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the Jews only 7–Yes, of the Gentiles also.” It is reasonable therefore, to ask Paul, If he was not the God of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles, why • did he, for the most part at least, send to the Jews the prophetic spirit, and Moses, and the anointing, and the prophets, and the law, and miracles, and prodigies of fables? And you hear them saying, “man did eat angels' food.” At length he sent Jesus also to them : not a prophet, not the anointing, not a master, not a preacher of the late mercy of God to us. However, he overlooked us for myriads, or, if you please, for thousands of years, and left us in such ignorance, as to worship idols, as you say, from east to west, and from north to south, excepting only a small nation about two thousand years ago, planted in a part of Palestine. But if he be the God of all, and the Creator of all, why did he neglect us?” Here is a quotation of Rom. iii. 29, and Ps. lxxviii. 35, and a reference to Rom. ix. 4, 5. And notwithstanding Julian's cavils, it is the doctrine of the Old and the New Testament, that God is the creator of the whole world, and directs and overrules all things in heaven and on earth, with unerring wisdom, and uncontrollable power. Nor did he at any time neglect any part of mankind. He taught all by the light of nature, and the visible works of his hand, and the various methods of his providence, tempering mercy and judgment. Acts xiv. 16, 17; Rom. i. 18—21. But for wise reasons, and great ends and purposes, he chose the Jewish people, the seed of Abraham, to be a peculiar people, and made some special manifestations of himself among them, thereby setting them up for a light amidst the nations. At length, in the fulness of time, at the most proper season, and according to his most gracious promise, he sent Jesus the Messiah. The light of reason is common to all. A particular revelation is a special favour, which God may vouchsafe where, and when, and to whom he pleaseth. Whenever he has made a revelation, he has given evident proofs of its divine original. But unthinking and careless, proud and perverse men, have not diligently improved the one, nor thankfully accepted the other. 6. Julian objects against the Mosaic account of the creation of the world, the fall of man, and the confusion of languages. He finds fault also with the decalogue of Moses; which," as he says, contained no precepts, that are not equally regarded by all nations, excepting these two : “Thou shalt worship no other gods,” and, “Remember the sabbath-day.” He prefers " Lycurgus and Solon to Moses. ‘He w reflects upon David and Samson, Cyril says, “as not ‘ very remarkable for valour, and exceeded by many Greeks ‘ and Egyptians: and all their power was confined within “ the narrow limits of Judea.’ He says, the * Jews never had any general equal to Alexander or Caesar. The Y wise Solomon is not to be compared with some eminent men among the Greeks: such as Phocylides, Theognis, Isocrates. Moreover, as he adds, Solomon is said to have been overcome by women, and therefore does not deserve to be reckoned a wise man. 7. These things I mention but slightly, and quite pass over some other objections to the books of Moses, and the Old Testament: supposing it to be rather incumbent upon me to enlarge upon those objections which more immediately relate to christianity, and the books of the New Testainent. 8. Julian cavils at several prophecies of the Old Testament, which were applied to Jesus by his followers. To this purpose, I shall allege a passage here, though it be somewhat prolix. “Since’ therefore they differ from the Jews of the present time, and say that they are the true Israelites, and that they highly respect Moses and the other prophets after him; let us see wherein they agree with them; and we shall begin with Moses, who, as they say, foretold the future nativity of Jesus. Moses, then, not once, nor twice, nor thrice, but often, taught the worship of one God only ; others he calls angels, or lords: but he never teacheth any other second God, neither like, nor unlike, as you do. If you have one word in Moses, favouring such expressions, you should produce it. What he says is: “For the Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a prophet, from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me. Unto him shall ye hearken.” Deut. xviii. 15. This cannot be spoken concerning the son of Mary. * IIowv 86 wog est, orpog Twy 9801, 6&w rs, Ov Trpookvyno Eug $soug £rspouc, rat rs, Mvnaðmrt row gas33arov, 6 pm rag a'MAac outral Xpmvat pu)\arrstv evroxaç ; L. v. p. 152. C. * L. v. p. 168. B. " L. v. p. 176. C. * L. vii. p. 218. B. C. " 'O oosporarog XaXopov trapopotoc set Top Tap 'EA\mat opwkv\tóg, m Osoy
S rs xaply sic rac Isèatec psy, troXv to trpopmrukov stropiil's Twevpua, kat row Moosa, kat ro xptopia, kat rec irpoonraç, kat row voucv, Kat Ta trapadoša, kat Ta repasta Twy plv6ov.
* Etru ts\st 3s kal Tov Ingav skswouc strepiopsy, ou troopmraju, ou Xotopia, ow §učaoka)\ov, ov kmpvka Tng pusX\80mg oils Trors yaw egeo Oat Kat Big juac re ese 6ixav0pwrtag. Ib. C.
But, if we grant you that, he would be like unto Moses, not unto God : meaning a prophet like himself, and from men, not from God. That text also, Gen. xlix. 10, “ The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet :” is not said of him, but of David’s kingdom, which appears to have ended in king Zedekiah——But that none of these things belong to Jesus is manifest: for neither is he of Judah ; and how should he be so, when, according to you he was not born of Joseph, but of the Holy Ghost 7 When you reckon up the genealogy of Joseph, you carry it up to Judah: but you have not been able to contrive this dexterously; for Matthew and Luke have been shown to differ with one another about the genealogy.” Matt. i. Luke iii. Upon this passage some remarks may be proper. (1.) Julian here and elsewhere insinuates, that the doctrine of christians concerning the Deity was different from that of Moses: but I apprehend, that the divine unity is as clearly taught in the New as in the Old Testament. “When one of the scribes came to Jesus, and asked him, Which is the first commandment of all : Jesus answered him : The first of all the commandments is : Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord,” and what follows. Mark xii. 28, 29, 30. To another, who came to our Lord with a like question, and called him, “good Master, Jesus said: Why callest thou me good 3 None is good, save one, that is God.” Luke xviii. 18, 19. Again: “And this is life eternal, to know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent.” John xvii. 3.; see Matt. iv. 10. And says St. Paul, 1 Tim. ii. 5, “There is one God, and one mediator between God and man, the man Christ Jesus.” The doctrine therefore of more gods than one, or of inferior deities, if it was held by any christians in Julian's time, is not the doctrine of the New Testament. (2) Julian insinuates, that christians did not consider Jesus as a prophet like unto Moses: but however some christians in Julian's time might express themselves, it is certain, that the apostles did esteem Jesus a prophet like unto Moses; as appears from Acts iii. 22, vii. 37, though he was greater than Moses, and was “counted worthy of more glory than Moses,” Heb. iii. 3. (3.) Julian insinuates, that Jesus, “ son of Mary,” could not be of the tribe of Judah, or descended from Judah, because he is said by the evangelists, not to have been born of Joseph, but of the Holy Ghost, Matt. ch. i. But those things are not inconsistent. Jesus was the son of Joseph, as he WOL. VI I. • 2 s
was born of Mary, who was espoused to him. But he was not conceived in the ordinary way, but by the immediate agency and interposition of God: therefore he is said to have been “conceived of the Holy Ghost,” Matt. i. 18, 20; and on that account was also called the “Son of God,” Luke i. 35. (4.) Julian acknowledgeth the genuineness of the two genealogies in St. Matthew and St. Luke: and though he says they differ, they have been reconciled by learned christians, both ancient and modern. Jerom, in particular, has taken notice" of Julian's objections to the two genealogies; and has made answers to them too long to be transcribed in this place. 9. It will not be improper for me to allege here a passage of Jerom in his commentary upon Hos. xi. 1, “When Israel was a child, then I loved him, and called my Son out of Egypt.” He" there informs us, that Julian, in his work against the christians, found fault with St. Matthew for applying that to Christ, ch. ii. 15, which belonged to Israel. And he says, that the evangelists did it with a design to impose upon ignorant gentiles; which charge Jerom there considers and confutes. 10. And upon Matt. ix. 9, where it is said, that our Lord called Matthew, and “he followed him :” Jerom observes, that “ both Porphyry and Julian had reflected upon the apostles, as ready to follow any man without sufficient reason; which may induce us to think, that Julian sometimes borrowed from Porphyry. This has been already taken notice of by us in the chapter of". Porphyry. Jerom here says very well, as we also observed formerly, that before the disciples became stated followers of Jesus, they had seen many miracles done by him. 11. “Jesus,’ says." Julian, as quoted by Cyril, ‘whom you
* “Jacob autem genuit Joseph, virum Mariae, &c,” Matti. 16.] Hoc loco objecit nobis Julianus Augustus dissonantiam evangelistarum; cur evangelista Matthaeus Joseph dixerit filium Jacob, et Lucas eum filium appellavit Heli; non intelligens consuetudinem scripturarum, &c. Hieron. in Matt. T. iv. P. j. p. 7.
P Hunc locum in septimo volumine Julianus Augustus, quod adversum nos, idest, christianos, evomuit, calumniatur, et dicit, quod de Israél Scriptum est Matthaeus evangelista ad Christum transtulit, ut simplicitati eorum, qui de Gentibus crediderant, illuderet. In Osee. cap. 11. Tom. iii. p. 1311.
* Arguit in hoc loco Porphyrius et Julianus Augustus, vel imperitiam historici mentientis, vel Stultitiam eorum, qui statim secuti sunt Salvatorem, quasi irrationabiliter quemlibet vocantem hominem sint secuti, quem tantae virtutes, tantaque signa præcesserint, quae apostolos, antequam crederent, vidisse non dubium est. Hieron. in Matt. iv. p. 30. * See p. 424.
* 'O Tap' igw knowrrowevog Imoog sic my rov Kato apog in mRowv, K. A. Ap. Cyril. contr. Julian, 1. vi. p. 213. f See Vol. iv. ch. xvi. Sect. 8.
celebrate, was one of Caesar's subjects. If you dispute it, I will prove it by and by ; but it may be as well done now. For yourselves allow, that he was enrolled with his father and mother in the time of Cyrenius; but after he was born, what good did he do to his relations? For “they would not,” as it is said, “believe on him.” And yet, that stiff-necked and hard-hearted people believed Moses. But Jesus, who “ rebuked the winds, and walked on the seas, and cast out daemons,” and, as you will have it, made the heaven and the earth, (though none of his disciples presumed to say this of him, except John only, nor he clearly and distinctly: however, let it be allowed that he said so :) could not order his designs so as to save his friends and relations.” Luke ii. John vii. 5; Matt. xiv. 25; Mark vi. 48; John i. Upon this it may be observed: (1) Julian does not contest the account of our Saviour's nativity, which is in St. Luke's gospel, but confirms it. (2) I believe St. John's doctrine concerning the person of Jesus Christ, is not different from that of the other evangelists. (3.) Julian acknowledgeth, that many great and wonderful works are ascribed to Jesus by the historians of his life, the evangelists: nor does he deny the truth of them. (4.) He confirms the truth of what is said of some of our Lord’s relations, or “brethren,” that “they did not believe in him,” at least not rightly, or for a while, though they might do so afterwards, and probably did so. However if they never did believe in him, it need not be reckoned at all dishonourable to Jesus: for he made no offers of special advantages to his own kindred or family; they were to be saved in no other way than other men, by “hearing the word of God and doing it,” or by “doing the will of his Father, who is in heaven.” See Matt. xii. 50, Mark iii. 35, and Luke viii. 21. If among them were sensual and worldly men, they might as well reject his spiritual doctrine as any others. 12. “But $ Jesus having persuaded a few among you, and those the worst of men, has now been celebrated about three hundred years; having done nothing in his life-time worthy of remembrance; unless any one thinks it a mighty matter to heal lame and blind people, and exorcise daemoniacs in the villages of Bethsaida and Bethany.’
* 'O 6s Imaag, avarretoac to Xsiptsov rov trap' tipuu, oxtyag Tpog Toug TpuaKootouc evtavroug ovopačeral, spyagapsvoc trap' ov son Xpovov spyov ačev akong aštov' & pum tug oustav Taç kvXAag kat Tag TwoMeg taoag flat, kdi &alpovovrac spopkićew év Bm0oatóg kai sv Bm0avig raig kwplac Tov [tsytsov spywy swal.
Cyr. contr. Jul. 1. vi. p. 191.