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people of Alexandria : wherefore we command him to depart froin the city on the day he receives our letter. If he stays in the city, we warn him of a severer punishment.'
Athanasius had been once banished by Constantine, twice by Constantius; to which Julian here refers. Nor did he make use of the liberty to return granted by Julian, till after the death of George; when, as it seems, he was disagreeable to the heathen people of Alexandria, whom Julian calls pious. Julian here says, that he had not given leave to the banished bishops to return to their sees, or churches, but only to their countries. I should have thought, that his edict had included a return to both. And this explication seems to be evasive, and, perhaps, now first thought of from particular enmity to Athanasius.
8. The catholic christians at Alexandria wrote to Julian as in the name of the city, requesting him to revoke bis order against Athanasius, by a new edict; which he answered in the following letter to the Alexandrians. He w says, the distempered part of them bad taken upen them- . selves the name of the city. By the gods, ye men of Alexandria, I am ashamed that any Alexandrian should acknowledge himself to be a Galilean. He tells them, that Alexander, the Ptolemies, and other princes, their founders and patrons, were worshippers of the gods: and had not raised their city and constitution to its grandeur by the words of Jesus, nor by the doctrine of the hateful Galileans.-- None of those gods do you worship; but Jesus, whoin peither you nor your fathers have seen, him you think to be God the Word,' John i. "Him you prefer to the great sun, who has so long enlightened and blessed the world. You may do well to hearken to me, who, till I was twenty years of age, went in the same way; but now for twelve years I have been a worshipper of the gods. If you hearken to my admonitions, it will be for your benefit : however, if you will still follow the instruction and superstition of knavish meu, agree among yourselves, and no longer desire Athanasius : there are disciples enough of his to please your itching ears," who want such impious discourses,' 2 Tim. iv. 3. I wish this wickedness were confined to Athanasius and bis impious school ; but you have among you a multitude of such people.--And you may take notice, that whereas before I banished Athanasius out of Alexandria, I now banish him out of all Egypt.'
9. In a letter to Ecditius, præfect of Egypt, be says: • Though you write to me about no other matters, you Ep. li. p. 432.
Ep. vi. p. 376.
should, however, have written to me about that enemy of the gods, Athanasius : especially, when you know what I have rightly determined. "I swear by the great Serapis, if Athanasius does not depart from the city, or rather from all Egypt, before the first day of December next, the cohort under you shall be fined a hundred pounds of gold. You know how backward I am to condemn, and that I am still more backward to forgive those who have been once condemned. [And in his own hand και τη αυτε χειρι.] It concerns me extremely, that all the gods are despised. I desire not to hear so much of any service of yours, as that you have expelled the wicked Athanasius out of Egypt, who, under my governinent, lias been so audacious as to persuade Greek women, wives of illustrious men, to receive baptism.'
10. Surely this, and the other letters, relating to Athanasius, show that Julian did not practise that indulgence and moderation toward the christians which he sometimes boasted of; for no fault is alleged to Athanasius, except that he was
enemy of the gods, and made converts to christianity from among the gentiles.
11. However, there is another letter of Julian, which seems to be written with better temper. It is inscribed to the people of Byzantium, or Constantinople. But Bletterie y suspects the inscription to be false, and that he was not sent to the people of Byzantium, but of some other place, whose name had some resemblance, and has been mistaken by the transcriber.
• We have restored to you all your senators and patricians, whether they are Galileans, or otherwise exempted from that charge. However, perhaps that was not a privilege, but rather a burdensome office; the terms of the letter seem to lead to that sense; and Bletterie may be again consulted.
12. We have a letter of Juliana to Arsacius, high-priest of Galatia; which is also inserted by Sozomenat length in bis Ecclesiastical History. I take a good part of it.
• Ifo Hellenisin does not prosper according to our wish, it is the fault of those who profess it--Why do we not look to that which has been the principal cause of the augy Lettres choisies de l'Emp. Julien, p. 371, &c.
2 Ep. xi. p. 380.
b Sozom. 1. v. c. 16. Αρσακιω αρχιερει Γαλατιας-Εp. xlix. p. 429, &c. ο Ελληνισμος επω πραττει κατα λογον ήμων, ένεκα των μετιοντων αυτον. If Hellenisın does not prosper, &c. That was the style at that time. Hellenism is Heathenism, or Gentilism. And Heathens are called Hellenes, and Hellenists, by our ecclesiastical historians, Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret, especially in their history of Julian's reign.
inentation of impiety, humanity to strangers, care in burying the dead, and that sanctity of life, of which they make such a show; all which things I will have to be really practised by our people. It is not sufficient that you are unblamable yourself; all the priests in Galatia ought to be so likewise. I will therefore that you persgade, and even conupel, all the priests in Galatia to live soberly; otherwise do you depose thein from the priestly office, unless they and their wives, and children, and servants, do religiously worship the gods; and d also forbear to converse with the servants, children, and wives of the Galileans, who are impious toward the gods, and prefer impiety to religion. You are likewise to order them, not to frequent the theatre, nor to drink in taverns, nor to exercise any mean and sordid employments. Such as bearken to your directions you are to encourage ; others you are to reject. You are also to erect hospitals in every city, that strangers also may share in our humanity: and not only those of our religion, but others likewise, if they are necessitous.' • He then tells him what allowances he had made for that purpose.---For, says he, it is a shame, when there are no beggars among the Jews, and the impious Galileans relieve not only their own people, but ours also, that our poor should be neglected by us, and be left helpless and destitute.'
13. There is a long fragment of some oration or epistle, in which Julian gives many directions for regulating the behaviour and studies of heathen priests, and recommends humanity, and near the end, particularly, a regard to the poor, where he says: This ought to be carefully attended to, as what may be a good remedy for the present disorder. For it having so happened, as I suppose, that the poor were neglected by our priests, the impious Galileans, observing
d And also forbear to converse with, &c. αλλα ανεχoιντο των οικετων, η διεων η των Γαλιλαιων γαμετων, ασεβεντων μεν εις τας θεος, αθεοτητα δε θεοσεβειας TT POTLIWYTWv. I have attempted a new translation of this place, not being quite satisfied with any other, which I have met with. In Spanheim's edition the Latin version is : et ne patiantur servos, aut filios, aut conjuges Galilæorum impie in Deos se gerere, et impietatem pietati præponere. And much to the same purpose is the Latin translation of this epistle in Sozomen, made by Valesius." Which would be commanding every heathen priest and his family to become persecutors; which cannot be supposed to be probable. Cave, in the Introduction to his History of the Fathers of the fourth century, p. 34, ‘not • suffering their servants, children, or wives, to be Galileans, who are despisers
of the gods, and prefer impiety before religion. Which cannot be right; for it is a tautology, saying over again the same thing which had been said just before.
And yet Bletterie's translation is much to the same purpose : S' ils souffrent dans leur famille de ces impies de Galileens. e Tom. I. p. 288, &c.
f Ibid. p. 305.
this, bave addicted themselves to this kind of humanity; and by the show of such good offices have recommended the worst of things. For & beginning with their love-feasts, and the ministry of tables," as they call it; Acts vi. 2:
(for not only the name, but the thing also is common among them.) they have drawn away the faithful to impiety.'
There ends the fragment; but it seems not to be the conclusion of the piece. As it is plainly defective at the beginning, it appears to be so likewise at the end ; otherwise we might have had somewhat more, not unworthy of observation.
In that fragment, nearer the beginning," he says, ' he does not believe any man is the poorer for what he gives to the necessitous. I who have often relieved the poor, have been rewarded by the gods manifold : though riches is a thing which I never was intent upon.'
It may be hence argued, that the scandalous stories about the christian worship and manners, which were spread abroad at the first rise of christianity, were without foundation. Nor were the christians now charged with them; at least Julian never mentions them; and here he celebrates their virtue; however, still their religion was, with him, very
bad. But it is somewhat strange that should be the worst impiety which had produced such exemplary humanity, as to be recommended to heathen priests for a pattern of imitation.
14. I may now take a passage or two of Julian, where he exposeth monkery.
In bis seventh oration, wbich is addressed to Heracleas, a cynic philosopher, Julian tells him, that i • the cynics are like that sort of men, whom the impious Galileans call renouncers; many of whom quitting a small substance, scrape together a great deal, or rather every thing, from all quarters, and arrive at such dignity, as to secure a numerous attendance, and all kinds of respect.
15. In the fragment of the oration, or epistle, before quoted, he speaks k of some people, who left cities, and re
8 Τον αυτον και αυτοι τροπον αρξαμενοι δια της λεγομενης παρ' αυτοις αγαπης και υποδοχής και διακονιας τραπεζων, κ. λ. p. 305. C. D. h Ibid. p. 288. C.
––αποτακτισας τινας ονομαζaσι οι δυσσεβεις Γαλιλαιοι τατων οι πλειες μικρα πρoεμενοι, πολλα πανυ, μαλλον δε τα παντα πανταχοθεν συγκομιζοσι: και προσην, οιμαι, το τιμασθαι, και δορυφορεισθαι, και θεραπευεσθαι. Ιbid. Or. vii. p. 224. B. ηδη δε και δεσμα, και κλοιες εξευρον οι πολλοι τατων.
Ουτω πανταχοθεν αυτες ο κακος συνελαυνει δαιμων, ω δεδωκασιν έκοντες εαυτες αποσαντες των αϊδιων και σωτηρων θεων, κ. λ. p. 288. Β.
tired into deserts. Whereas,' says he, man is a social animal. Moreover,' as he adds, many of these load themselves with chains and shackles. The place is obscure; but I think he means christians, forasmuch as he supposeth them to be men, who had forsaken the immortal and good gods. And in his Misopogon' he speaks of old women lurking about sepulchres.
16. In his letter to the people of Athens, he mentions Epictetus, m a bishop of Gaul, whom Constantius had sent to him. In a fragment of an epistle, he speaks of bishops and presbyters of the Galileans.
17. In his Misopogon,o a satire upon the people of Antioch, in which he says wbat he pleaseth, both of himself and them, are these following things which may be taken notice of.
I suppose, p ' says he, you are very happy, because you have renounced all kinds of servitude, first to the gods, then to the laws, and lastly to me, who am the guardian of the laws.'
And soon after : " But it is said, that Chi and Kappa never did the city any harm: it is hard to kno'y the meaning of this wise riddle of yours : but by some interpreters of your city, we have been informed they are initial letters of names, the one denoting Christ, the other Constantius.'
• But' you love Christ, and esteem bim the tutelar patron of your city, instead of Jupiter and Apollo of Daphne.
Many of you, it seems, I have offended, in a manper all of you, the senate, the rich, the people. The greatest part of the people, or rather the whole of them, are of fended with me because they are in love with impiety, and they see that I embrace and adhere to the religion of my ancestors.' You s
say, I wage war with Chi, and you admire Kappa.'
Omitting some other things, Julian € went on a feast day
Τοις περι τες ταφες καλινδεμενοις γραϊδιους συνεχώρησαν. Misop. p. 344. Α. πη Αλλ’ Επικτητον τινα των Γαλλιων επισκοπον επεμψεν. Αd. 1. Ρ. 2. Athen. p. 286. C.
μεν των Γαλιλαιων ισως επισκοποι και πρεσβυτεροι συγκαθιζεσι σοι. Εp. xii. p. 450. C. P. 337, &c.
p Ibid. p. 356. D. 9 Το Χι, φησιν, εδεν ηδικησε την πολιν, εδε Καππα, κ. λ. Ιb. p. 357. Α.
Χριςον δε αγαπωντες έχετε πολιεχον αντι τε Διος, και το Δαφναις. Έλυπησα δ' εγω υμων μεντοι πολλές, και ολιγ8 θεω φαναι παντας, την βελην, τες ευπορος, τον δημoν. Ο μεν γαρ δημος αχθεται μοι τω πλεισω μερει, μαλλον δ' άπας αθεοτητα προελομενος, ότι τους πατριους ορα της άγισειας θεσLOIS TT POOKEljevov. Ibid. p. 357. C. D.
8 Και ότι πολεμω τη Χι, ποθος δε υμας εισεισι του Καππα. Ιbid. p. 360, D. · Ibid. p. 362.