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BAYARD. Paul of Luxemburg, count de Ligny. Picardy in 1513, and besieged Terouane The tournaments were his first field of The French arıy disgracefully took : glory. At the age of 18, he accompanied flight. B., with his accustomed intrepid Charles VIII to Italy, and distinguished ity, made an ineffectual resistance to the himself greatly in the battle at Verona, enemy: overpowered by superior num where he took a standard. At the begin- bers, his troop was on the point of laying ning of the reign of Louis XII, in a battle down their arms, when B., perceiving ai near Milan, he pursued the fugitives with English officer at some distance from such eagerness, that he entered the city him, immediately galloped towards hus with them, and was taken prisoner. Lu- presented his sword to his breast, and dovico Sforza returned him his arms and cried, “ Yield, or die!" The Englishman his horse, and dismissed him without ran- surrendered his sword: B. immediately sum. Whilst the French were in Apu- gave hiin his own, saying, “ I am Bayani lia, B. defeated a Spanish corps, and and your captive, as you are mine." T made their leader, don Alonzo de Soto- boldness and ingenuity of this action mayor, prisoner. He treated him with pleased the emperor and the king of Enggenerosity. Sotomayor, however, not only land, who decided that B. needed no manviolated his parole by flight, but calum- som, and that both captives were released niated B., who, according to the custom from their parole. When Francis I as of that time, challenged him, and killed cended the throne, he sent B. into Daishim. Afterwards, like Horatius Cocles, phiné, to open for his army a passage oset he defended a bridge over the Garigliano the Alps, and through Piedmont. Prime singly against the Spaniards, and saved per Colonna lay in wait for him on ha the French army by checking the advance march, expecting to surprise him, but B. of the victorious enemy. For this exploit, made him prisoner. This brilliant explo: he received as a coat of arms a porcupine, was the prelude to the battle of Marignwith the motto l'ires agminis unus habet. no, in which B., at the side of the kins, He distinguished himself equally against performed wonders of bravery, and dersthe Genotse and the Venetians. When ded the victory. After this glorious day Julius II declared himself against France, Francis was knighted with the sword of B. B. went to the assistance of the duke of When Charles V invaded Champagne Ferrara. He did not succeed in his plan with a large army, and threatened to pr11of taking the pope prisoner; but he re- trate into the heart of France, B. defended tused, with indignation, an offer made to the weakly-fortified town of Mezieres betry bim. Being severely wounded at aguinst every assault, until the discusions the annult of Brescia, he was carried into of the hostile lenders compelled them to the house of a nobleman, who had fled, retreat. B. wan saluted in Paris is the sirand lost bis wife and two daughters er. jor of his country: the king buntowed on posed to the insolence of the soldiers. B. him the order of St. Michael, and a cominaproteried the family, refused the reward ny of 100 men, which he was to command of 2500 ducats, which they offered to him, in his own name-an honor which, tai and returned, as soon as he was cured, then, had only been confirmed on prine into the camp of Gaston de Foix, before of the blood. Soon afterwards, 'Getkr Ravenna. In an engagement, which revolted from France: B's presence o shortly after ensued, he took two stund- duced it to obedience. But, atter the suurards from the Spaniards, and pursued the render of Lodi, fortune changed, and thar figilises. Gaston, the hope of France, French troops were expelled from their prebied through his neglect of the advice conquests. Bonnivet was obliged to n. of B. In the nitreat fruen Pavia, B. was trit through the valley of testa; his near again wounded. He was carried to Gre- was beaten, and bimseli severely wounded, noble; his lite was in danger. "I grieve when the safety of the army was con noe for death," he said, “but to die on my mitted to B. It was necessary to pass the buil, like a woman." In the war com- Sexta in the presence of a superior enemy, meuced by Feniinand the Catholie, he and B., always the last in retreat, vigor. di-plasedd bwyond the Pyrenees the same ously attacked the Spaninrts, when a talents, the winne heroisil, which had dis- stone, from a blunderbuss, struck his right unguibed him beyond the Alps. The side, and shattered his back-hone. The fatal reieses which imbittered the last hero tell, exclaiming, " Jesus, my God, I years of Louis XII only added a brighter amadeu man!" They hastened towards splendor to the pronal glory of B. him. - Place me under yon tree," be out, Henry VIII of England, in alliance with “ that I may see the enemy." For want Fentinand and Maximilian, threatened of a crucifix, he kissed the cross of his

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wwerd, confessed to his squire, consoled which were delivered in this famous conLes servants and his friends, bade farewell troversy has been published. It was # his king and his country, and died, almost universally conceded that he was April 30, 1521, surrounded by friends and the ablest advocate of the system or orErmitas, who all shed tears of admiration ganization which was destroyed. He and grief. His body, which remained in continued in the house of representatives the lands of his enemies, was embalmed after the change of administration, always by them, given to the French, and interred conspicuous for his sound principles, cona a church of the Minorites, near Greno- stant acuteness, extensive knowledge, and bij. Ilis inonuinent consists of a simple manly, copious eloquence. Elected to the te with a Latin inscription. (See Hist. senate of the U. States by the legislature

P. Terrail, dit le Chevalier Bayard sans of Delaware, he displayed, for several Peu et sans Reproche, by Gayard de Ber- years, in that assembly, the same talents idie, new edition, Paris, 1824).

and patriotism. In 1812, he strenuously BATARD, James A., an eminent Ameri- opposed the declaration of war with Great a lawyer and politician, was born in Britain. President Madison selected him Philadelphia, in 1767. His classical edu- as one of the commissioners to treat for Taron was completed at Princeton col- peace under the proffered mediation of bron. In the year 1784, he engaged in the the emperor Alexander of Russia. He 12. ; of the law, and, on his admission eubarked on this important mission, so the bar, settled in the state of Delaware, which had not been sought nor expected Firmy be soon acquired considerable prac- by himself or bis triends for him, from fue and reputation. A few years after the port of Philadelphia, May 8, 1813, e reacbed his majority, he was elected a and arrived at St. Petersburg in July of representative of Delaware in congress. that year. The absence of the emperor Te first occasion, on which he particu- prevented the transaction of any business, any distinguished himself, was ille im- and, when all hope of advancing the main

obmeut of William Blount, a senator object seemed idle, Mr. B. proceeded te (. States. Mr. B. was chairinan of (January, 1814) by land to Holland. the comınittee of eleven, who were se- There he learned the willingness of the En by the house of' representatives, to British court to treat directly with the Touteet that impeachment. He took the American envoys. Previously to the arri

and a very brilliant part in the dis- val of his colleagues, who, in consequence son of the constitutional questions of this annunciation, were despatched by

*h arose out of the successful plea of the American government, le visited Larus d to the jurisdiction of the senate. England. At the proper period, he re1: an early period of his political career, paired to Glent, which was ultimately mesleat icains offered liim the post of chosen as the scene of the negotiations

y to the French republic, which pru- which terminated in the treaty that bears will reasons induced him to decline. the name of that place. His share in the 4. B. was one of the leaders of the fed- oral discussions and the written correi sary in congress at the epoch of the spondence with the British plenipotentiamint inn of Mr. Jefferson to the office of ries was such as might have been expectpepalent. In the memorable contest in ed from his peculiar fitness for the task te bouse of representatives, which was of negotiation. On the conclusion of this

tured by the equality of votes for Mr. business, he made a journey to Paris, disa and colonel Burr, he finally where he remained until he heard of the taied upon liis political coadjutors to ratification of the treaty, and of his apare the mode of proceeding which ena- pointment as envoy to the court of St. bund the friends of Mr. Jefferson to tri- Petersburg. This he promptly declined.

uplu. Hostile as he was to that states. It was his intention, however, to go to on, and much as he had reason to England, in order to co-operate in the *T*ct of personal advantage from a dif- formation of a commercial treaty with the Irut issue, he sacrificed party feeling British cabinet, as he was included in the ad ambitious hope, when he perceived commission sent for that purpose; but an **: the peace of the country and the alarming illness put an end to every hality of the constitution might be en- plan, except that of reaching his home as dansered by continuing the struggle. In early as possible. He embarked at Havre

debate of the house did Mr. B. display in May, 1815, in a state of the most pain S genius more than in that which pre- ful debility, suffered unfortunate delays aded the repeal, in March, 1802, of the in the voyage, and arrived in the U. States pkriary bill. A volume of the speeches only to die in the arms of his family.VOL. II.


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Mr. B. was a logician of the first order, full of learning, in which he discussed possessed a rich and ready elocution, and various subjects of metaphysics, morals, commanded attention as well by his fine theology, history, and politics.' It was countenance and manly person as his followed by his Critique générale de l'Hiscogent reasoning and comprehensive toire du Calvinisme de Maimbourg. This views. He acquired a reputation, both as work, received with equal approbation by a lawyer and political orator, scarcely the Catholics and Protestants, and es. inferior to that of any one of his American teemed by Maimbourg himself, excited contemporaries.

the jealousy of his colleague, the theoloBAYLE, Pierre, born at Carlat, in the gian Jurieu, whose Refutation du P. county of Foix (Languedoc), in 1647, Maimbourg had not succeeded, and inreceived his first instruction from his volved B. in many disputes. He afterfather, a Calvinistic preacher. He gave ward undertook a periodical work, Nouearly proofs of an astonishing memory, velles de la République des Lettres, in 1684. and of a singular vivacity of mind. At A letter from Rome, published in this the age of 19 years, he entered the college work, excited the displeasure of the queen of Puy-Laurens, to finish his studies. Christina of Sweden, who caused two viThe ardor with which he devoted him- olent letters to be sent to him. B. apoloself to them weakened his constitution. gized, and his excuses so perfectly satisfied All books were eagerly devoured by him; the queen, that from that time she kept his taste for logic led him particularly to up a literary correspondence with him. study religious controversies, but Amyot's The death of his father and of his two Plutarch and Montaigne were his favorite brothers, together with the religious perworks. The latter encouraged, without secutions in France, induced him to undoubt, his inclination to scepticism; per- dertake his Commentaire philosophique sur haps both contributed to give to his style ces Paroles de l'Evangile ; Contrains-les that vivacity, that boldness of expression d'entrer ; which, in regard to style and and antique coloring, so observable in it. tone, is not worthy of him. B. himself In Toulouse, he studied philosophy with was unwilling to acknowledge it ; but the Jesuits. The arguments of his pro- Jurieu, who probably recognised its aufessor, and, still more, his friendly discus- thor by the zeal with which toleration is sions with a Catholic priest, who dwelt defended in this work, attacked it with ! near him, confirmed his doubts of the violence. His hatred only waited for a orthodoxy of Protestantism, so that he re- pretence to break out against B.; he solved to change his religion. His con- found it in the Avis aux Refugiés, a work version was a triumph to the Catholics. in which the Protestants are treated with His family, however, tried all means to little ceremony. Jurieu not only accused regain him, and, after 17 months, he re- B. of being the author of this work (which turned to his old faith. In order to certainly is not his), but also of being the escape from the punishment of perpetual soul of a party devoted to France, in opexcommunication, which the Catholic position to the Protestants and allied church then pronounced against apostates, powers. B. repelled these charges in two lie went to Geneva, and thence to Copet, publications; but the calumny prevailed. where count Dohna intrusted him with In 1693, the magistrates of Rotterdam the education of his sons, and where removed him from his office, and forbade he studied the philosophy of Des Cartes. him to give private instruction. lie now But, after some years, he returned to devoted all his attention to the composiFrance, and settled in Rouen, where he tion of his Dictionnaire historique et criwas employed in teaching. From thence tique, which he first published in 169, he went to Paris, where the society of in 2 vols. fol. This was the first work learned men indemnified him for the fa- which appeared under his name. Jurieu tigues of an occupation to which he was opposed him anew, and caused the conobliged to submit for a third time. In sistory, in which he had the greatest in1675, he obtained the philosophical chair fluence, to make a severe attack upon at Sedan, where he taught with distinc- him. B. promised to remove every thing tion until the suppression of this acade- which the consistory deemed offensive; my in 1681. He was afterwards invited but, finding the public had other views to discharge the same duties at Rotter- and preferring rather the satisfaction of his dam. The appearance of a comet, in readers than that of his judges, he left the 1680, which occasioned an almost univer- work, with the exception of a few trifles, sal alarm, induced him to publish, in 1682, unaltered. He found two new enemies his Pensées diverses sur la Comète, a work in Jacquelot and Le Clerc, who both at




15 tacked his religion : others persecuted Lockman and others, was published, him as the enemy of bis sect and his new 1734–41, 10 vols. fol. country. These contests increased his BAYLEN, capitulation of general Dupont bodily infirmities. His lungs became in- at; an event which, in July, 1808, raised flamed; but he was unwilling to use any the courage of Spain, and hastened a medical applications against a disorder general insurrection. Joseph Bonaparte which he considered as hereditary and had entered Madrid as king; the provincurable. He died, so to speak, with the inces Leon, Valencia, Valladolid, Zamopen in his hand, in 1706, at the age of 59 ra and Salamanca had been subdued years. “Bayle,” says Voltaire, “is the and disarmed. In the south alone, on the first of logicians and sceptics. His great- Guadalquivir, in the naturally fortified est enemies must confess that there is not Andalusia, in Cordova, Grenada, Jaen, a line in his works which contains an the spirit of insurrection still prevailed, open aspersion of Christianity ; but his and was excited as much as possible by warmest apologists must acknowledge, the junta of Seville. Thither general that there is not a page in his controver- Dupont directed his march, at the end of sial writings which does not lead the May, with three divisions. Cordova and reader to doubt, and often to scepticism." Jaen were taken by assault, after the He compares himself to Homer's cloud- most terrible resistance. The monks compelling Jupiter. “My talent,” he says, promised the joys of heaven, without

: “ consists in raising doubts; but they are purgatory, to every one who should kill only doubts.” The confidence of most three Frenchmen. The corps of Castatheologians induced him to undertake to nos soon increased to 30,000 men. The prove that several points are not so certain able maneuvres of this general, together and so evident as they imagined. But he with famine and sickness in the French gradually passed these limits: his pene- army, augmented by the total want of tration caused him to doubt even the hospitals, prepared the way for the overmost universally acknowledged facts. Yet throw of general Dupont. 3000 Spanhe never attacked the great principles of iards had possession of the Sierra Morena, morality. Though an admirable logician, in the rear of his army. In order to rehe was so little acquainted with physics, establish his communication with the that even the discoveries of Newton were capital, he occupied the cities of B. and unknown to him. His style is natural Carolina with detachments, while he and clear, but often prolix, careless and himself took a position near Andujar, on incorrect. He himself calls his Diction- the Guadalquivir. But, on the 14th of naire "une compilation informe des pas- July, 18,000 men, with some pieces of sages cousus à la queue les uns des autres.” heavy artillery, marched against the front Without assenting implicitly to this mod- of the French position near Andujar; est judgment, we must confess that the while 3000 men came through the defiles articles, in themselves, are of little of the Sierra Morena upon the rear, and value, and that they serve only as a pre- 6000 men attacked Dupont's left wing. text for the notes, in which the author He defended himself, for three days, with displays, at the same time, his learning, skill and courage; but the 18th of July and the power of his logic. The charac- decided the contest. The Spanish genter of B. was gentle, amiable, disinterest- erals Reding and Compigny attacked B. ed, highly modest and peaceable: he de- Peñas and Jones overawed the main body, voted himself entirely to literature. The under Dupont. He was compelled to most esteemed edition of his Dictionnaire evacuate Andujar, after B. had been taken historique is that of 1740, in 4 vols. fol. by the Spaniards. The action continued (an edition was also printed at Bâle, nine hours, when Dupont requested a the same year). At the Hague appeared suspension of arms, but was told that he the Euvres diverses de P. Bayle (also 4 must surrender at discretion. Meanwhile vols. fol.) An edition of his Dict. histor., the division of Vedel, not acquainted with in 16 vols., printed with great typograph- the proceedings of Dupont, had attacked ical beauty, was published, in 1820, by the Spaniards anew, and taken the regiDesoer, in Paris: it contains notes, and ment of Cordoya prisoners, together with the life of the author. In the Disc. pre- two pieces of artillery, but were finally limin., the editor, Beuchot, reviews the 11 overpowered by superior numbers. On former editions. Gottsched has translated the 23d of July, the whole French army, the Dict. into German (Leipsic, 1741–44, 17,000 men strong, being surrounded, 4 vols. fol.) An English translation, with was obliged to capitulate, having lost considerable additions, by Th. Birch, 3000 men on the field of battle. The di

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visions of Dupont and Vedel were made when a more rigid police prevailed, to prisoners of war: the latter was to be free the city from nuisances, no more permitted to embark at Cadiz for Roche- would be heard of particular diseases." fort: the same terms were afterwards In 1797, he published his work On Yel. promised to the division of Dupont, but low Fever, wherein he proved the malady not fulfilled. General Dupont returned, to be of local origin. So strong was his with his staff, to France, and was arrested belief on this point, and so clear his perat Toulon, and subjected to trial. But, ception of the cause of the fever, that he before a decision, he was delivered by predicted the very spot where it afterthe capture of Paris, March 30, 1814. wards appeared, in the year 1799. In the He was afterwards appointed, by Louis year 1705 or 6, he was appointed health XVIII, minister of war; but was super- physician for the port of New York, and, seded by Soult, in December, 1814. in 1798, published Letters from the

Bayley, Richard, M. D., was born at Health Office, submitted to the New Fairfield, Connecticut, in the year 1745. York Common Council, being a series of Having completed his medical studies, he letters in the years '96-7-8. One letter, went to London, to attend the lectures dated Dec. 4, 1798, assigns the reasons and hospitals. After little more than a why the fever in '98 was more extenyear's residence in that city, he returned sively prevalent than in '95, 6 or 7, which to New York, and commenced practice he considers to be the rains flooding large there in 1772.' At this period, his atten- portions of the city, its low levels, newtion was first drawn to the then prevalent made ground, and a hot sun.—In 1798, a and fatal croup, which had been treated correspondence took place between the as the putrid sore throat. Observing how cities of New York and Philadelphia, in fatal was the use of stimulants and anti- the course of which a proposition was septics, he examined the nature of the made by the committee of the latter to that disease, and became convinced that it was of the former, soliciting their co-operation of an inflammatory character. He ac- in a memorial to the general government cordingly treated it as such, with decided for a quarantine law. This gave doctor success, and, soon after the publication of B., who was on the New York commithis View of the Croup, his opinions and tee, an opportunity of impressing upon treatment of it were universally adopted. the general government the propriety of In the autumn of 1775, B. revisited Lon- establishing a lazaretto, below and at a don, where he spent a winter, and, in the distance from the city or port of entry. following spring, returned to New York, He was the person to whom the state of in the capacity of surgeon in the English New York is, in fact, chiefly indebted for army under Howe. He resigned this its quarantine laws, although they have post in 1777, and, during the rest of his since been altered and amended. În Aulife, continued the practice of his pro- gust, 1801, doctor B., in the discharge of fession in the same city. In 1787, he his duty as health physician, enjoined the lectured on surgery. In 1788, he lost his passengers and crew of an Irish emigrant valuable collection in morbid anatomny, ship, atšlicted with the ship fever, to go on and some delicate preparations, by the shore to the rooms and tents appointed violence of the famous “ doctors' mob,” for them, leaving their luggage behind. who broke into his house, and carried off The next morning, on going to the hospiand burned bis cabinet. In the spring tal, he found that both crew and passenof 1792, he was appointed professor of gers, well, sick and dying, were huddled anatomy in Columbia college, and, in together in one apartment, where they 1793, became professor of surgery, which had passed the night. He inconsiderately was his favorite subject. His lectures entered into this room before it had been were clear, precise and practical. As an properly ventilated, but remained scarceoptician, he acquired great celebrity, and ly a moment, being obliged to retire by a also as an experienced and successful li- most deadly sickness at the stomach, and thotomist. When the yellow fever deso- violent pain in the head, with which he lated New York, soon after the revolu- was suddenly seized. He returned home, tion, doctor B. devoted himself to personal and retired to his bed, from which he attention to the sick, and became practi- never rose. In the afternoon of the cally familiar with the disease, and its seventh day following, he expired. most successful remedies. He likewise BAYONET. This is the name of the investigated its cause, and declared that iron blade, formed like a dagger, and it was the filth which polluted the docks placed upon the muzzle of the musket, and some of the streets, affirining, “ that which is thus transformed into a thrusting

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