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can detect any thing which may lead us to suspect cipally, that the parable of the rich man snatched the presence of tropes. And these marks are away by death, which immediately follows, (ver. various, as we are taught by many passages of 16, 21) is in favour of this opinion. For a like Scripture. When the author himself uses words reason, in John ix. 4, the expressions śws nueépe which clearly show that a comparison is intended, goriv igXetai vis must be interpreted of the durathe case is clear; as Luke xii. 35, “Let your tion of man's natural life, and the death which loins be girded about, and your lights burning ;" terminates it, because our blessed Saviour immei. e., be always ready.

diately adds, όταν εν τω κόσμω ώ, φώς είμι του (2) Nearly allied to this class of texts are those xóquou, as long as I live among men, I am a light in which the proper and improper forms are so to them, i. e., I promote their happiness. united, as that the one shall involve the interpreta- 3. Having thus disposed of the context, we tion of the other. Of such we shall produce a must, in the next place, examine the use which few examples. When Jesus (Matt. xi. 29), ad- may be derived from parallel passages, in which monishing his hearers “ to take his yoke upon the same subject is treated in other words or them," adds, “and learn of me,” he clearly shows phrases, either proper or tropical. In reference that the word yoke is to be taken figuratively, and to this rule, it may be observed, that the greatest that it means nothing more than the precepts attention is always to be paid to any explanation which he taught; compare Wisd. li. 26. The afforded by the author himself. A striking examApostle Paul (Rom. vi. 21), after inquiring of ple of this is found in John xi. 14, when Jesus those who had once been devoted to the practice openly says, Lazarus is dead; from whence it of vice,

What fruit had ye then ?" by imme- appears, that the words he had before used, at diately adding, “ for the end (rinos) of these ver. 11, Adlagos o cines, few sezolunsal, our things is death,” shows that fruit must here be friend Lazarus sleepeth, were not to be taken in taken tropically, as meaning result or payment. their proper sense, but to be interpreted tropically The same inspired author, in Phil. iii. 2, says, of death. Of the same nature is the passage, “ beware of dogs," and the tropical application Matt. xvi. 6, ogãte xai zgodbyste årò tis Guns of the word dogs, to false and impudent teachers, 5ão pagioniwe zai Caðdouzaiwv; the true sense of is proved by what follows, “ Beware of evil work- which words the disciples did not apprehend, supmen ;" compare Rev. xxii. 15. In like manner, posing that their Master spoke of learen in its in James iv. 4, the words foryoa rai Morganíðss, proper sense. But Jesus, by reminding them at ye alulterers and adulteresses, are to be understood, ver. 7, of his having provided food for so many not properly, as referring to actual adultery, but thousands, showed clearly, as they themselves figuratively, to an undue attachment to worldly afterwards anderstood, that Güven was to be underthings; as appears, not only from the context stood, not of natural leaven, but tropically, of the generally, but also from what immediately follows, doctrines of the Pharisees and Sadducees. We “ Know ye not that the friendship of the world must also apply what is said in express terms by is enmity with God.”

each apostle ; by Matthew, at ver. 12; by John, (3) Light is also frequently thrown upon the at ver. 13; from which the tropical sense of the proper or improper signification of a word by words is completely proved. comparing it with some contrasted word: thus, 4. Finally, we must not neglect the light Rom. vi. 23, if we compare the plırase, rd yas which history sometimes throws upon difficult ο ψώνια της αμαρτίας θάνατος, for the ages of sin passages. is death, which many theologians understand in a III. We may now proceed to consider THE proper sense, as referring to natural death, with PROPER INTERPRETATION OF TROPES. Postponing the opposed phrase, rd o zágoua ro Seo con for the next section a consideration of the sources aiúvios, but the gift of God is eternal life, we shall whence the sacred writers derive their figurative perceive that the tropical sense is to be preferred, expressions, which properly belongs to this part and that the word Favaros is to be interpreted by of our subject, we may inquiremisery of every kind.

1. How we may discover the meaning of (4) We shall show, in the last place, by a few tropes; that is to say, the sense in which the examples, the importance of the subsequent con- author intended them to be understood. text, in determining the proper or improper use (1) There can be no doubt in those cases where of a word. Commentators are divided as to the the intention is laid open by an explanation meaning of i Swoi autoũ, Luke xii. 15; whether it afforded by the speaker or writer; of such cases, ought to be understood tropically, of happiness, or we shall here produce a few examples. When properly, of the natural life of man. The former Jesus (Matt. xxiii. 27) compares the Pharisees rendering is to be preferred, for this reason, prin- I to whited sepulchres, making a fair show without,


but internally full 0. bones and filth, he himself from the body of the believer, to mean the gifts of immediately adds an explanation of the figure, the Holy Spirit, which were to be conspicuous (ver. 28), όυτω και υμείς έξωθεν μέν φαίνεσθε, κ. τ. λ.; in those who had attained a fuller and more intimeaning that they put on an external mark of mate knowledge of Christian doctrine. probity and virtue, while their mind was full of (5) Sometimes the sense of a tropical expression improbity and injustice. In like manner, the may be inferred from the antecedents or consequents. apostle Paul, in his valedictory address to the Of explanation by the antecedents, we may prorulers of the church at Ephesus, shows, in the duce the following examples. Every reader of proper and tropical terms, which he alternately our Lord's discourse in Matt. vii. 3, 4, must have uses, that by the flock, which he commands them inquired the meaning of rágpos, the mote in to watch over, he means the church of Christ, thy brother's eye; and of my dozóv, the beam in the associated body of Christians; and therefore thine own eye: and of these images no express it follows, that the verb Forjaiver must be inter- interpretation is afforded. But if we refer to verses preted to rule, to direct, to provide for their spi- 1, 2, and consider, that the object of the Divine ritual safety; and the griecous wolves, auzor Bagets Teacher was evidently to warn men against forming μη φειδόμενοι του ποιμνίου, mean, by the express

rash or uncharitable judgments of others, it must interpretation of the apostle himself (ver. 30), immediately appear that sò nágoos is used for false teachers, who should introduce false doctrines the minor faults of others, and solv domóv for greater into the church.

faults in ourselves. In like manner, if we con(2) Finally, to produce, also, one instance of sider attentively the tropical language of our what some interpreters consider to be allegory.* Saviour, in Luke ix. 62, cudzis szoban.wy o give meseca The same apostle (Eph. vi. 13—17), in exhorting autoū, %. 5. no, no man, having put his hand to his readers to constancy and fortitude, so

the plough, &c., we must see that it is an answer plains “the whole armour of God," as that each to the request made at ver. 61, érirgefov, %. 5.7., portion of it corresponds to some habit of a truly “permit me first to bid farewell (i. e., to give Christian mind, or some external support against orders) to my household.” It appears, then, that those dangers which threaten destruction to the by the man who, having put his hand to the faith and holiness of the Christian. Compare 1 plough, looks back, is meant one who, while he Thess. v. 8.+

ought to be supremely engaged about some one (3) In cases, however, where no explicit inter- important engagement, allows his attention to be pretation of tropical language is afforded by the distracted by minor and irrelevant concerns. # author himself, we may sometimes determine the

(6) We occasionally meet with passages in the meaning by the help of the contrasted expressions. New Testament, where the context throws no Thus, in Matt. vii. 9, our Saviour does not ex- light upon the signification of the figure empressly say what he means by a stone instead of ployed; and, in such cases, the interpretation is brood, and a serpent instead of a fish. But at certainly more difficult and perplexed. Here we Verse 11, he explains bread and fish as meaning must not neglect the use of parallel passages, for generally, dómara dyasá, useful, salutary gifts; there are passages which are to be considered as hence we may conclude, from the opposition, that really parallel, and which throw much light upon by the stone and serpent are meant objects either the sense of tropical expressions. Thus, in our us less or pernicious.

Lord's discourse, Matt. vi. 22, 23, it may be in(4) Where there is no explanation, either quired what is figured by opFanóv, the eye, and direct or indirect, we must then have recourse to ó rúgvos rol owlaros, the light of the body; of the ormtext. Sometimes the narrator introduces an which terms no express interpretation is given in observation to explain the language of a discourse the context. But the parallel passage (Luke is. which he narrates ; of which we have an example 34, 35), by adding, in the way of explanation, in John vii. 38, 39, where the evangelist himself rò Çūs įv ooi, the light that is in thee, shows explains the rivers of neater, which should flow clearly, that by these terms we are to understand

human reason, and specifically that innate sense By allegory, the hermeneutical authors of Germany, in zeral, appear to mean nothing more than a connected series of This text is ill rendered in our version, which seems to Es. Morus, however, seems to have understood it more as imply that the person who wished to follow Christ, desired only

do, when he defines it to be a method of expressing an en- to bid a friendly farewell to his relatives, a request which it

srntiment in such a way as that, instead of the thing meant, must have appeared harsh to refuse The best rendering is to kothing resembling it is expressed. There is nothing of this dismiss with a farewell, or to dismiss simply; Mark vi. 46, comestrezass in Eph. vi. 13–17; for thongh the word shield is to pared with the parallel text, Matt. xiv. 23. He wished to be interpreted tropically, the conjoined term, faith, is to be in-arrange his temporal affairs; and night, in doing so, have interected in its proper sense. See Bib. Cab. i., p. 154, note S. curred a strong temptation to give up his intention of following * Mori Acroases, Vol. I., p. 307, 308.



of right and truth, which is implanted by God in passages which strongly confirm this interpreour hearts. *

tation, Matt. xxiv. 43, Luke xii. 39. (7) There is also another class of texts, which, (2) The point of comparison may be deduced though they cannot be considered as strictly from the context of the discourse. Thus, for parallel, may still be advantageously used in dis- example, when Peter, in his first epistle (iv. 12), covering the sense of tropes. Thus, the denun- speaks of the fiery trial by which they are to be ciation of Paul to the high-priest, Acts xxiii. 3, tested, and explains these figurative expressions, TUTTEIVO élas, ó Ogds, Toiye xexovauéve, God both generally, by adding (ver. 13) that they will smite (that is, punish) thee, thou whited wall, had come into a participation of Christ's sufferings; may have some light thrown upon it, by the text and specifically, by adding (ver. 14) that they above quoted (Matt. xxiii. 37), where our Saviour would be reproached for their profession of Chriscompares the Pharisees, generally, to whited tianity ; it is clear, from the adjuncts, that the sepulchres. Hence it appears, that the notion in- point of comparison lies in the painful feelings tended in both the passages, is that of the worst which are common to those whose bodies are hypocrisy.t In the same way, Noesselt has shown affected by extreme heat, and those whose minds how the several images in the beautiful parable, are affected by reproach and contempt. John xv. l, may be explained by reference to (3) The point of comparison may be detersimilar passages in the New Testament; to which mined by the collating of parallel passages. Thus, elucidation it

may be sufficient to refer the reader. I when Jesus, in his address to the woman who 2. The second point of inquiry, in the inter- followed him, Luke xxiii. 31, after denouncing a pretation of tropical language, is, the similitude miserable fate to the city of Jerusalem and its existing betroeen the sign and the thing signified. inhabitants, adds, “for if these things be done in

(1) The principal point and object of com- the green tree, what shall be done in the dry ?" parison may be determined from the interpretation it is clear, from Ezek. xx. 47 and xxi. 3, comgiven by the writer or speaker himself. When paring also, for the sense, 1 Pet. iv. 17, that by Jesus (John vi. 35) says, “I am the bread of life,” the green tree is meant an innocent person, the adding, by way of explanation, “ he that cometh cause of safety to others; and by the dry, a wicked to me shall never hunger, and he that believeth in person, the cause of injury to others. And if we me shall never thirst;" he plainly indicates that examine more carefully the passages of Ezekiel, he would make provision for all the spiritual ne

we shall easily find what is the point of comcessities of men ; so that whosoever should be parison between men and trees--we shall find united to him, by faith and obedience, would enjoy that it lies in their good or bad qualities, as being true happiness, together with all necessary safe- the cause why they think a dry and barren tree guards to his salvation, and would neither want ought to be cut down, and why a worthless and nor desire any thing else.|| The point of com- hurtful man is deserving of destruction. parison lies, therefore, in the quality of bread to (4) By the assistance of these rules, we may nourish men, preserve life, and support the sinking generally determine what is the proper object strength. Again, when the apostle Paul (Thess. signified by a tropical expression, and what is v. 2) says that the second coming of the Lord the nature and degree of resemblance between will be “like a thief in the night,” the words the sign and the thing signified. A few passages, which follow,“ when they shall say, Peace and however, are to be found in the New Testament, safety, then sudden destruction cometh upon which admit of various interpretations, as, for them,” show that it will come unexpectedly upon example, the much-disputed passage, Mark ix. 49, men who are not thinking of it, just as a thief glides 50. Nor does the cause of comparison always by night into the house of those who sleep se


the surface; on the contrary, it sometimes curely, and anticipate no evil. Compare the requires very careful examination. As an in

stance, we may take James i. 18, where we read

that “God of his own will begat us by the word * Thus, in Mark x. 38, 39, the cup, Totipov, which was of truth," sis sivao njãs dragyv Tiva Tūv avso to be drunk; and the immersion, Bántioua, which was to be

κτισμάτων. Almost all the interpreters agree received by the apostles John and James, signify persecutions

that which they were to undergo: as appears clearly from a com- the reference is to the first-fruits, which were parison of the parallel texts, Matt. xxvi. 39; John xviii. 11 ; solemnly offered to God in sacrifice. But they Luke xii. 50.

differ as to whether the simile, rñs dragxñs, is + Selecta e Scholiis, L. C., Valckenaerii in lib. quosdam, to be referred to the superiority of those who had N. T. i. p. 559., Riehın de fontibus, Act. Apostol., p. 88. been reformed by the reception of Christianity, Opuscula ad Interpretationum S. S. Fasc. ji. p. 31, seq. so as to make the sense, " that we might be || Schott, Opusc. i. p. 159.

rendered the most excellent among his creatures;" or whether the comparison is derived from this, cation of Moses' song of triumph at the Red Sea that the first-fruits were a pledge and earnest of hexameter,|| and so also his farewell song;S and the future harvest, limiting the reference to the represents the Psalms of David as consisting time of the conversion of those to whom the partly of trimeter, partly of hexameter verse. I epistle was written, so as to make the sense, Eusebius calls the Hebrew poems metrical,** and " that we might be the first in order of time their versification partly hexameter, partly trimeter among those whom God hath begotten by the and tetrameter. So also Jerome in many places. preaching of the gospel.” The latter interpre- In the Præf. ad Chron. Euseb. he represents the tation is to be preferred; for James appears to Psalms as consisting of iambic, alcaic, and sapphic refer to the Jewish Christians, who had come to verse, like the odes of Horace and of Pindar, the knowledge and profession of Christianity while the verse of Job is hexameter and pentabefore the Gentiles. Compare Rom. xvi. 5; meter. He pronounces a similar judgment in the I Cor. xvi. 15.*

Præf. ad Jobum, and in the Præf. in Threnos. III. It is hoped that attention to these rules The same opinion is expressed by Isiodorus Hismay lead the student into such a habit of investi- palensis.tt But we fail of finding in these authors gation as will relieve him from at least the most any more definite account or explanation of the formidable difficulties in the detection and inter- metres which they thus name. Hence Löscher pretation of tropical language.

remarks, that the fathers, in these assertions, had

no reference to metrical feet, but only to the SECTION X.

members of the verse. I*

Martianay endeavours

to defend and prove the assertion of Jerome; but THE POETRY OF THE SACRED WRITINGS.

does it in a manner so vague and confused, as only Various Theories on the Rhythmical Form of the Hebrew Poetry – The Lyric and the Epic Poetry of the Hebrews to involve the subject in still greater perplexity.llil Persification–The Parallelism of Members-The Musical Ferrandus also defends the opinion of Jerome. Ss Accents – Sources of the Poetic Imagery employed by the (2) An attempt to define the laws of Hebrew Hebrews: Natural Objects; the Arts and Circumstances of metre, in prosecuting this assertion, was made by ordinary Life; Sacred Topics; Sacred History.

Francis Gomar, in his work Davidis Lyra, &c., 11 I. THERE has been much and able controversy -a system of the prosody of the Hebrew language; respecting the nature of the Hebrew poetry. The in which he endeavours to point out a distinct laborious investigations of Carpzof and Lowth versification, analogous to the Greek, in the sowere deemed to have put an end to the dispute ; called metrical books, viz., Job, the Proverbs of but it has been again revived by Herder, Gese- Solomon, and the Psalms. He was, however, nius, De Wette, and other German critics, who happily refuted by L. Capell, *** and that with have examined the question with a degree of

great ease. There was no injustice in the pun of minuteness and particularity that seems almost to one of his antagonists, who said, Gomari Lyram have exhausted it. From the last-mentioned delirare. Having constructed a system of prosody writer, we shall give some account of the opinions upon principles supported by no evidence, and at and theories of preceding critics, and a summary variance with the Hebrew, as well as every other of the reasons which induce him, as we think language, instead of proceeding to establish upon with great reason, to dissent from most of them. this basis the Hebrew versification, he overturns

1. Many writers maintain that the Hebrew his own structure, by laying it down as a rule, poetry possesses metrical feet and versification, that “all the Hebrew poems of the sacred Scripwhich, moreover, they specifically define, or rather tures consist of various and intermingled kinds of attempt to define and restore. But in defining verse. They are absolute, not relative; that is, the character of this metre, they are again they have no similar verses, corresponding to each divided.

other in their measure and place in the series.” (1) Many hold to a versification in the proper sense, after the analogy of the Greek and Latin

|| Ant. Jud. II. 16, 4. metres ; and in favour of this opinion there are

Ibid., iv. 8, 44. ancient authorities. Philo describes the songs of Ibid., vii. 12. 3. praise of the ancient sacred poets as trimeter, and ** Praep. Evang. xi. 3. composed of strophes,t and attributes to Moses a +1 Origi ,i. 38.

#1 De Caus. Ling. Hebr. c. xi.. $ 6, p. 436. knowledge of metre. Josephus calls the versifi

|||| Proleg. iv. in Div. Bibliothec. S. Hieron Opp. ed. Vallars.

T.ix. * Beckhaus on the Interpretation of the Tropical Language 88 Præf. in Psalmos, c. II. of the New Testament, passim, Biblical Cabinet, vol. ii. 11 Opp. iii. 388, seq. De Vita ('ontempl., p. 901. E.

*** Animadvers, ad Novam Davidis Lyram, 16-13; after1 Ibid., p. 606. A.

wards printed with his Critica Sacra, p. 651.

Yet he found some followers, among whom were lays down are in general correct, provided no obConst. L'Empereur, Dan. Heinsius, Lud. De Dieu, jection is made to the change which he introduces Hottinger, and the younger Buxtorf.

into the Hebrew punctuation. But what authority (3) We pass over the boastful attempts of have we for changing this? The affinity of the Marcus Meibom to restore the Hebrew versifi- Hebrew language to the Arabic and Syriac hardly cation, referring the curious reader to Carpzov,* suffices to justify us in assuming the fact of a like and proceed to notice the English prelate, Francis pronunciation, quantity, &c. In fine, Greve makes Hare, who believed he had brought to light the so many exceptions to his own rules, as to render metre of the Psalms in his work, “Psalmorum his whole system in the highest degree fluctuating liber in versiculos metriæ divisus et ope metrices and uncertain. ** multis in locis integritati suæ restitutus," Lond. (6) A very elaborate and sensible theory of 1736. IIe met with a short and pithy answer Hebrew prosody was published by Bellermann. from Bishop Lowth, in his “ Metricæ Harianæ It is founded on the systema morarum, according brevis Confutatio,” which is found at the end of to which all syllables have an equal mora, or his Lectures. This metrical system of Hare is time, the only change being that produced by the in the highest degree arbitrary. He establishes accent. Accordingly, he supposes all syllables the following canon among others : “No regard is destitute of an accent to be short, and all accented paid to the quantity of syllables;” a principle syllables to be long ; very much as in German or upon which every thing could be made out of any English. He has not succeeded, however, in thing. Notwithstanding this, the principles of pointing out a proper Hebrew versification, but Hare found an advocate in Christian Weisse, who only in making it probable that the Hebrew poets attempted to add still farther to the structure. I have occasionally allowed the iambic, the trochaic,

(4) Sir William Jones applies to the Hebrew or the anapaestic number to prevail. the rules of the Arabic metre. He lays down as (7) The last attempt to form a system of Herules, that mixed syllables, and syllables with brew metre is contained in the work of J. L. quiescent vowels, are long; pure syllables, short. Saalschütz. Like Bellermann, he grounds his After the manner of the Arabians, he proposes to system upon the accent, which, however, he places give vowels to letters which have sheva moveable. not upon the final, but upon the penult syllable ; As to the rest, he falls into very much the same for he considers the accent as the sign of the suberror as Gomar, and quite destroys every thing he ordinate (ground) tone, instead of the principal ; has said, by supposing that the Hebrews inter- so that by this means the Hebrew language remingle their metres, as Pindar does.

ceives a trochaic accentuation, while, according to (5) Unquestionably the boldest attempt of this Bellermann's system, it is for the most part iambic. kind was that of Greve. After having provided The shevas frequently form short syllables, but himself with a new recension of the text, chiefly frequently do not. Those syllables are likewise in accordance with the Septuagint, and with a short which have neither tone, accent, nor ictus. new system of punctuation, following the analogy Those syllables are common which have the ictus, of the Arabic, he establishes a prosody of the as also the final syllables which have the accent. Hebrew poetry, grounded on the analogy of the All Hebrew poems have the rhythm resembling, Syriac and Arabic languages; and proceeds to where it is regular, the measure of the hexameter, apply it, in an attempt to restore the versification except that, in addition to dactyles and spondees, of Job. He repeats the same attempts upon the it allows of the introduction of trochees and the prophets Nahum and Habakkuk, ş and the pro- first paeon. The verses consist sometimes of two phet Isaiah. The rules of prosody which he feet, sometimes of three, sometimes of four and

five; and it is but seldom the author succeeds in Carpzov, 1. c. p. 19, seq., and Saalschütz, p. 17. pointing out a certain uniformity. So by thir + Lowth published a larger confutation of Hare, Lond. 1766. theory, arbitrary as it is, no metrical version, in

Progr. Systema Psalmorum metricum a Francisco Hare the proper sense, is restored, but only a certain nuper adornatum, 1740.

|| Ultima capita libri Jobi, nempe cap. 38–41, et capitis 42 number, which is also secured by the proper propars, ad Græcam versionem recensita notisque instructa ab nunciation. E. I. Greve. Accedit tractatus de metris Hebræorum præser- (8) Others maintain that the Hebrew poetry tim Jobæis. Pars I. complect. cap. 38, 39. Daventriæ, 1788. Pars II. complect. 40–42: 6 et libellum de metris. Burgos possesses a free versification; and, strictly speakteinfurthi, 1791, 4to.

ing, all those who have been mentioned above Vaticinia Nahumi et Habacuci. Interpretationem et notat belong to this class. Michaelistt is of this opinion, adjecit E. I. Greve.-Editio metrica. Amstelod. 1793-4.

Vaticiniorum Jesaiæ pars continens carmina a cap. 41, lisque ad 56: 9. Hebraica ad numeros recensuit, versionem et ** Comp. Eichhorn's Allg. Bibl. vi. 811, seq. notas adjecit. 1810. 4.

+ On Lowth, p. 432. Ed. Rosenm.

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