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that they were imposed upon by Peregrinus, who was admired by many others; and, perhaps, was not so bad a man as Lucian insinuates. Another thing may be observed, that from his manner of speaking it may be well argued, that Lucian did not know the reason why Peregrinus and the christians parted. I think it ought also to be observed, that Lucian, carrying on his drollery, misrepresents and aggravates several things. It was before? hinted, that the christians did not consider Peregrinus as a god. There are divers other loose and inaccurate expressions. He says afterwards, that the christians looked upon Peregrinus as ‘another Socrates:’ but that is a way of thinking ascribed to them without reason; many of them might think charitably and honourably of Socrates; but every christian was superior to him. So likewise when Lucian says, that “Peregrinus was prophet, high-priest, and ruler of a synagogue, uniting all offices in himself.” he speaks inaccurately; thus joining together judaism and christianity. And as Lucian indulged himself in a loose and improper manner of speaking, I cannot but think it to be a groundless deduction which some have made from these expressions, that Peregrinus had been constituted a bishop among the christians. I proceed. III. Lucian's Alexander, or Pseudomantis, as before hinted, was not written before the year 180, in the reign of Commodus; forasmuch as here he gives Marcus Antoninus the title of god, or deified. It is a " letter to Celsus, the Epicurean philosopher, containing the history of an impostor, named Alexander, who in the time of the fore-mentioned Antoninus gave out oracles in Paphlagonia, and had vast success in his design; his oracle having been in great repute for some while in that and neighbouring countries, and even at Rome itself. “But,” says Lucian, “when some, who had more wit than ‘others, awaking as out of a drunken fit, that had robbed “ them of all their senses, made head against him, chiefly “men of the Epicurean sect, and the secret arts of his con‘ trivance began to be discerned in several places; he struck “a kind of terror among them, saying, “That" Pontus was ‘ full of atheists and christians, who had the assurance to * raise slanderous stories against him.” And he excited the ‘people not to spare them, but to drive them away with ‘stones, if they would not lose the favour of the god' [AEsculapius.]—" He also appointed rites of initiation, * like those at Athens, and a holy feast of three days’ con‘tinuance; and on" the first day of the solemnity procla‘mation was made as at Athens: “If any atheist, or chris“tian, or Epicurean, be come hither as a spy upon these “mysteries, let him depart with all speed. And a happy “initiation to those who believe in God.” Then they thrust “ the people away, he going before, and saying: “Away ‘with the christians.” Then the multitude cried out again: * “Away with the Epicureans.”” It is honourable to the christians to be here mentioned with Epicureans by a favourer of the Epicurean sentiments. It evidently appears hence, that the followers of Jesus were now well known in the world by the name of christians; and that they were then numerous in Pontus and Paphlagonia and the neighbouring countries; and finally, that they were formidable to cheats and impostors. IV. I shall now cite a passage taken from the second hook of what our author calls, True History, but is indeed all fiction, as is acknowledged by himself at the beginning of the first book. “He and his companions, having travelled a great way," ‘ came to the Island of the blessed, where Rhadamanthus of * Crete reigned. Soon after they came ashore, they were “taken into custody," and were bound with roses, there be‘ing no other chains in that country; which too fell off of ‘themselves, when they were set at liberty. There were “ then several causes to be tried before the king of the “country; theirs was the fourth in order. When their cause ‘ came on, they were asked, how they came to be there, ‘when they were yet living 2 When they had related their ‘ voyage, they were ordered to withdraw. The judge, “ having consulted with his accessors and counsellors, de* termined, that after death they should be punished for ‘their curiosity and presumption ; for the present they “might converse with the heroes of the country, but the * term of their sojourning there might not exceed seven months. Then they were conducted into the city, which is all gold, surrounded by a wall of emerald, Rev. xx. There are seven gates made of the wood of cinnamon; the pavement of the city, and the ground within the wall, is ivory; the temples of all the gods are built of the berylstone; the altars in them are very large, consisting of one stone only, which is the amethyst, upon which they offer hecatombs. Round the city flows a river of the finest oil, the breadth of which is an hundred royal cubits, the depth such as is most convenient for swimming in. Their baths are large houses of glass, kept warm with fires made of cinnamon; instead of water they have warm dew in basons; their dress is purple, made of the finest spiders’ webs. None grow old here; but they remain as they were when they arrived. They # have no night, nor altogether bright day: but such light as precedes the rising of the sun; nor have they more than one season of the year; for it is always spring, and the west is the only wind. The country abounds with all sorts of flowers and plants, which are always flourishing ; their" vines bear twelve times in the year, yielding fruit every month, Rev. xxii. 2. Apples and pomegranates, as they say, bear thirteen times in the year, yielding fruit twice in the month, called by them Minous. Instead of corn the stalks have ready-prepared loaves at their tops like mushrooms. There are in the city three hundred and sixty-five fountains of water, and as many of honey, and five hundred fountains of oil, but less: seven rivers of milk, and eight of wine.” More follows containing a description of the groves and fields round about the city; but I am not disposed to transcribe any more. They who please may consider, whether here are any allusions to the xxi. and xxii. chapters of the book of the Revelation. Lucian’s description of this island, and the chief city of it, falls so far short of St. John's description of his New Jerusalem, that some may think he could not have so fine a model before him. However, let all judge as they see fit. W. With Lucian’s works is joined a dialogue, called Philopatris. Bishop Bull," and some others, have been ‘tial, Son of the Father, the Spirit proceeding from the “Father, one out of three, and three out of one. These do “you think to be Jupiter, him do you esteem to be God.‘Crit. You teach me numbers; that is an arithmetical oath—I do not know what you mean. One three, three one.-Trieph. Hold your peace; you are not to measure the steps of fleas. I will teach you what the universe is, who was before all things, and what is the system of the universe; for it is but the other day that I was as ignorant as yourself. But" when the Galilean, half bald, long nosed, who travelled through the air to the third heaven, and there learned the most extraordinary things, came to me, he renewed us by water, he introduced us into the regions of the blessed, and redeemed us from the regions. of the wicked. And if you will hearken to me, I will make you likewise a man indeed.—Soon after this Triephon tells Critias of the creation, and other things, in a ludicrous way. By a word he dispelled the darkness, as the slow tongued writer assures us, and founded the earth upon the waters. He stretched out the Beavens, formed the fixed stars, and ordered the course of things, which you worship for gods. The earth he adorned with flowers; man" he brought out of things that were not; and he is in heaven, beholding the just and the unjust, and writes in books the actions of all, and will accordingly render to all in the day that he has appointed. After other things, Critias says: Wherefore," Triephon, I entreat you to say nothing more of the fates, though with your master you should be taken up, and admitted to unspeakable mysteries. Afterwards Triephon says; Do not you see, how inaccurate, and ambiguous, and uncertain, all the sayings of the poets are? Wherefore lay aside all those things, that “you may be enrolled in the celestial books of the righteous.-Crit. But tell me, Triephon, are the affairs of the Scythians also registered in heaven 3–Trieph. All. For Chrestus has apavuova, viov Tarpoc, Trvevua Ek trarpog sktropévopus wov, Šv Ek Towy, kat & £voc Tota. Tavra vout's Znva, Tov 6' hya 6sov. p. 770. in. * Hvika če pot Taxi\alog systwyev, avapakavriac, strouvoc, ec Toitov apavov aspoGarmoac, kau ta ka)\\ts a skusp.a6mkwg, 6t' jöarog juac avekatviaev, sc ta Twy pakapov tyvia trapstow8svo's——k. N. p. 770 * Av600Tov sk pun ovrwy sc to swat trapmyayê Kat estv čv agavp, 3Aétrov êucatec Te Kgötkeç, ka sv 616Aoug Tag Trpaësic atroypapopovoc. Avratroëwasi és Taouv, iv inspaw avrog sversi\aro. p. 771. * Qore, tow Towsowy, Čua Taro pumčev Trpoo'68wat rept Twy ploupov 80&moyc, st kat taxa Teóapalog sysyovsic pista ra ölðaoka)\8, Kat Ta arošānta suv)0mg. p.
* See before, note ", p. 279. * Lucian. vol. i. p. 746, &c. b expspet posłmtpov to ot' avraç, Asywy, a0swy spottetAmaëat kat Xptstavov toy IIovtov' of Trept avta Toàpwat Ta Kaktsa 6\aopmusw. k. A. ibid.
p. 762, 763.
* Ib. p. 770. * Kat sv učv to Tporo, orpośnoic my horsp A8m vpot, Towavrm. Et tug assog, m xptotavog, m ETukapetouc, jkst karaokotrog Tov opywy, psvyetw Kat 6 p.sv ii) stro Aeyov' Eé0 xptstaveg. To 6s TAm00c &rav strepôsyyero' Eğw Earticepstag. c. A. Ibid. p. 770.
* IIap wu on ka0 oëov akmroap.sv, &c usv vmoog sum Tov stakapov orpooayopévostévov apxot 6s o Kpug Paëapav0vg. Ver. Hist. l. ii. T. i. p. 670.
f evrvyxavousy rotg opepotg, kat TsputoNotc. Oi Ös &mdavrec àuaç 600tvote sepavoic—avnyov &c row apxovra. Ibid. p. 671,
8 8 p.mu 86s vvé trap' avroug Yuyveral, ed' huspa travv \apitoa, p. 672.
" At Plev Yap apotrexot 606skapopot stol, kal kara umva Kasov kaptopopagi. Ib. * Tom. ii. p. 763, &c. Graev. * Def. Fidei Nicen. sect. 2. cap. 4. p. 69. [al. 73.] | Et Philopatris, si ejus sit, saltem scriptoris coavi. Cav. H. L. p. 96. Vid. et Fabric. Bib. Gr. T. iii. p. 504. et Lux Evangelii. p. 153.
inclined to think it Lucian’s, or, however, written about his time, in the reign of Marcus Antoninus; many others are persuaded, that it is not his, nor written in that reign. But there is a great diversity of opinion among these concerning the true age of it. Mr. Moyle" thinks it was written in the time of Dioclesian, in the year of Christ 302, and 23 years before the council of Nice. Dodwell" varied in his opinion, and in the end placed it in the year of Christ 261, and the eighth of Gallienus. Others” have argued for the third of AureJian, in the year of Christ 272. And Gesner P is of opinion, that it was written in the time of the emperor Julian, after the middle of the fourth century. None of these learned men think the Philopatris to be a work of Lucian. I am not able to determine the time when it was written; nor do I think it needful to be much concerned about it. I do not think it to be Lucian's ; the style is very different from his, and vastly inferior to it. Some other reasons may offer by and by in our observations upon it; but, as the writer was a heathem, and it is joined with the other works of Lucian, I speak of it in this place. Says Mr. Moyle: “It's is a Dialogue between Critias and ‘Triephon; the first a professed heathen, the other an Epi“curean, personating a christian. The design of it is, partly “to represent christians as a sect of men disaffected to ‘government, and dangerous to civil society; partly to ex‘pose their opinions, as the Trinity, the creation of the “world, with several other articles of our faith.” ‘Triephon meets Critias, who by his countenance appears ‘greatly indisposed; and being asked the reason, Critias “tells him, he had been where he had heard a strange dis“course; and that the things which he had heard that day, ‘ from those execrable sophists, had most surprisingly ‘ affected him. Afterwards, he offers to swear by Jupiter, ‘and Apollo, and other deities, which oaths Triephon rejects. “By whom then shall I swear, says Critias. Triephon “answers: By the most High God, great, immortal, celes
* See his Dissertation upon the age of the Philopatris. Lett. i. vol. i. p. 292. * See in the same Dissertation, p. 302, 314, 348, 349. Vid. Heuman. Poecile, sive Epistolae Miscellaneae, T. i. p. 438, &c. P. J. M. Gesneri Diss. de aetate et auctore Philop. Ad calcem. T. iii. Lucian.
Opp. Amst. 1743. * As before, p. 285,286. ... " Q Totepwy, us/av rula, kat moropnusvov Aoyov armkoa. Philop. Lucian. T. ii. p. 764. * A Yap akmicoa Tnuspov trapa Tptorataparov Eketvww