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rather not quite so early). He was sent to Eaton when ten years old, and thence to Christ-Church, Oxford; where he received the title of L.L.D. August 27, 1702. He married his first lady (Frances, daughter of Sir H. Winchcomb, of Bucklebury) in 1700 ; and took his seat in the House of Commons for Wooton Basset the same year. Having greatly distinguished himself in that assembly, he was appointed Secretary at War, April 20, 1704, and resigned Feb. 12, 1707-8. He succeeded Mr. Boyle as Secretary of State, Sept. 21, 1910: was created Baron St. John and Viscount Bolingbroke, July 7, 1712; an honour which he received with much reluctance, having been disappointed of an Earldom (ex. tinct on the death of Paulet St. John, Earl Bolingbroke, Oct. 5, 1711) and of the Garter; and was made Lord-Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of the county of Essex, Oct. 24, 1713.
On the accession of King George, the seals were taken from him, and all the papers in his office secured. Soon after the meeting of the new Parliament, perceiving himself in danger, he withdrew into France. On his arrival at Paris, he received an invitation from the Pretender to enter into his service, which he declined, and endeavoured to soften his prosecution at home. Retiring to Dauphine, he continued there till July 1715, when he accepted a second offer of the seals from the Pretender. Having been discarded from the Chevalier's service before that year was well expired, he set to work in earnest to make his peace at home;
and procured a promise of pardon, on certain conditions, from the King; who, July 2, 1716, created his father Baron of Battersea and Viscount St. John.
In 1717, Lord Bolingbroke drew up a vindication of his whole conduct with respect to the Tories, in the form of a letter to Sir W. Wyndham, which is written with the utmost elegance and address, and abounds with interesting and entertaining anecdotes. His Majesty having granted him a full and free pardon, May 28, 1723, he returned to his native country in June, at the very juncture when Bishop Atterbury was banished. Obtaining an act of Parliament in May 1725, to restore him to his family inheritance, and to enable him to possess any purchase he should make, he pitched upon Dawley, in Middlesex; where he amused himself in rural employments, and in corresponding and conversing with a few select friends. He remained, however, still a mere titular Lord, not being admitted to take his seat in Parliament. Inflamed with this taint, he again entered upon the public stage, and embarked strongly in opposition against Sir Robert Walpole; which he carried on with inimitable spirit, till, in 1735, on a disagreement with his principal coadjutors, he retired to France, with a full resolution never more to engage in public business. On the death of his father, at the age of ninety, in April 1742, he settled at Battersea, the ancient seat of the family, where he passed the remainder of his days in the highest dignity; and died Dec. 15, 1751. During the latter part of his life,
he was much in the confidence of Frederick Prince of Wales, father to his present Majesty; and is supposed .) have been the adviser of the most inportant steps taken by that Prince in his political conduct. His Lordship’s second lady was the Dowager Marchioness de Vilette, niece to Madam de Maintenon.
The political character of Lord Bolingbroke is fully discussed in the “ Supplement to Swift." Mr. Walpole says, “ With the most agreeable talents in the world, and with great parts, Lord Bolingbruke was neither happy nor successful. He wrote against the King, who had forgiven him ; against Sir Robert Walpole, who did forgive him ; against the Pretender and the Clergy, who never will forgive him. He one of our best writers; though his attacks on all governments and all religions (neither of which he cared directly to own) have necessarily involved his style in a want of perspicuity.” Two prologues by him are here printed ; his verses to Clara are in Dodsley's Miscellanies ; and Mr. Walpole, who says
66 Lord Bolingbroke had a natural and easy turn for poetry,' men. tions “ an ironical copy of verses in praise of the Chef-d'oeuvre d’un Inconnu, prefixed to that book. The initial letters subjoined stand for his Lordship's name, titles, and employments, in Latin.
107. And make his matchless poem all their care:] The Dispensary.
108. The mournful STREPhon laid ;] Lord Lansdowne,
1b. With Mira he begins his lays,] The Countess of Nuwbourg ; against whom Dr. King wrote “ The Toast," when she was grown old and ugly.
114. But to ENDYMION was her love confin’d.] The last thought and the last line are taken from a paper of verses of Lord Lansdowne's. I think myself obliged to own the debt, though I am unable to pay it. H. ST. JOHN.
Page 126. The Society, on whose institution this Ode was written, was not of long continuance; its sudden decay being principally occasioned by the loss of a very ingenious and spirited member, now resident in Germany. The Author, who has so recently augmented his reputation by the 'elegant History of Lorenzo de Medicis, is not without hopes that a Society of a similar nature will be one day established in Liverpool : but however that may be, he expresses himself happy in the reflection, that in this poem, and, it may be added, in his other writings, he has attempted to promote the arts he loves," and to abate that spirit of enterprize, and thirst of gain, which, when too much indulged, is seldom productive either of virtue or happiness.
Page 137. Of Burton's generous mind, and thy creating hand!! The picture was given to the chapel at Winchester by Mr. Burton,
NOTES ON ODES
Page 142. EU Polis was a Greek poet, contemporary with Aristophanes.
Ib. Ei or IAO; Thee we hail,] Names attributed to the Deity.
Page 143. Thus like thy golden chain on high,] See Homer's Iliad, book viii. the beginning.
16. EIRESIONE we'll no more,] This word signifies an olive-branch, wrapt round with wool, and ornamented with grapes, and different kinds of fruits, which the antients used to hang before the doors of their houses, by way of charm, to prevent famine.
Page 144. Fam'd HECADEM, old hero, lies,] Probably this word means Cadmus.
146. And yet a greater hero far] The MESSIAH, foretold by Socrates.
Page 347. CLEANTHES, the original Author, was a stoic philosopher, and disciple of Zeno. He wrote many pieces, none of which are come down to us, but