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works of Jupiter, rivers, and the earth, and the sea, and the heaven; and whatever things are between them, or are above or under them ; and gods, and men, and all living things, and all things obvious to our sight, or that can be perceived by our understanding. First of all he made himself; nor was he brought up in the odoriferous caverns of Crete; nor did Saturn ever intend to devour him; nor did he swallow a stone in his stead; nor was Jupiter ever in any danger; nor will he ever, be in danger; nor is there any thing more ancient than Jupiter; as children cannot be older than their parents; nor things made than they who made them; but he is the first, and the most ancient, and the prince of all things, and himself from himself. When he was made cannot be said ; forasmuch as he has been from the beginning, and will always be; his own father, and greater than to be made by any ; and as he brought forth Minerva out of his head, without need of marriage, so he had before made himself, of himself, not needing any to bring him into being; on the contrary, all things have had their beginning from lim.’ And what follows. This is taken from a hymn to Jupiter, and is the first oration in the first volume of this work. He speaks somewhat to the like purpose near the end of the same oration; but I must not allow myself to take it at length. In the conclusion of an oration to the honour of Neptune, which is the third in the same volume, he speaks to this purpose; “These things are pleasant to see, and hear, and the painting of the sea reduced to a calm, with the boy from under the sail smiling upon Neptune. But there are other things, which ought never to have been in pictures, which are impious and horrible. And I wonder how it came to pass, that they who first saw them, did not presently fly upon the makers, and tear them to pieces; nevertheless they are still to be seen in the temples. But it is not my business to censure such things. Let us therefore offer up our prayers to Neptune, and Amphitrite, and Leucothea, and Palemon, and the Nereids, and all the marine gods and goddesses, to give health and safety, both by land and by sea, to the great emperor, and to all his family, and to the whole nation of the Greeks, and to grant all happiness to us all, suited to our condition.” III. But the passage which I principally aim at, and for the sake of which Aristides is here brought in among other

* In Neptunum Oratio. T. i. p. 28. al. 50.

witnesses, is to this purpose. He 3 is displeased with some sophists, whom he compares, as I apprehend, to christians. “But" who can avoid being filled with indignation, that men of no worth should censure Demosthenes, whom I look upon as a Mercury come down from heaven to afford us an example of eloquence % What living man can bear this in people who utter more solecisms than words; who contemn others as much as they deserve to be contemned; who' extol virtue, but do not practise it? There is no need to mention their insatiable avarice, when they catch at every thing they can get; who" call indigence by the name of communion, who call singularity philosophy, and poverty a contempt of riches. They make great pretensions to humanity, and yet never were beneficial to any, and are injurious to them who would do them a kindness, who are scarcely civil to others: and yet for the sake of rich men they travel to the ends of the earth; and when they have got them they promise to teach them virtue——who show more regard to porters at the door than to their masters These are they, who call impudence freedom, and to oppose others is reckoned a laudable boldness Moreover" they are arrived at a sort of wisdom, which consists in a pretence of neglecting money, whilst they do not refuse to receive what is worth money. They " have invented a new sort of generosity, not” to give largely, but P to take little These men are

& Orat. Platonic. ii. T. ii. p. 307, &c. al. p. 511, &c. * AAA' àrt kat row kopuðm rusc 86evoc ačww.—T. ii. p. 307. in. al. p. 511. * Kat aspyvvaot psy rmy aperny, agkage 6s 8 traat––A\\a unv rmv y' at\mstav kat T\sovsétav avrov——ot rip piev atrosspew kouvøvstv ovopa rtôsvrat, rop 8s p00vstv pi\oo opew, Top 6 atropew virepopgu Xpmuarav--p. 307, 308, al. p. 511, 512. * Here, probably, Aristides refers to the provision made by christians for the poor and necessitous among them. And in ridiculing the custom he approacheth at least to some scripture-phrases. See Acts iv. 44, 45, and ii. 42, and Rom. xii. 13, “Distributing to the necessities of the saints.” Tatg Xpstaig row &ywov kowtovavrég. Communicating to the necessities of the Saints. ! Kai Tapa)\abovrec ayagi, kat rmv apermy Tapadoosty virtoxvsvrat. p. 308. al. p. 512. " Eug raó six80i rijg goptag, dig ap) vptov plew a Tparrowrat, apyvote 5’ aśwg Naugavatv strizavrai. p. 308. al. p. 513. " It is very likely that Aristides here refers to the revenues of the christian elergy in ancient times, which depended upon the oblations made by the faithful of bread, and wine, and fruits, and other necessaries——nec molestiis et negotiis secularibus alligentur, sed in honore sportulantium fratrum, tanquam decimas ex fructibus accipientes, ab altariet sacrificiis nom recedant, sed die-ac nocte coelestibus rebus et spiritalibus serviant. Cyprian. Ep. i. p. 3. Oxon. * Kaworarov če plot 60ksov pisya)\olvXtav Šptć800al, ek et psya)\a 60080iv, a\\' to purpa Amolovrat mêm. p. 309. al. p. 514. P –-—‘ but to take little, that is, I think, to be contented with a little. Which is true magnanimity, to be as contented in a low station, as if they

neither servile flatterers, nor free-men; for they deceive as flatterers, and correct men as their superiors—joining" together two extreme and contrary evils, meanness and confidence. In manners not unlike the impious people in Palestine; for they acknowledge not the gods. They differ from the Greeks, and all good men. Very dexterous in subverting houses, and disturbing families, setting the members of them one against another, and getting the management of their affairs into their own hands. Who never said or did any good thing; who never contributed any thing to the public festivals, nor have honoured the gods, nor have promoted the welfare of the cities, nor have comforted the afflicted, nor have reconciled such as were at variance, nor have instructed youth, nor any others, nor adorned language; but dwelling in corners, they are wonderfully wise As much as they advance in wisdom on one hand, they lose on the other: mightily pleasing themselves in disparaging the art of rhetorick: as if slaves, and especially such as are often and deservedly beaten, did not oftentimes secretly curse their masters.” By the wicked men in Palestine,' I suppose Aristides to intend christians who lived in Palestine, and whose religion had its original in that country. He calls them wicked, or profane and atheistical, because they did not worship the established deities, the same that were worshipped by the Greeks and Romans. Massons here understands Jews living in Palestine, and squabbles with Tertullian, and other christian writers, who say, that after Adrian's victory, Jewish people were forbidden to come into Judea; but Carterus understands Aristides as I have done; and in his notes has illustrated this passage with good observations. Indeed we can here trace most of the common reflections which were then made upon the christians, and are particularly taken notice of in our ancient apologists. They were called ‘atheistical : they were complained of as “unprofitable:’ they are represented as ‘mean" and obscure,” who nevertheless took great liberties in remarking upon the popular deities, and the worship paid to them. They had then no schools of rhetoric for instructing youth, or others, and sometimes spoke slightly of the ornaments of language. Such things offended our sophist. And yet before the end of the third century, there were among the christians divers learned men and good writers; and some men of great eminence in our author’s own time, or before it. 2. Beside the letter" sent to the emperor Marcus, and his son Commodus, imploring their favour for the city of Smyrna, after the earthquake, which is" computed to have happened in the year of Christ 177, Aristides published a * monody, bewailing their unhappy circumstances; and after that he wrote any oration, or epistle, in 178, congratulating the people of Smyrna upon their restoration. Here he celebrates not only the favour and liberality of the emperors, but likewise the generous compassion of many others: * All 4 the cities of Asia considered their affliction as their own, and sent them relief as to their parents or children. And when they entertained any of them who were destitute in their own houses, who of them did not think themselves gainers thereby ? who did not think that they received rather than conferred a benefit? Many contributed money, and promised more, if it was needed. All the nations inhabiting Asia contended, who should exceed in regard to them. And in your city alone the falsehood of that old saying has been shown, that the unhappy are forgotten even by their friends.” Which occasioned Mr. Tillemont” to say: ‘Behold the change which the christian religion had “made in the world ! For it cannot be doubted, that the ‘ christians, who were numerous in those provinces, had a “large share in these works of charity, which are the proper ‘ effects of the faith and of the grace of Jesus Christ, and ‘ that their ardour inflamed the heathens to show the false‘hood of that ancient proverb, and that all the world forgets ‘ and neglects the unhappy; which had been too much the ‘ case hitherto.” So Mr. Tillemont; and his observation may be right, though Aristides does not mention the christians; but his words, “all nations living in Asia, lead us to think, there was a concurrence of several sorts of men in contributing to the relief of Smyrna under the great calamity that had befallen it. 3. I must add one passage more. Describing one of his voyages: “We” were going to Cephalenia, and again we had a high sea, and a contrary wind, and we were tossed up and down, to the great detriment of my health, and beyond what my constitution could bear. Afterwards the like happened in the straits of Achaia, when truly the good mariners would put off from Patrae, at the very time of the Equinox, against my will, and very much to my prejudice under my indispositions. The like things happened again in the AEgaean sea, through the obstinacy of the master of the ship and the mariners; when they would sail, though the winds were contrary, nor would they hearken to me. Soo we were carried about by the tempest over that whole sea, for fourteen days and nights, and were oftentimes without food, and at length with difficulty got to Miletus.” Here is such an agreement with the history of St. Paul’s voyage, related in Acts xxvii. that some may be apt to think, he had read the book of the Acts; but I rather think, that Aristides had not read any of the books of the New Testament. IV. Dr. Chapman" has formed a plausible argument for the expediency of the continuance of spiritual gifts, and miraculous powers in the church, for upholding and propa* L'Emp. Marc Aurele, art. xxiv. ° Sacrorum Sermon. ii. T. i. p. 306. al. p. 540. * Terapeg traXiv avrat orpog raig Óska outpat kat wwkrog, Xetuwwog rvk\p §ua Travrog re TreMay’s Øspopu&pany, kgv Tavraig agittat sk oMiyat, KOIL HoNig MiXm rip orpoonvex0musv. p. 396. al. p. 540.

enjoyed affluence, and could dazzle mankind in a profuse way of living, and gratify them with expensive donatives. " Avo roug Egyatoic kat Toug svavruarwratoug Evoxoi kakoug ovreg, ratrstvornri kat av0aôstg. p. 309. * Toug sv IIa)\atown Övggs?sot trapatrâmotov rec trporac kal yap sketvotg ter' est ovuffoxov rmg 6voo'séetaç, Ört rag kpsurrec e vout.aol, kat arou rpotov Tuva apssagt Twy EXAmvwy, ua)\\ov Ós kat Travrov rov kpsurrovov, Travrov axpmsotarov čtopvéat 3 ourlav, kat rapaśat kat ovykpagat rac ev6év troog axAmAeg, kat pmoat Travr' avrac Čtournasty, Tavrov sword roto oi Aoyov usu sykapirov 86sva triotror' at supov ar' stroumosav, a travnyupstgskogumgav, a 688c stupamorav, a troMeat ovvsjeńsvgav, 8 Avirapasveg trapspiv6so avro, a saqua&ovrag ôum\\ašav, a trparoslav weac, ak a NAag 86evac, a kookov Tolg Aoyotç trpsvomoavro Karaövvreg ös sug Tag Xmpapag, sksu ra 0avpasa Gopičovrat—60'ovyap a v Tpokolowou Tng Ooshtag, Toast' avrapatpact psyd}\a oppova vr&g, sav 6mropicnv surroot kakwg, doorsp a kal Teg ös?\8g roug 680 Toraic vir' oëovra troAAakug karapopsvec, Kat ua)\lsa 6m tag ua-tytaç avrov. p. 309, 310, al. p. 514, 515. * De Aristidis Vità Collectanea Historica. Sect, vi, n. 8.

* Sed alio quoque injuriarum titulo postulamur, et infructuosi in negotiis dicinur. Tertull. Ap. cap. 42. p. 38. " —homines, inquain, deploratae, illicitae, ac desperatae factionis, grassari in deos non ingemiscendum est? Latebrosa et lucifugax natio—Minuc. Fel. Cap. viii.

" Tom. i. p. 512. al. Tom. ii. p. 289.

* Vid. Basnag. ann. 177. num. ii. * Tom. i. p. 260. al. p. 455.

* IIa)\wipëta stri Suvpung kai to Tavrnç avouktopup. T. i. p. 263, al. p. 461.

* ——too rep yap Kouvs Troparog Tng Aguaç yeyevnueva, aro rag yuwplac sixsts—rut traoag aspoppag Tapaokévačovrov, (botrop yovevolv m traigw ((UTC01/ Tic Yap ex éppatov Šavre &Toumorato; tug Yap 8x optakeoffat playSov, m Tiëso 6at ravrov Xapw (pm)0), Öséao.6at ovoikac, rag roostov orporsvaavrac.; Kat ru &et Tavr' év pepsi karaNsysw; IIavra yap Ta sévm ra Tràmpsv6' ñuty rmv Agiav, poorquav kownv pooroparat Tpog rmv troXtv, Ta kparts a Two apxatov avigavra' stri plovng 38 Tavt mg Tng Toxswg ro traMatov Šmua o bevöwg exov, to kakwc Tpašavrov Anónv fival trapa touc pi\otc. Ib.

p. 26

* A View of the Expediency and Credibility of Miraculous Powers among the primitive Christians, after the Decease of the Apostles. 1732.

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