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major-generals, their aids; the captains and subalterns, their non-commissioned officers.

The governor and council shall appoint all officers of the continental army, whom, by the confederation of the United States, it is provided that this state shall appoint: as also all officers of forts and garrisons.

The division of the militia into brigades, regiments, and companies, made in pursuance of the militia laws now in force, shall be considered as the proper division of the militia of this state, until the same shall be altered by some future law.

No moneys shall be issued out of the treasury of this state, and disposed of, except such sums as may be appropriated for the redemption of bills of credit, or treasurer's notes, or for the payment of interest arising thereon, by warrant under the hand of the governor for the time being, by and with the advice and consent of the council, for the ne cessary support and defence of this state, and for the necessary protection and preservation of the inhabitants thereof, agreeably to the acts and resolves of the general court.

All public boards, the commissary-general, all superintending officers of public magazines and stores, belonging to this state, and all commanding officers of forts and garrisons within the same, shall, once in every three months, officially and without requisition, and at other times when required by the governor, deliver to him an account of all goods, stores, provisions, ammunition, cannon, with their appendages, and small arms, with their accoutrements, and of all other public property under their care respectively; distinguishing the quantity and kind of each, as particularly as may be; together with the condition of such forts and garrisons; and the commanding officer shall exhibit to the governor, when required by him, true and exact plans of such forts, and of the land and sea, or harbour or harbours adjacent.

The governor and council shall be compensated for their services, from time to time, by such grants as the general court shall think reasonable.

Permanent and honourable salaries shall be established by law for the justices of the supreme court.


There shall be annually elected, by ballot, five counsellors, for advising the governor in the executive part of the government. The freeholders and other inhabitants in each county, qualified to vote for senators, shall, some time in the month of March, give in their votes for one counsellor ; which votes shall be received, sorted, counted, certified, and returned to the secretary's office, in the same manner as the votes for senators, to be by the secretary laid before the senate and house of representatives on the first Wednesday in June.

And the person having a majority of votes in any county shall be considered as duly elected a counsellor; but if no person shall have a majority of votes in any county, the senate and house of representatives shall take the names of the two persons who have the highest number of votes in each county and not elected, and out of those two shall elect, by joint ballot, the counsellor wanted for such county.

Provided, nevertheless, That no person shall be capable of being elected a counsellor who has not an estate of the value of five hundred

pounds within this state, three hundred pounds of which (or more) shall be a freehold in his own right, and who is not thirty years of age; and who shall not have been an inhabitant of this state for seven years immediately preceding his election; and at the time of his election an inhabitant of the county in which he is elected.

The secretary shall, annually, seventeen days before the first Wednesday in June, give notice of the choice of persons elected.

If any person shall be elected governor, or member of either branch of the legislature, and shall not accept the trust; or if any person elected a counsellor shall refuse to accept the office; or in case of the death, resignation, or removal of any counsellor out of the state, the governor may issue a precept for the election of a new counsellor in that county where such vacancy shall happen; and the choice shall be in the same manner as before directed: and the governor shall have full power and authority to convene the council, from time to time, at his discretion; and, with them, or the majority of them, may, and shall, from time to time, hold a council, for ordering and directing the affairs of the state according to the laws of the land.

The members of the council may be impeached by the house, and tried by the senate, for bribery, corruption, malpractice, or maladministration.

The resolutions and advice of the council shall be recorded by the secretary, in a register, and signed by all the members present agreeing thereto; and this record may be called for at any time by either house of the legislature; and any member of the council may enter his opinion contrary to the resolutions of the majority, with the reason for such opinion.

The legislature may, if the public good shall hereafter require it, divide the state into five districts, as nearly equal as may be, governing themselves by the number of ratable polls, and proportion of public taxes: each district to elect a counsellor; and in case of such division, the manner of the choice shall be conformable to the present mode of election in counties.

And whereas the elections appointed to be made by this constitution on the first Wednesday of June annually, by the two houses of the legislature, may not be completed on that day, the said elections may be adjourned from day to day, until the same may be completed; and the order of the elections shall be as follows: the vacancies in the senate, if any, shall be first filled up; the governor shall then be elected, provided there shall be no choice of him by the people; and afterwards the two houses shall proceed to fill up the vacancy, if any, in the council.

Secretary, Treasurer, Commissary-general, &c.

The secretary, treasurer, and commissary-general shall be chosen by joint ballot of the senators and representatives, assembled in one room. The records of the state shall be kept in the office of the secretary, and he shall attend the governor and council, the senate and representatives, in person, or by deputy, as they may require.

The secretary of the state shall, at all times, have a deputy, to be by him appointed; for whose conduct in office he shall be responsible. And in case of the death, removal, or inability of the secretary, his deputy shall exercise all the duties of the office of secretary of this state,

until another shall be appointed. The secretary, before he enters upon the business of his office, shall give bond, with sufficient sureties, in a reasonable sum, for the use of the state, for the punctual performance of his trust.

County Treasurer, &c.

The county treasurers, and registers of deeds, shall be elected by the inhabitants of the several towns in the several counties in the state, according to the method now practised, and the laws of the state.

Provided, nevertheless, The legislature shall have authority to alter the manner of certifying the votes, and the mode of electing those officers; but not so as to deprive the people of the right they now have of electing them.

And the legislature, on the application of the major part of the inhabitants of any county, shall have authority to divide the same into two districts for registering deeds, if to them it shall appear necessary; each district to elect a register of deeds: and before they enter upon the business of their office, shall be respectively sworn faithfully to discharge the duties thereof, and shall severally give bonds, with sufficient sureties, in a reasonable sum, for the use of the county, for the punctual performance of their respective trusts.

Judiciary Power.

The tenure that all commissioned officers shall have by law in their offices, shall be expressed in their respective commissions all judicial officers, duly appointed, commissioned, and sworn, shall hold their offices during good behaviour, excepting those concerning whom there is a different provision made in this constitution; Provided, nevertheless, the governor, with consent of council, may remove them upon the address of both houses of the legislature.

Each branch of the legislature, as well as the governor and council, shall have authority to require the opinions of the justices of the superior court, upon important questions of law, and upon solemn occasions.

In order that the people may not suffer from the long continuance in place of any justice of the peace, who shall fail in discharging the important duties of his office with ability and fidelity, all commissions of justices of the peace shall become void at the expiration of five years from their respective dates; and upon the expiration of any commission, the same may, if necessary, be renewed, or another person appointed, as shall most conduce to the well being of the state.

All causes of marriage, divorce, and alimony, and all appeals from the respective judges of probate, shall be heard and tried by the superior court until the legislature shall by law make other provisions.

The general court are empowered to give to justices of the peace jurisdiction in civil causes, when the damages demanded shall not excced four pounds, and the title of real estate is not concerned; but with right of appeal to either party, to some other court, so that a trial by jury in the last resort may be had.

No person shall hold the office of a judge in any court, or judge of probate, or sheriff of any county, after he has attained the age of seventy years.

No judge of any court, or justice of the peace, shall act as an attorney, or be of counsel, to any party, or originate any civil suit, in matters which shall come or be brought before him as judge, or justice of the peace.

All matters relating to the probate of wills, and granting letters of administration, shall be exercised by the judges of probate, in such manner as the legislature have directed, or may hereafter direct; and the judges of probate shall hold their courts at such place or places, on such fixed days as the conveniency of the people may require, and the legislature from time to time appoint.

No judge or register of probate, shall be of council, act as advocate, or receive any fees as advocate or counsel, in any probate business which is pending, or may be brought into any court of probate in the county of which he is judge or register.

Clerks of Court.

The judges of the courts (those of the probate excepted) shall appoint their respective clerks, to hold their office during pleasure; and no such clerks shall act as an attorney, or be of counsel, in any cause in the court of which he is clerk, nor shall he draw any writ originating a civil action.

Encouragement of Literature, &c.

Knowledge and learning, generally diffused through a community, being essential to the preservation of a free government; and spreading the opportunities and advantages of education through the various parts of the country, being highly conducive to promote this end: it shall be the duty of the legislators and magistrates, in all future periods of this government, to cherish the interests of literature and the sciences, and all seminaries and public schools, to encourage private and public institu tions, rewards, and immunities for the promotion of agriculture, arts, sciences, commerce, trades, manufactures, and natural history of the country; to countenance and inculcate the principles of humanity and general benevolence, public and private charity, industry and economy, honesty and punctuality, sincerity, sobriety, and all social affections and generous sentiments among the people.

Oath and subscriptions; exclusion from offices; commissions; writs; confirmation of laws; habeas corpus; the enacting style; continuance of officers; provision for a future revision of the constitu tion, &c.

Any person chosen governor, counsellor, senator, or representative, military or civil officer, (town officers excepted,) accepting the trust, shall, before he proceeds to execute the duties of his office, make and subscribe the following declaration, viz.

J, A. B., do solemnly swear, that I will bear faith and true allegiance to the state of New Hampshire, and will support the constitution thereof. So help me God.

on me as

I, A. B., do solemnly and sincerely swear and affirm, that I will faithfully and impartially discharge and perform all the duties incumbent according to the best of my abilities, agreeably to the rules and regulations of this constitution, and the laws of the state of New Hampshire. So help me God.

Any person having taken and subscribed the oath of allegiance, and the same being filed in the secretary's office, he shall not be obliged to take said oath again.

Provided always, When any person chosen or appointed as aforesaid, shall be of the denomination called Quakers, or shall be scrupulous of swearing, and shall decline taking the said oaths, such shall take and subscribe them, omitting the word swear, and likewise the words so help me God, subjoining instead thereof, this I do under the pains and penalties of perjury.

And the oaths or affirmations shall be taken and subscribed by the governor, before the president of the senate, in presence of both houses of the legislature, and by the senators and representatives first elected under this constitution, as altered and amended, before the president of the state, and a majority of the council then in office, and for ever afterwards before the governor and council for the time being; and by all other officers, before such persons, and in such manner as the legislature shall from time to time appoint.

All commissions shall be in the name of the state of New Hampshire, signed by the governor, and attested by the secretary or his deputy, and shall have the great seal of the state affixed thereto.

All writs issuing out of the clerk's office in any of the courts of law, shall be in the name of the state of New Hampshire; shall be under the seal of the court whence they issue, and bear test of the chief, first, or senior justice of the court; but when such justice shall be interested, then the writ shall bear test of some other justice of the court, to which the same shall be returnable; and be signed by the clerk of such court. All indictments, presentments, and informations shall conclude, against the peace and dignity of the state.

The estate of such persons as may destroy their own uves shall not for that offence be forfeited, but descend or ascend in the same manner as if such persons had died in a natural way. Nor shall any article which shall accidentally occasion the death of any person, be henceforth deemed a deodand, or in any wise forfeited on account of such misfortune.

All the laws which have heretofore been adopted, used, and approved in the province, colony, or state of New Hampshire, and usually practised on in courts of law, shall remain and be in full force until altered and repealed by the legislature: such parts thereof only excepted as are repugnant to the rights and liberties contained in this constitution: Provided, that nothing herein contained when compared with the twentythird article in the bill of rights, shall be construed to affect the laws already made respecting the persons or estates of absentees.

The privilege and benefit of the habeas corpus shall be enjoyed in this state in the most free, easy, cheap, expeditious, and ample manner, and shall not be suspended by the legislature, except upon the most urgent and pressing occasions, and for a time not exceeding three months.

The enacting style in making and passing acts, statutes, and laws, shall

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