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Page. Chap. V-The Morality of Saint Paul,
243 The Obligation of Prayer universal-Regular Seasons to be Chap. VI.--The Disinterestedness of Saint Paul, 247 observed -The Sceptic and the Sensualist reject Prayer,
508 Chap. VII-Saint Paul's Prudence in his conduct toward Errors in Prayer, which may hinder its being answered-The the Jews,
252 proud Man's Prayer-The patient Christian-False Excuses Chap. VIII-Saint Paul's Judgment in his intercourse with under the Pretence of Inability,
511 tbe Pagans
256 God our Father-Our Unwillinguess to please Him-Form Chap. IX-On the general Principle of Saint Paul's Wri of Prayer-Great and Little Sins-All Sin an Offence tings, 260 against God--Benefit of Habitual Prayer
515 Chap. X-On the Style and Genius of Saint Paul,
266 The Doctrine of imputed Sanctification, newly adopted-The Chap. XI-Saint Paul's Tenderuess of Heart,
271 old one of progressive Sanctification newly rejected--Both Chap. XII-Saint Paul's Heavenly Minded Ress,
276 Doctrines injurious to Prayer-St. Paul's Character, 517 Chap. XIII-A general View of the Qualities of Saint Paul Character of those who expect Salvation for their good -his Knowledge of Human Natare--his Delicacy in giv
Works-Of those who depend on a careless nominal Faith ing Advice or Reproof-his Integrity,
280 Both these Characters unfavourable to Prayer-Christianity Chap. XIV-Saint Paul on the Love of Money,
285 a Religion of Love which disposes to Prayer, exhibited in a Chap. XV-On the Genius of Christianity, us seen in Saint
289 Prayer-The condition of its attendant Blessings—seless Cbap. XVI-Saint Paul's respect for constituted Authori Contentiva about Terms,
522 293 Vaio Excuses for the Neglect of Prayer-The Man of BusiChap. XVII-Saint Paul's Attention to inferior Concerns, 299 ness Case of Nehemiah--Prayer against the Fear of Death Chap. XVIII--Saint Paul on the Resurrection,
300 -Characters to whom this Prayer is recommended, 523 Chap. XIX-Saint Paul op Prayer, Thanksgiving, and Reli.
The consolations of Prayer-Ito perpetual Obligation,
526 gious Joy, 304 On latercessory Prayer,
529 Chap. XX-Saint Paul an Example to familiar Life,
309 The praying Christian in the World-The promise of Rest to the Christian,
530 Chap. XXI--On the superior Advantages of the preeent peri The Lord's Prayer, a Model both for our Devotion and our
od, for the atttainment of Knowledge, Religion, and Happiness,
Practict-It teaches the Duty of promoting Schemes to ad. Chap. XXII-Conclusion-Corsory inquiry into some of the
vance the Glory of God,
Conclusion, Causes which impeded general Improvement,
537 CELEBS IN SEARCH OF A WIFE,
SPIRIT OF PRAYER.
Chap. I–The Necessity of Prayer founded on the Corruption POREIGN SKETCHES. of Human Nature,
542 462 Chap. 11- The Duty of Prayer, inferred from the HelplessForeign Associations, French Opinion of English Society,
ness of Man,
343 English Opinion of French Society, 68 Chap. III -Prayer : its Definition,
544 England's Best Hope, 474 Chap. IV-The efficacy of Prayer,
548 Chap. V-Vain Excuses for the Neglect of Prayer,
551 DOMESTIC SKETCHES. Chap. VI-Characters wbo reject Prayer,
Chap. VII-Errors in Prayer, On Soundness in Judgment and Consistency in Condoct 479
557 Chap. VIII-The Lord's Prayer,
560 Novel Opinions in Religion
Chap. IX-The Lord's Prayer continued, THY WILL BE NI Effects of the late Secession,
562 Exertions of Pious Ladies,
Chap. X-Scheme of Prayer proposed for Young Persons, on High Profession and negligent Practice,
495 Auricular Confession,
the Model of the Lord's Prayer,
565 497 Chap. XI-Perseverance in Prayer and Praise,
568 Unprofitable Reading,
498 The Borderers,
Chap. XII-Intercessory Prayer,
Chap. XIII-Practical Results of Prayer, exhibited in the
Chap. XIV--The Consolation of Prayer in Afliction, SickOn the Corruption of Human Nature,
578 False Notions of the Dignity of Man, sbewa from his Helplessness and Dependence,
TOWARDS FORMING THE CHARACTER OF A YOUNG PRINCESS.
I call that a complete and generous education, which fits a person to perform justly, skilfully, and magnanimously, all the offices both of public and private life, of peace and of war...
TO THE RIGHT REVEREND THE LORD BISHOP OF EXETER. MY LORD,-Could it have been foreseen by the author of the following pages, that, in the case of the illustrious person who is the subject of them, the standard of education wonld have been set so high ; and especially, that this education would be committed to such able and distintinguished hands, the work might surely have been spared. But as the work was gone to the press before that appointment was announced, which must give general satisfaction, it becomes important to request, that if the advice suggested in any part of the work should appear presumptuous, your lordship, and still more the public, who might be more forward than your lordship in charging the author with presumption, will have the candour to recollect, that it was offered, not to the learned bishop of Exeter, but to an unknown, and even to an imaginary preceptor.
Under these circumstances, your lordship will perhaps have the goodness to accept the dedication of the following pages; not as arrogantly pointing out duties to the discharge of which you are so competent, but as a mark of the respect and esteem with which I have the honour to be, My lord, your lordship's most obedient and most faithful servant,
THE AUTHOR. April 2, 1805.
PREFACE. Is any book, written with an an upright and disinterested intention, may be thought to require av apology, it is surely the slight work which is now, with the most respectful deference, submitted, not to the public only, but especially to those who may be more immediately interested in the important object which it has in view.
If we were to inquire what is, even at the present critical period, one of the most momentous con. cerns which can engage the attention of an Englishman, who feels for his country like a patriot, and for his posterity like a father; what is that object of which the importance is not bounded by the shores of the British islands nor limited by our colonial possessions ;-with which, in its consequences, the interests, not only of all Europe, but of the whole civilized world, may hereafter be in some measure implicated; what Briton would hesitate to reply, the education of the princess Charlotte of Wales?
After this frank confession of the unspeakable importance of the subject in view, it is no wonder if the extreme difficulty, as well as delicacy of the present undertaking, is acknowledged to be sensibly felt by the author.
It will too probably be thought to imply not only officiousness, but presumption, that a private individual should thus hazard the obtrusion of unsolicited observations on the proper inode of forming the character of an English princess. It may seem to involve an appearance of unwarrantable distrust, by implying an apprehension of some deficiency in the plan about to be adopted by those, whoever they may be, on whom this great trust may be devolved: and to indicate self-conceit, by conveying an intimation, after so strong an avowal of the delicacy and difficulty of the task, that such a deficiency is within the powers of the author to supply.
That author, however, earnestly desires, as far ar it may be possible to obviate these anticipated charges, by alleging that under this free constitution, in which every topic of national policy is openly canvassed, and in which the prerogatives of the crown form no mean part of the liberty of the subject, the principles which it is proper to instil into a royal personage, become a topic, which, if discussed respectfully, may without offence, exercise the liberty of the British press.
The writer is very far, indeed, from pretending to offer any thing approaching to a system of instruction for the royal pupil, much less from presuming to dictate a plan of conduct to the preceptor. What is here presented, is a mere outline, which may be filled up by far more able hands ; a sketch which contains no consecutive details, which neither aspires to regularity of design, nor exactness of execution.
To awaken a lively attention to a subject of such moment, to point out some circumstances connected with the early season of improvement, but still more with the subsequent stages of life; to offer, not a treatise on education, but a desultory suggestion of sentiments and principles ; to convey instruction, not so much by precept or by argument, as to exemplify it by illustrations and examples ; and, above all, to stimulate the wise and the good to exertions far more effectual; these are the real motives which have given birth to this slender performance.
Had the royal pupil been a prince, these hints would never have been obtruded on the world, as it would then have been naturally assumed that the established plan usually adopted in such cases would have been pursued. Nor does the author presume in the present instance, to insinuate a suspicion, that there will be any want of a large and liberal scope in the projected system, or to intimate an apprehension that the course of study will be adapted to the sex, rather than to the circumstances of the princess.
If, however, it should be asked, why a stranger presumes to interfere in a matter of such high copcern? It may be answered in the words of an elegant critic, that in classic story, when a superb and lasting monument was about to be consecrated to beauty, every lover was permitted to carry a tribute.
The appearance of a valuable elementary work on the principles of Christianity, which has been recently published in our language, translated from the German under the inmediate patronage of an angust personage, for the avowed purpose of benefit to her illustrious daughters, as it is an event highly
auspicious to the general interests of religion, so is it a circumstance very encouraging to the present undertaking.
It is impossible to write on such points as are discussed in this little work, without being led to draw a comparison between the lot of a British subject, and that of one who treats on similar topics under a despotic government.-- The excellent archbishop of Cambray, with every advantage which genius, learning, profession, and situation could conter; the admired preceptor of the duke of Burgundy, appointed to the office by the king himself, was yet in the beautiful work which he composed for the use of his royal pupil, driven to the necessity of couching his instructions under a fictitious narrative, and of sheltering behind the veil of fable, the duties of a just sovereign, and the blessings of a good government : he was aware, that even under this disguise, his delineation of both would too probably be construed into a satire on the personal errors of his own king, and the vices of the French government, and in spite of his ingenious discretion, the event justified his apprehensions.
Fortunate are the subjects of that free and happy country who are not driven to have recourse to any such expedients; who may, without danger, dare to express temperately what they think lawsully; who, in describing the most perfect form of government, instead of recurring to poetic invention, need only delineate that under which they themselves lize; who, in sketching the character, and shadowing out the duties of a patriot king, have no occasion to turn their eyes from their own country to the thrones of Ithaca or Salentum.
TOWARDS FORMING THE CHARACTER OF A YOUNG PRINCESS.
INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. human dangers and difficulties, without even
the common resources of the least favoured We are told that when a sovereign of an of mankind. cient times, who wished to be a mathema Yet, must not this be the ubaggravated tician, but was deterred by the difficulty of consequence of not accustoming the royal attainment, asked, whether he could not be child to that salutary control which the corinstructed in some easier method, the an- ruption of our nature requires, as its indisswer which he received was, that there was pensable and earliest corrective? If those no royal road to geometry. The lesson con- foolish desires, which in the great mass tained in this reply ought never to be lost of mankind are providentially repressed by sight of, in that most important and delicate the want of means to gratify them, should, of all undertakings, the education of a in the case of royalty, be thought warprince:
rantable, because every possible gratificaIt is a truth which might appear too obvi- tion is within reach, what would be the reous to require enforcing, and yet of all oth- sult, but the full blown luxuriance of folly, ers it is a truth most liable to be practically vice, and misery? The laws of human naforgotten, that the same subjugation of de- ture will not bend to human greatness; and sire and will, of inclinations and tastes, to by these immutable laws it is determined, the laws of reason and conscience, which that happiness and virtue, virtue and selfevery one wishes to see promoted in the low-command, self-command and early habitual est ranks of society, is still more necessary self-denial, sbould he joined together in an in the very highest, in order to the attain. indissoluble bond of connexion ment either of individual happiness, or of The first habit, therefore, to be formed in general virtue, to public usefulness, or to every human being, and still more in the private self-enjoyment.
offspring and heir of royalty, is that of paWhere a prince, therefore, is to be edu- tience, and even cheerfulness, under postcated, his own welfare no less than that of poned and restricted gratification. And the his people, humanity no less than policy, pre- first lesson to be taught is, that since selfscribe, that the claims and privileges of the command is so essential to all genuine virtue rational being should not be suffered to and real happiness where others cannot remerge in the peculiar rights or exemptions strain us, there, especially, we should reof the expectant sovereigo. If, in such ca- strain ourselves. That illustrious monarch, ses, the wants and weaknesses of human na- Gustavus Adolphus, was so deeply sensible ture could indeed be wholly effaced, as easi. of this truth, that when he was surprised by ly as they are kept out of sight, there would one of his officers in secret prayer in his at least be soine reasonable plea against the tent, he said, Persons of my rank are ancharge of cruelty But when, on the con- swerable to God alone for their actions ; this trary, the most elevated monarch must still gives the enemy of mankind a peculiar adretain every natural hope and fear every af vantage over us; an advantage which can fection and passion of the heart, every frailty only be resisted by prayer, and reading the of the mind, and every weakness of the Scrintures.' body, to which the meanest subject is liable; As the mind opens, the universal truth of how exquisitely inhuman must it be to pro- this principle may be exemplified in ionuvide so sedulously for the extrinsic accident merable instances, by which it may be deof transient greatness, as to blight the monstrated, that man is a rational being oply growth of substantial virtue, to dry up the so far as he can thus command himself. That fountains of mental and moral comfort, and such a superiority to the passions is essential in short, to commit the ill-fated victim of to all regular and steady performance of dusuch mismanagement to more, almost, than ty; and that true gratification is thus, and
thus only insured, because, by him who thus aimed at, is not that of the stoic philosophy ; babitually restrains himself, not only every nor do the habits which are deemed valualawful pleasure is most perfectly enjoyed; ble, require the harshoess of a Spartan edubut every common blessing, for which the cation." Let nature, truth, and 'reason, be saled voluptuary has lost all relish, becomes consulted; and, let the child, and especially a source of the most genuine pleasure, a the royal child, be as much as possible, trainsource of pleasure which is never exhausted, ed according to their simple and consistent because such common blessings are never indications. The attention, in such instanbolly withheld.
as the present, should be the more The mind should be formed early, no less watchful and unremitting, as counteracting than the person : and for the same reason influences are, in so exalted a station, necesProvidence has plainly indicated childhood sarily multiplied ; and every difficulty is at to be the season of instruction, by communi- its greatest possible height. In a world, let cating at that period, such flexibility to the not common sense, which is universal and organs, such retention to the memory, such eternal, be sacrificed to the capricious tastes qnickness to the apprehension, such inquisi- of the child, or to the pliant principles of any tiveness to the temper, such alacrity to the who may approach her. But let the virtue animal spirits, and such impressibility to the and the happiness of the royal pupil be as affections, as are not possessed at any subse- simply, as feelingly, and as uniformly conquent period. We are therefore bound by sulted, as if she were the daughter of a prievery tie of duty to follow these obvious de- vate gentleman. May this attention to her signations of Providence, by moulding that moral and mental cultivation be the supreme flexibility to the most durable ends; by stor- concern, from honest reverence to the offsing that memory with the richest know-pring of such a race, from a dutiful regard ledge; by, pointing that aprehension to the to her own future happiness, and from reabighest objects; by giving to that alacrity sonable attention to the well-being of those its best direction by turning that inquisi- millions, whose earthly fate may be at this tiveness to the noblest intellectual purposes ; moment suspended on lessons, and babits, and, above all, by converting that impressi- received by one providentially listinguished bility of heart to the most exalted moral female! use.
If this be true in general, much more forcibly does it apply to the education of prin.
CHAP. II. ces! Nothing short of the soundest, most rational, and, let me add, most religious ed
On the Acquisition of Knowledge. ucation, can counteract the dangers to which The course of instruction for the princess they are exposed. If the highest of our no- will, doubtless, be wisely adapted, not only bility, in default of some better way of guard to the duties, but to the dangers of her rank. ing against the mischiefs of flatterers and The probability of her having or lay funcdependents, deem it expedient to commit tions to discharge, which, in such exempt catheir sons to the wholesome equality of a ses only, fall to the lot of females, obviously public school, in order to repress their aspi- suggests the expediency of an education not riog notions, and check the tendencies of only superior to, but in certain respects, distheir birth ;-If they find it necessary to tinct from, that of other women. What was counteract the pernicious influence of do- formerly deemed necessary in an instance of mestic luxury, and the corrupting softness of this nature, may be inferred from the welldomestic indulgence, by severity of study known attainments of the unfortunate lady and closeness of application ; how much Jane Grey; and still more from the no less more indispensable is the spirit of this prin- splendid acquirements of queen Elizabeth. ciple in the instance before us? The high- Of the erudition of the latter, we bave a parest nobility bave their equals, their compet- ticular account from one, who was the filtest itors, and even their superiors. Those who in that age to appreciate it, the celebrated are born within the sphere of royalty are Roger Aschasm He tells us, that when be destitute of all such extrinsic means of cor- read over with her the orations of Eschines rection, and must be wholly indebled for and Demosthenes in Greek, she not only untheir safety to the soundness of their princi- derstood, at first sight, the full force and proples, and the rectitude of their habits. Un priety of the language, and the meaning of
less, therefore, the brightest light of reason the orators, but that she comprehended the .be, from the very first, thrown upon their path, whole scheme of the laws, customs, and
and the divine energies of our holy religion, manners of the Athenians. She possessed both restraining and attractive, be brought an exact and accurate knowledge of the as early as possible to act upon their feelings, Scriptures, and had committed to memory the children of royalty, by the very fate of most of the striking passages in them. She their birth, would be of all men most miser. had also learned by heart many of the finest able.'
parts of Thucydides and Xenophon, espeLet it not, however, be supposed, that any cially those which relate to life and manners. impracticable rigour is here recommended ; Thus were her early years sedulously emor that it is conceived to be necessary that ployed ju laying in a large stock of materithe gay period of childhood should be ren- als for governing well. To what purpose she dered gloomy or painful, whether in the cot- improved them, let her illustrious reign of tage or the palace. The virtue which is | forty-five years declare !
If the influence of her erudition on her whole retrospect of history) as fittest for the subsequent prosperity should be questioned; advent of the Messiah, and the bringing life let it be considered, that her intellectual at- and immortality to light by the gospel. tainments supported the dignity of her char If to this may be added lesser yet not unacter, under foibles and feminine weakness- important considerations, we would say, that es, which would otherwise have sunk her by the acquaintance which the Latin lancredit : she had even address enough to con. guage would give her with the etymology of trive to give to those weaknesses a certain words, she will learn to be more accurate in classic grace. Let it be considered also, ber definitions, as well as more critically exthat whatever tended to raise her mind to a act and elegant in the use of her own lanlevel with those whose services she was to guage; and her ability to manage it with use, and of whose counsels she was to avail gracefulness and vigour will be consideraherself, proportionably contributed to that bly increased. * mutual respect and confidence between the of the modern languages, if the author queen and her ministers, without which, the dares hazard an opinion, the French and results of her government could not have German seem the most necessary. The Italbeen equally successful. Almost every man ian appears less important, as those authors of rank was then a man of letters, and liter- which seem more peculiarly to belong to ber ature was valued accordingly. Had, there education, such as Davila, Guicciardin, and fore, deficiency of learning been added to io- Beccaria, may be read either in French or feriority of sex, we might not at this day English translations. have the reign of Elizabeth on which to look It is not to be supposed that a personage, back, as the period in which administrative under her peculiar circumstaoces, should energy seemed to attain the greatest possi. have much time to spare for the acquisition ble perfection.
of what are called the fine arts; por, perYet, though an extended acquaintance haps, is it to be desired. To acquire then with ancient anthors will be necessary now, in perfection, would steal away too large a as it was then, in the education of a princess, portion of those precious hours whicb will a general knowledge of ancient languages, barely suffice to lay in the various rudiments it is presumed, may be dispensed with. Ýhe of indispensable knowledge; and, in this Greek authors, at least, may doubtless be fastidious age, whatever falls far short of perread with sufficient advantage through the fection, is deemed of little worth. A modermedium of a translation ; the spirit of the ate skill in music, for instance, would prooriginal being, perhaps, more transfusible bably have little other effect, than to make into the English, than into any other mo- the listeners feel, as Farinelli 18 said to have dern tongue. But are there not many for- done, who used to complain beavily that the cible reasons why the Latin language should pension of 20001, a year, which he had from not be equally omitted * Besides the advan- the king of Spain, was compensation little tage of reading, in their original dress, the enough for his being sometimes obliged to historians of that empire, the literature of hear his majesty play. Yet this would be a Rome is peculiarly interesting, as being the far less evil than that to which excellence inost satisfactory medium through which the might lead. We can think of few things moderns can obtain an intimate koowledge more to be deprecated, than that those who of the ancient world. As the Latin itself is have the greaiest concerns to pursue, should a modification of one of the Greek dialects, have their tastes engaged, perhaps monoposo the Roman philosophers and poets, hav- lized by trifles. A listener to the royal mu. ing formed themselves, as much as possible, sic, if possessed of either wisdom or virtue, on Grecian models, present to us the nearest could not but feel his pleasure at the most expossible transcripts of those masters whom quisite performance abated, by the apprethey copy. Thus, by an acquaintance with hension that this perfection implied the peg. the Latin language, we are brought into a lect of matters far more essential. kind of actual contact not only with the an Besides, to excel in those arts, which, cient world, but with that portion of it which, though merely ornamental, are yet 'well having the most direct and the fullest inter- enough adapted to ladies who have only a course with the other parts, introduces us, subordinate part to fill in life, would rather in a manner the most informing and satisfac- lessen than augment the dignity of a sovetory, to classical and philosophical antiquity reign. It was a truly royal reply of Thein general. But what is still more, the La- mistocles, when he was asked if he could tio tongue enables us for onrselves, without play on the lutem No, but if you will give the intermediation of any interpreter, to ex me a paltry village I may perhaps know how amine all the particular circumstances in to improve it into a great city.' manners, intercourse, modes of thinking and These are imperial arts, and worthy kings. speaking, of that period which Eternal Wis. As to these inferior accomplishments, it is dom chose (probably
because it was ever not desirable, and is it not suficient that a after to appear the most luminous in the
* Who does not consider as one of the most in. * The royal father of the illustrious pupil is said teresting passages of modern history, that which 10 possess the princely accomplishment of a pure relates the effect produced by an eloquent Latin classical taste. Of his love for polite learning, the oration pronounced in a full assembly, by the late attention which he is paying to the recovery of empress Maria Theresa, in the bloom of her youth certain of the lost works of some of the Roman au- and beauty, so late as the year 1740? Antiquity thors, is an evidence.
produces nothing more touching of the kind.