible itself, and then received some intent symbolical; the shame which accrued to the additions from Lancaster's Dictionary, above menprophet by such an action, reflecting upon the tioned. It may be found useful in the absence Israelites, who were to be affected by the actions of a more elaborate work. of their prophets; and therefore the actions them- X. Intimately connected with the language of selves must be visible and real. In Acts x. Peter symbols, is that of actions or signs; whence it fell into an ecstasy, and had a vision to show him becomes necessary to submit a few remarks upon that God had set aside the distinction of meats, this topic also. which separated the Jews from the Pagans; and 1. In the early ages of the world, language. under that notion to signify, farther, that the must have been extremely rude, narrow, and equipartition-wall betwixt Jews and Gentiles was now vocal ; so that men would be perpetually at a loss, taken away, and that both should be equally re- as Bishop Warburton remarks, on any new concepceived into the church; which vision was corro- tion, or uncommon accident, to explain themselves borated by the call of Cornelius, and the visible intelligibly to one another. This would necesdescent of the Holy Ghost. From the rule thus sarily induce them to supply the deficiencies of illustrated, we must infer that the actors in the speech by apt and significant signs. Hence, Revelation being symbolical, the person of John mutual converse was upheld hy a mixed discourse himself, wherever he is in any way concerned in of words and ACTIONS; whence came the eastern the action, must be also symbolical. He is not phrase of the voice of the sign, Exod. iv. 8. But only the spectator commissioned by Christ to see this custom, which originated in necessity, being the visions, but also the mediator, angel, or improved into ornament, subsisted long after the deputy, to transmit them to the church. He re- necessity ceased, especially among the Orientals, prezents, therefore, his fellow-members of Christ's whose natural temperament inclined them to a church, which are present, when the actions re- mode of conversation which so well exercised presented in the visions are actually performed. their vivacity by motion, and so much gratified

IX. For the purpose of facilitating the study of it by a perpetual representation of material symbols, Dr. Lancaster drew up, at the cost of images. great labour, “A Symbolical Alphabetical Dic- 2. Of this description of language, as well as tionary," which he prefixed to his Abridgment of of symbols, we have a great number of examples Daubuz's Commentary upon the Book of Revela- in the sacred writings. Thus, the false prophet tion, and which has been deservedly held in very pushed with horns of iron, to denote the entire high repute. This work is now, however, exceed-overthrow of the Syrians, 1 Kings xxii. 11. Jereingly scarce, and when met with, fetches a high miah, by God's direction, hid the linen girdle price. To the generality of students, therefore, it in the hole of a rock, near the Euphrates, Jer. is not available, nor would a mere reprint of it be xiii.; broke a potter's vessel in sight of the altogether acceptable. As the first work of the people, ch. xix.; put on bonds and yokes, ch. kind, it reflects great credit upon the author's xxvii.; and cast a book into the Euphrates, ch. search; but it is often unnecessarily diffuse, and li. 63. Ezekiel, by the same appointment, deist unfrequently inaccurate, while there is a great lineated the siege of Jerusalem on a tile, Ezek. wat of precision in distinguishing between meta- iv.; weighed the hair of his beard in balances, słors and symbols. Mr. Horne has bestowed ch. V.; carried out his household stuff, ch. xii.; same labour on his “Index of Symbolical Lan- and joined together the two sticks for Judah and guage,” in the fourth volume of his “ Introduc- Israel, ch. xxxvii. 16–20. By these actions the tion to the Critical Study of the Scriptures;" but prophets instructed the people in the will of God, it has most of the defects and redundancies of and conversed with them in signs. But there is Lancaster (whom he has taken as his model), in no real ground—leaving divine revelation out of

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TYPES AND SECONDARY SENSES.

the question--there is no real ground for charging , hear him: “When there is any thing in the antithe prophets, in these symbolical actions, with type resembling the type, it is justly affirmed, absurd and fanatic conduct, as some pretenders that God, who knows all things from the beginto wisdom have done. The absurdity of an ning, ordered the type in such a manner, that it action consists, as Bishop Warburton remarks, might signify' beforehand that truth which was in its being extravagant and insignificative; but in the antitype: unless we would rather mainuse and a fixed application make the actions of tain, that the likeness of an ingenious picture to the prophets both sober and pertinent: the fana- the original was rather the effect of chance than ticism of an action consists in a fondness for of the intention of the artist, which is contrary unusual actions and foreign modes of speech; but to all reason." # But what a specimen of reasont'ie actions of the prophets were idiomatic and ing is this! The point to be proved is the existfamiliar.*

ence of types; and yet it is taken for granted,

from the fancied resemblance which certain things SECTION XII.

and persons bore to one another, that they stood in the relation of correlates, and that, because we

are pleased to make the one the antitype, the The Doctrine of Types-Fanciful Interpretations-Definition

of a Type-Rules for Interpreting Types— The Secondary other must be the type. || and Spiritual Sense of Scripture sanctioned by our Lord 2. But these extravagances do not affect the and his Apostles; its Extent - Analogical and Moral Appli doctrine itself, which is placed beyond dispute by cation of Scripture.

the direct testimony of our Lord and his apostles. I. THERE are few subjects falling within the By their frequent allusions to the serpent, they province of biblical interpretation, that have show us how they understood the mystery of the afforded so much scope for the exercise of inge- first promise, and the bruising of his head, which nuity, as the doctrine of types; and there are few in a merely literal sense so grossly sinks the mistakes which have been attended with worse majesty of a divine manifestation. They exhibit consequences to the Christian church.

Abraham as a public type of the manner of man's 1. The word type frequently occurs in the New justification before God, and tell us that he rescued Testament, and under very different meanings. Isaac from the dead in a figure (ev Fagacorp); In its original and primary meaning, it properly that the holy places made with hands are the signifies the mark or impression made by one figures (AVTITUTA), the antitypes, of the true; thing upon another; and sometimes, in a more that the exodus from Egypt, the effusion of water lax sense, that general likeness or resemblance from the rock, and the stupendous history of the which one thing may bear to another. See John ancient church in the wilderness, teach us, as by xx. 25, Acts vii. 43, xxiii. 25. But the term is so many “ensamples;” and that the sabbath usually employed to denote a prefigurative action adumbrates the eternal rest of the saints with or occurrence, in which one event, person, or

God. circumstance is intended to represent another,

3. The learned Outram has treated the subject similar to it in certain respects, but future and of types in a very lucid and satisfactory manner, distant.t And hence, because a lively and inven- in his Dissertations on Sacrifice; but, as Bishop tive imagination has discovered a very striking Marsh has expressed the substance of this writer's likeness between many of the persons, rites, and remarks with great perspicuity, and given addiusages under the law, and those under the gospel, tional illustrations, we prefer to make use of this they have been held all to be types the one of learned writer's language. the other. Under the notion that Christ and his (1) “To constitute one thing the type of church were prefigured by every thing under the another, as the term is generally understood in law, the learned but fanciful Witsius has devoted reference to Scripture, something more is wanted a chapter of his work on the “Economy of the than mere resemblance. The former must not Covenants” to this subject, in which he distributes only resemble the latter, but must have been the types into three classes, natural, historical, and designed to resemble the latter. It must have legal; and he

it upon teachers, as an in- been so designed in its original institution. It cumbent duty, to explain, by the same method must have been designed as something preparathat he has adopted, all the types of the Old Testament Scriptures. But upon what principle

urges

Econom. Fæd. vol. ii., p. 190. does he proceed in these interpretations? Let us

|| See Shaw's Philosophy of Judaism, p. 199, note.

§ Professor Hahn, of Leipsic, has some judicious remarks * Divine Legation, book iv., sect. 4, § iii.

on this topic, in his Tract on the Interpretation of the Scrip+ Bishop Van Mildert's Discourses, p. 237.

tures, “ Biblical Repository,” Andorer, vol. i., p. 133, ke.

66

tury to the latter. The type, as well as the anti- when comparisons are instituted in the New Testype, must have been pre-ordained; and they must tament between antecedent and subsequent perhave been pre-ordained as constituent parts of the sons or things, we must be careful to distinguish same general scheme of Divine Providence. It is the examples, where a comparison is instituted this precious design and this pre-ordained connexion merely for the sake of illustration, from the exwhich constitute the relation of type and antitype. amples where such a connexion is declared, as Where these qualities fail, where the precious exists in the relation of a type to its antitype."* design and the pre-ordained connexion are want- 4. It was remarked in the preceding section, ing, the relation between any two things, how- that a type and a symbol differ from each other, ever similar in themselves, is not the relation of as a genus and a species ; and it is very necessary type to antitype. The existence, therefore, of that that this distinction should be strictly attended previous design and pre-ordained connexion must to, in the interpretation of Scripture. The term be clearly established, before we can have authority symbol, as Outram observes, is equally applicable for pronouncing one thing the type of another. to that which represents a thing past, or present, But we cannot establish the existence of that or future ; whereas the object represented by a previous design and pre-ordained connexion, by type is invariably future. Thus, those institutions arguing only from the resemblance of the things of Moses which had the nature of types, are called compared; for the qualities and circumstances a shadow of things to come” (Col. ii. 17); and, attendant on one thing, may have a close resem- those things which “happened unto the fathers blance, with the qualities and circumstances at- for types,” are said to have been “written for our tendant on another thing, and yet the things admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are themsires may

be devoid of all connexion. come,” 1 Cor. x. l-ll. In the same sense, the (2) How, then, it may be asked, shall we obtain Mosaic law, which abounded with numerous types, the proof required? By what means shall we is declared to have had “ a shadow of good things determine, in any given instance, that that which to come” (Heb. x. l); and those things which, by is alleged as a type was really designed for a type ? the command of God, were formerly transacted in The only possible source of information on this the tabernacle, are described as prefiguring what subject is Scripture itself. The only possible was afterwards to be done in the heavenly sancmeans of knowing that two distant though simi- tuary, Heb. ix. 11, 12, 23, 24. lar historic facts were so connected in the general 5. In the interpretation of types, as thus descheme of Divine Providence, that the one was fined, it will be necessary to attend to the followdesigned to prefigure the other, is the authority of ing circumstances, all of which are pointed out by that work in which the scheme of Divine Provi- Witsius and Outram. dence is unfolded. Destitute of that authority, (1) The efficacy really possessed by the antitype, we may confound a resemblance subsequently exists in the type only in appearance, or in a much veerted, with a resemblance pre-ordained; we loroer degree. For though a type often possesses may mistake a comparison founded on a mere some quality in common with its antitype, yet accidental parity of circumstances, for a compari- that quality is always considerably weaker in the son founded on a necessary and inherent connexion. type than in the antitype ; as the death of those There is no other rule, therefore, by which we victims by which the Messiah’s death was precan distinguish a real from a pretended type, than figured, had far less efficacy with God and men, that of Scripture itself. There are

no other than what belongs to the death of Christ. Hence pussille means by which we can know that a the apostle says, “For the law, having a shadowo previous design and a pre-ordained connexion of good things to come, and not the very image of sziged. Whatever persons or things, therefore, recorded in the Old Testament, were expressly declared by Christ, or by his apostles, to have * Lectures on Criticism and Interpretation, Part II., lect. vi. been designed as prefigurations of persons or + Hence a type is virtually a prediction of its antitype. Mr. things relating to the New Testament, such per- Horne has been guilty of a strange contradiction, in treating of sens or things so recorded in the former, are types and the typical sense of Scripture. In his chapter on

the interpretation of Types, he says, quoting from Outram : “Our types of the persons or things with which they definition of a type includes, also, that the object represented by ate compared in the latter. But if we assert that it is something future," vol. ii. p. 650, 4th edit. In his chapter a person or thing was designed to prefigure on the sense of Scripture, however (vol. ii. p. 495), he says, anther person or thing, where no such prefigura- The typical sense is, when, under external objects or pro

phetic visions, secret things, whether present or future, are re. tion has been declared by divine authority, we

presented!” make an assertion for which we neither have nor

+ The relation between Judaism and Christianity, by means can have the slightest foundation. And even of types, is discussed by Mr. Faber, Hor. Mos. book ii. sect. 2. the things, can never, with those sacrifices which was drawn his mystic consort, the church of the they offer year by year continually, make the faithful ? That as Adam was made on the sixth day, comers thereunto perfect," Heb. x. 1. Here, as and did eat the fruit at the sixth hour, so our Lord he uses the phrase, the very image of the things, to was crucified on the same day, and at the same denote the things themselves, so he declares the hour? That as Adam's soul was in spiritual darkJewish sacrifices, which were types of the sacrifice ness from the sixth to the ninth hour, so the earth of Christ, to have had only a shadoro of that was covered by the material darkness which sucefficacy of which his sacrifice possesses the reality. ceeded our Lord's death, for the same space of And this was the reason why those sacrifices never time? That David, in his kingly power and chaperfectly purified the persons by whom they were racter, typified the future king of the spiritual offered ; as is evident from the language of the Israel ; that in the sufferings and sorrows which same apostle, “ For if the blood of bulls and goats, caused him so repeatedly and pathetically to pour and the ashes of an heifer, sprinkling the unclean, out his soul before God, he bore, however faintly sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh ; how much and imperfectly, the figure of him who for us sufmore shall the blood of Christ, who through the fered as no man ever has or could, we readily eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, grant ; and though, in this case, we may not be purge your conscience from dead works to serve able to assent to all that is proposed even by a the living God?" Heb. ix. 13, 14. The argument Horne or a Horsley, yet by denying this typical chaon which this inference proceeds, is, that the effi- racter of the royal Psalmist, we incur the danger, cacy which was found only in a figure, or in a at least, of sacrificing to the excessive and unvery small degree in the type, is possessed in reality, grounded indulgence of critical refinement, means and in a far superior degree, in the antitype.* of personal edification and advancement in the

(2) But, as was said, the type is sometimes des- love of Christ, which no man may despise or overtitute of the properties of the antitype, even in look with safety. But are these feelings enhanced the lowest degree, and possesses only soine quality or enlivened—are we not rather disposed to suspect which symbolizes or shadows them forth. Thus, the and doubt the grounds on which we have hitherto daily incense burned in the temple, which repre- cherished them—when it is urged to us by our sented the prayers of the saints (Rev. v. 8; viii. fathers in this blessed faith and hope of the Chris3, 4), possessed no real quality in common with tian, that the voice and harp of David, expelling prayers. For its sweet odour, though sufficiently the evil spirit of Saul, prefigured the authority adapted to indicate how acceptable all pious prayers with which our Lord commanded the evil spirits, were to God, was not a quality of the same kind and they obeyed him ; that the rescue of David's as that which it represented in those prayers. So, two wives from the hands of the Amalekites, prealso, the brazen serpent, which healed all who figured the rescue of the spiritual sisters, Israel fixed their

eyes upon it, and which was typical of and Judah, both the daughters of one mother, the the Saviour of the world, possessed no efficacy in heavenly Jerusalem? It were easy to occupy a itself

, and had no property in common with that much longer time with instances which show divine

person “ in whom dwelt all the fulness of abundantly the necessity and wisdom of restricting the Godhead bodily.”

in general our exposition of scriptural types to (3) The analogy between the type and the anti- those express points in which the Scripture itself type must not be pushed beyond the point to which authorizes us to consider them as typical, or which revelation has extended it. Thus, because we find immediately flow from the nature of the relation Paul, by a singular usage, perhaps, of the word or character which we are taught to regard as conTUTOS, expressing that connexion and contrast stituting the analogy between the type and its which existed between the first and the second antitype ? Thus we readily grant that Aaron, as Adam, and his illustration of the subject, amount- the appointed high-priest of JEHOVAH, was a real ing strictly to this, that “as in' (the one) · Adam and intelligible type of Him who is made for us a all die, so in (the one) - Christ shall all be made Iligh-priest for ever; and that the sacrifices which alive;' are we, therefore, authorized to pursue this he offered were typical. Admitting this, we can same idea of relation through all the circumstances see no absurdity in admitting also, that when, in of our first parents' creation and fall ? To advance, his sacerdotal character, he stood between the that as Eve was drawn forth from the side of living and the dead, and stayed the plague from Adam, so from the wounded side of our Redeemer Israel, he exhibited the prefiguration and symbol

of a still higher deliverance. And there are types,

it may be added, of so general and extensive a * This subject is ably treated in Dr. J. P. Smith's Discourses character, as to admit, by the fairest deductions of on the Sacrifice and Priesthood of Christ, Disc. I.

criticism, the application of much that is said

was

concerning them, to the known character and I he might behold wondrous things out of his law features of their established antitype. This ap- (Psalm cxix. 18); and in Psalm lxxvii. he has pears to be especially the case with respect to the himself shown that the whole history of Israel, sacrifices of the Mosaic ritual, and the analogy from the time when they left Egypt, to his own existing between the typical and the spiritual days, had a parabolic or mystical meaning. But Israel; an analogy which must be regarded as in- this has been placed beyond dispute, by the intertentionally and largely adumbrated in all the pro- pretations which our Lord and his apostles have phetie writings."*

given of those divinely inspired writings. They (4) Another thing to be noticed is, that a show us how they understood the promises to wriation sometimes takes place in the signification Adam and Abraham ; that Mount Sinai and Jeruof the type. That is, the same person or thing is salem are both to be allegorized ; and with respect occasionally typical of different persons or things, to prophecies, that several occurrences and sayings in different respects.

So Isaac, when virtually in the Old Testament, which in the letter appear sacrificed by Abraham, was a type of Christ ; not to refer to any thing beyond the occasion, were but when he scued from the sacrificial fulfilled, as actually prophetic, by the events of knife, and the ram offered in his stead, the the life, death, and resurrection of our Redeemer. figure was changed; the ram representing Christ, These, and other instances, no just criticism can who was delivered up to death; and Isaac, the ever so explain as to make them consistent with a church, which was redeemed by the death of total denial of the spiritual and evangelical sense Christ.

of many parts of the Old Testament. Nor can it (5) The last thing to be noticed is, that the be denied or questioned, as Mr. Conybeare has type is superseded, or wholly removed from its ably argued, that even in the records of the new Plur, by the antitype. This results from the very covenant, the things which concern the renewal of Dature of the thingy the one being the shadow, the inner man, and the salvation of the believer, the other the substance ; the one the figure, the are in more than one case shadowed out to us other the truth: and, as Jerome has remarked, under types and analogies, which, if we accept * the shadow ceased on the coming of the sub- the testimony of those records, we are not only stance ;” and “where the truth is present, there is authorized but bound to understand and to apply no need of the figure.” +

spiritually. To pass over much of that part of our (6) If these things be carefully attended to, the Lord's teaching which was confessedly in parables, doctrine of types will appear much more deter- if we allow that there be any spiritual grace conminate, and less liable to abuse, than at present; nected with the right usage and reception of the as well as by far more worthy a place in the volume Christian sacraments, we must admit their outof revelation.

ward elements to be the certain and pre-ordained II. Very nearly allied to the interpretation of symbols of that grace, and of the means whereby symbols and types, is the spiritual or mystical it is conveyed to us : we must be it spoken with Ponte of Scripture; with a few suggestions on reverence and faith) admit the material body and which, the present section may be closed. blood of our glorious Redeemer himself to be

1. On this, as on most other subjects, involving typical of that spiritual food whereby the inward any difficulty, the extremes to which some persons life of the believer's soul—that life which, as we have gone, and the extravagancies of which they are expressly told, “is hidden with Christ in have been guilty, have created in others so strong God”—is produced and supported. When the a distaste for the doctrine, that their efforts, it is apostle urges, that as our Saviour died and rose to be feared, are almost exclusively directed to again for us, so should we, who are buried with obtain a correct acquaintance with the mere letter him in baptism, die unto sin and rise again unto of Scripture; in which should they terminate, it righteousness; when he expressly exhorts the will have been to them altogether dead and use- believers as “ those who are risen with Christ;"

we cannot deny that he sees in the history of 2. That the Old Testament Scriptures some- thus much at least in his Master's life, a spiritimes possessed, in addition to their literal and tual as well as a literal import. The luxuriance drious meaning, a secondary or spiritual sense, is of human ingenuity may, indeed, as it has often evident from those Scriptures themselves. Thus done, push its imitation of these mysterious anaDarid prayed that God would open his eyes, that logies much too far; the pride of scepticism may

refuse to be taught at all after this manner, and * Conybeare's Bampton Lectures, pp.

its votary may question the inspiration of those Witsius on the Covenants, book iv. chap. 6; Outram on

Scriptures which would thus teach him; but Sacrifices, Dissert. i. ch. 18.

neither the abuses of the one, nor the perverse

305-310.

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