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God.” Accordingly, we are assured in the book of the Acts, that men were baptized " in the name of Jesus Christ,” or “ into his pame," Acts ii. 38; viii. 16; xix. 5. Which imports the same as being baptized into the belief that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God : or that he taught by divine authority, and that there had been full assurance given to inen of this by his many miracles, and by his resurrection from the dead.

29. Why i do you meddle with the Greek learning, since the reading of your own scriptures is sufficient for you? And indeed, it might be of inore importance to restrain mer from reading the Greek authors, than from eating things os sacrificed to idols." For by that, as Paul also says, 66 he that eats is not hurt. But the conscience of the brother who sees it is offended,” according to you, 1 Cor. viii, 7-10.

More there follows which I forbear to transcribe : and there seems to be somewhat wanting, lost out of the text. However, be there insinuates, that whenever a man of good sense gains but a smattering of Greek learning, he forsakes what Julian is pleased to call impiety. But if he had really thought so, I suppose, he would have filled the christians with Greek learning, instead of doing all he could to prevent their having a taste of it.

My readers cannot but observe, that this is taken from Julian's work against the christians, which shows, how intent he was upon doing all in his power to make the christians ignorant and unlearned. It was a strange design, and could proceed from nothing but malice and envy.

30. We will now take a summary view of what we have seen in Julian's work against the christians.

He argues against the Jews as well as against them : but we have supposed it expedient to take more especial notice of what he writes relating to Jesus Christ and his followers. And he has borne a valuable testimony to the history, and to the books of the New Testament, as all must acknowledge who have read the extracts just made from his work. He allows, that Jesus was born in the reign of Augustus, at the time of the taxing made in Judea by Cyrenius : that the christian religion had its rise, and began to be propagated, in the times of the emperors Tiberius and Claudius. He bears witness to the genuineness and authenticity of the four gospels of Mattbew, Mark, Luke, and Jobu, and the Acts of the Apostles: and he so quotes them, as to intimate, that these were the only historical books received by christians as of authority, and the only authentic memoirs of Jesus Christ and his apostles, and the doctrine preached by them. He allows their early date, and even argues for it. He also quotes, or plainly refers to the Acts of the Apostles, to St. Paul's epistles to the Romans, the Corinthians, and the Galatians. 'He does not deny the miracles of Jesus Christ, but allows him to have • healed the blind, and the lame, and dæmoniacs,' and to have rebuked the winds, and walked upon the waves of the sea.' He endeavours indeed to diminish these works; but in vain. The consequence is undeniable: such works are good proofs of a divine mission. He endeavours also to lessen the number of the early believers in Jesus, and yet he acknowledgeth, that there were 'multitudes of such men in Greece and Italy,' before St. John wrote his gospel. He likewise affects to diminish the quality of the early believers; and yet acknowledgeth, that beside men servants, and maid servants,' Cornelius, a Roman centurion at Cæsarca, and Sergius Paulus, pro-consul of Cyprus, were converted to the faith of Jesus before the end of the reign of Claudius. And he often speaks with great indignation of Peter and Paul, those two great apostles of Jesus, and successful preachers of his gospel. So that, upon the whole, he has undesignedly borne witness to the truth of many things recorded in the books of the New Testament : he aimed to overthrow the christian religion, but has confirmed it: his arguments against it are perfectly barmless, and insufficient to unsettle the weakest christian. He justly excepts to some things introduced into the christian profession by the late professors of it, in his own time, or sooner; but has not made one objection of moment against the christian religion, as contained in the genuine and authentic books of the New Testament.

i L. vii. p. 229.

V. I now intend to make some extracts out of Julian's Orations and Epistles; this is fit to be done, because divers of them relate to christianity, and the affairs of christians in Julian's time.

1. I have already transcribed that which is the seventh epistle in the order of Spanheim's edition, containing a kind of establishment of Hellenism. I now proceed.

2. And the first to be now taken, is, the law or edict prohibiting christians to teach rhetoric, and other parts of polite literature: I need not transcribe the whole, but I shall take a large part of it.

• He says, Homer, Hesiod, Demosthenes, Herodotus, Thucydides, Isocrates, Lysias, were guided by the gods, and esteemed themselves consecrated, some to Mercury, others k See before, p. 596.

Ep. 42. p. 422, 423, 424.


to the Muses. It is absurd, therefore, for such as explain
their works, to neglect the gods whom they worshipped :
but though I think that to be absurd, I do not desire that
they should change their sentiments for the sake of instruct-
ing youth. I give them their choice: either not to teach
what they do not approve ot'; or, if they will teach, that
they first inform and persuade their scholars, that neither
Homer, nor Hesiod, nor any one of those whom they have
explained, and had condemned for impiety, and ignorance,
and error concerning the gods, is such: for otherwise, since
they are maintained by teaching their works, they must not
deny, that they are lovers of ilthy lucre, and can do any
thing for a small profit. There were many things to binder
their frequenting the temples; and they might be afraid to
profess the right sentiments concerning the gods. But now,
since by the favour of the gods we have obtained liberty, it
appears to me absurd for any man to teach what they do not
think to be right. But if they think there is any wisdom in
the authors' works, of which they are interpreters, let them
first learn to imitate their piety towards the gods. But if
they judge that those authors are in an error about the gods,
let them go to the churches of the Galileans, and there ex-
plain Matthew and Luke---I desire, to use your own terms,
that your cars and your tongue might be regenerated, as to
those things which I esteem, and which I wish that I and all
that love me, may always partake of. Let m this be a com-
mon law to professors and masters : but if any youth should
have a mind to go to school to learn the things, they are not
prohibited; for it would not be at all reasonable to restrain
children, who know not what course to take, from the right
way; as it would not also be, to compel them to embrace
the old religion. It might, indeed, be just to treat them as
out of their senses, in order to cure them; but let all be for-
borne, who labour under this distemper; for I
ignorant people are rather to be taught than punished.'

By what was transcribed formirly" we saw, that christians understood themselves to be prohibited by Julian to learn), as well as to teach the Greek literature. Some bave doubted, whether that be the intention of the law just now recited ; and therefore they have supposed there was another. The question is of no great importance; but even this law deprives young persons of the privilege of learning, unless they went to the schools of Greek masters. So that there was no necessity of another law for that purpose.

η Τοις μεν καθηγεμοσι και διδασκαλοις ούτωσι κοινος κειται νομος. p. 423. D. s See p. 597, 598.

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I must add, that I think it may be concluded, from expressions in this letter, that whatever forbearance, or liberty, Julian allowed christians, it was done very grudgingly and unwillingly. 3. The next letter is to Hecebolus; and I shall take it

• As for inyself,' says Julian,' I have determined to act with so much clemency and moderation toward all the Galileans, that none of them should any where suffer any violence, nor be compelled to the temples, por be violently forced to any thing against their inclinations. But they of the Arian church, waxing wanton with riches, have insulted the followers of Valentinus, and have presumed to do such thing's at Edessa, as are never to be suffered in a well constituted city: therefore, since they are so commanded by their most wonderful law, that they may the more easily go to the kingdom of heaven, and that we may give them some assistance in their design, we have ordered all the money of the church of Edessa to be taken away, and given to the soldiers, and that their estates be united to our demesnes : that being poor, they may become wise, and may not fail of the kingdom of heaven, which they aim at.'

Doubtless, Julian' refers to divers texts of the gospels : perhaps to Matt, v. 3; Luke vi. 20; Matt. xix. 21, or some other parallel places; but few will allow him to be a good interpreter of scripture, or that he deduces right conclusions from it.

Hecebolus, to whom this letter was sent, is supposed to have been the chief magistrate at Edessa.

4. The heathen people of Alexandria murdered George, the Arian bishop of that city, in a tumultuous manner. The letter, which Julian sent to the Alexandriaus upon that occasion, is still P extant; and it was inserted by 1 Socrates, in his Ecclesiastical History; but, being long, 1 forbear to transcribe it.

Sozomen also has taken particular notice of that transaction, and of Julian's letter. His remarks are to this purpose. • Julianr wrote a letter to the Alexandrians, in which he * seems to be very angry with them; but he reproved them by a letter only, remitting the punishment due to them, out of regard to their god Serapis their protector, and ' the great Alexander their founder, and from other con

siderations. That is sufficient to represent the substance and design of this letter. 5. George had a good library; and Julian wrote to EcEp. 43. p. 424. P Ep. x. p. 378. edit. Spanhem. Sozom. I. v.cap. 7. p. 604.

Ep. ix. p. 377.

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? Socrat. l. iii

cap. 3.


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ditius, governor of Egypt, to procure it entire for him.

Some,' s says he, · delight in horses, others in birds, others in wild beasts; from my childhood í have been always in love with books- Wherefore you must do for me this private piece of kindness, to get together all George's books. He had a large number of books, many philosophical and rhetorical, and also many concerning the doctrine of the impious Galileans; which I could wish to have utterly destroyed; but lest books of value should be destroyed with them, let these also be carefully sought for. George had a secretary ; let him help you. If he serves you faithfully, let him be rewarded with freedom. If he endeavours to conceal any of his master's books, he may be put to the torture. I am not unacquainted with George's books; for when I was in Cappadocia, I borrowed some of thein, though not all, in order to have them transcribed, and then returned them to him.'

But it was a mean thing in Julian, to wish that all christian writings might be destroyed. It was below a philosopher, as one would think, to entertain such a thought.

6. We have another letter of Julian to the like purpose, sent to Porphyry, treasurer of Egypt.George" has left a library, consisting of books of various sorts, philosophy and history, as also of the Galileans, in great number. You are to procure the whole library for me, and send it to Antioch. 'You are to make the most diligent inquiries after the books; otherwise you may expect to be severely punished. If you suspect any persons to have concealed any of them, you are to examine them upon oath : if they are slaves, they may be put to the torture. If you cannot persuade them by fair means, you must use force to make them bring all to you.'

7. I now take a letter to the Alexandrians, concerning Athanasius. •Itv was certainly very fit, that a man, who had been banished by repeated edicts of several emperors, should wait at least for one imperial edict, before he returned home; and not audaciously insult the laws, as if they were all extinct: forasmuch as even now we have not granted to the Galileans banished by the blessed Constantius, a return to their churches, but to their countries; but I hear, that the audacious Athanasius, behaving with his usual insolence, lias seized on the episcopal throne, as they call it; and that this is not a little grievous to the pious

βελoιμην μεν ηφανισθαι παντη' τω δε μη συν αυτοις αφαιρεθηναι τα χρησιμώτερα, ζητεισθω κάκεινα μετ' ακριβειας απαντα. p. 378. Β. Ep. xxxvi. p. 411.

Ep. xxvi. p. 398.



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