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1. The present reading at the beginning of this epistle, “ to the saints which are at Ephesus, and to the faithful in Christ Jesus,” is the reading of all Greek manuscripts, and of all ancient versions, the Latin, Syriac, Persic, Arabic, Ethiopic, and all others. It is altogether inconceivable, how there should have been such a general concurrence in this reading, if it had not been the original inscription of the epistle. 2. It may be argued from the epistle itself, that it was written to the Ephesians. Says the apostle here, ch. ii. 19–22; “Now therefore ye are fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God. And are built upon the foundation of the apostles, and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone. In whom all the building fitly framed together, groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord. In whom you also are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit.” It has been observed that “ St. Paul frequently accommodates his style to the persons to whom he is writing. In the first epistle to Timothy, sent to him at Ephesus, he useth architect style. So particularly, ch. ii. 15. In like manner here the apostle may be well supposed to allude to the magnificent temple of Diana, on account of which the people of Ephesus much valued themselves, as appears from Acts xix. 27, 28, 34, 35. I might, perhaps, refer likewise to ch. iii. 18, but forbear, it being an obscure text. And that the epistle was sent, not to strangers, but to christians, with whom the apostle was well acquainted, I suppose to be certain from internal characters. But the showing that is deferred till by and by. 3. That this epistle was sent to the church at Ephesus, we are assured by the testimony of all catholic christians in all past ages. This we can now say with confidence, having examined the principal christian writers from the first ages to the beginning of the twelfth century. In all which space of time there appears not one who had any doubt about it. The testimony of some of these is especially remarkable, on account of their early age, or their learning, or some other considerations. One of them, remarkable for his early age, is Ignatius, who was bishop of Antioch in the latter part of the first, and the beginning of the second century, and suffered martyrdom at Rome in the year 107, or, as some think, in 116. In a * See Dr. Benson po 1 Tim. iii. 15.
letter of his to the Ephesians, written at Smyrna, as he was going from Antioch to Rome, he says, “Yeo are the com‘panions in the mysteries of the gospel of Paul, the sancti‘ fied, the martyr, [or highly commended, deservedly most ‘happy, at whose feet may I be found, when I shall have ‘attained unto God, who throughout all his epistle makes ‘mention of you in Christ Jesus.’ He plainly means the epistle of Paul to the Ephesians, in which the apostle commends those christians, and never blames them. So I wrote in the first edition in 1734, when I collected the passages of Ignatius, bearing testimony to the books of the K. Testament. Afterwards, in 1735, was published the letter above mentioned at the end of the first edition of Dr. Benson’s History of the first Planting the Christian Religion. Which occasioned my adding a note upon that quotation from Ignatius, at p. 154–156, of the second edition of the first volume of this work in 1748. “The learned writer of that letter, instead of uvnuovevet ‘ vuwu would read uvnuovevu, wuwu : meaning that Ignatius ‘ himself mentioned the Ephesians in every epistle. In an“swer to which I said, that conjecture appears to be with‘out foundation : forasmuch as in all the editions of Igna“tius's epistles the verb is in the third person : not only in ‘the Greek of the smaller epistles, which I translate, but ‘ also in the old Latin version of the same small epistles. * Qui in omni epistolà memoriam facit vestri in Jesu Christo. “So likewise in the Greek interpolated epistles, and in the * Latin version of the same. There is therefore no various ‘reading. And a new one ought not to be admitted, unless ‘the sense should require it. Which it does not appear ‘to do here. For Ignatius is extolling the Ephesians. And ‘one part of their glory is, that the apostle throughout his ‘epistle to them had treated them in an honourable manner.” So I wrote in the note just referred to. And though that learned writer has been since pleased to publish a postscript to his letter, he has not o any manuscript, or version of this epistle of Ignatius, where the verb is found in the first person. However, in order to support his proposed reading he excepts to our interpreting the word juvnuovevu, of an honourable mention. In answer to which I did in the same note produce proof of the word's being used sometimes for an honourable or affectionate mention or remembrance.
And the noun uunuoovvov, is evidently thrice used in the New Testament for an honourable memorial, Matt. xxvi. 13; Mark xiv. 9; Acts x. 4. Of these examples I have been reminded by a learned friend.
That learned author excepts likewise to our interpretation of ev Taom crotoxi), “throughout all his epistle,” and would translate, “who make mention of you in every epistle:” that is, as he understands it, Ignatius tells the Ephesians, to whom he is writing, that he made mention of them in every one of his epistles. In answer to which I said in the abovementioned note, that Pearson had well defended the interpretation, for which we contend. And I alleged a part of the note of Cotelerius upon this passage of Ignatius. But by some means Walesius is printed there, instead of Cotelerius. I now transcribe that note of Cotelerius at length. Frustra sunt, et Andabatarum more digladiantur viri literati, non videntes, ev Taan ertotox, esse, in tota epistolà, ad Ephesios nimirum scriptá, quá illos laudat valde, ac semper commendat, ut fuit ab Hieronymo observatum. And I shall place here two instances of the use of the word Tas, which appear to me altogether similar, and therefore to the purpose. One is taken from the fifth chapter of Ignatius's epistle to the Ephesians, where he says, “If the prayer of ‘ one or two be of such force, how much more that of the G bishop and the whole church, kat Taans ekk\matas. The other is in St. Paul’s epistle to the Ephesians, ch. ii. 21; “In whom all the building,” or the whole building, “fitly framed together, groweth unto an holy temple to God.” Ev to Tao'a otico80/1), c. A.
Indeed, Ignatius has mentioned the Ephesians in every one of his epistles, except that to Polycarp. But it is very unlikely, that this should be his meaning here. He is extolling the Ephesians, as companions of Paul in the mysteries of the gospel, and the like. To say to them presently afterwards, and in the same period, that “he made mention of them in every one of his epistles,” would have an appearance of much vanity: with which, I think, Ignatius was never charged. And at the same time it would be very flat and insipid. Moreover, it is observable, that this is not one of the last epistles which Ignatius wrote. But, according to the order in which they are mentioned K by Eusebius, it is the very first of his seven epistles.
There is therefore no reason, why we should hesitate to admit the sense, in which this place has been generally understood by learned men.
* Vid. Euseb. H. E. l. 3. cap. 36, and this Work, Vol. ii. p. 75.
We also find this sense in some ancient writers. Jerom observes, that ' when the apostle wrote to the Corinthians, he had occasion to blame`them for fornicatiom, for strifes and contentions : but there is no fault found by him in the Ephesians. To the like purposo Primasius in " the preface to his Commentary upoii St. Paul's epistles, and " of his argument of the epistle to the Ephesiams in particular.
So that either those ancient writers understood Ignatius as we do, or else they were led by the epistle itself to form the same idea of it that we suppose hiim to have
What Ignatius meams by the apostle's mentioning, or
being mimdful of the Ephesians throughout all his epistle to them, is happily explained by bishop Pearson ; whose words? I shall'transcribe below, as his work is not in every body's hands. Indeed this is a proper character of this epistle, as may be easiiy perceived. ' Nor did any of the ancients for that reason hesitate to allow, that it was sent to the church at Ephesus. I hope, that I have now justified the present reading, and common interpretation of this passage of Ignatius. The Jearned writer, with whom I have been arguing, concludes his postscript in this manner. * Should what has * been offered not prove satisfactory, the difficulty will still
' Corinthii, in quibus audiebatur fornicatio, qualis nec inter gentes, lacte pascuntur, quia necdum poterant solidum cibum capere. Ephesii autem, in quibus nullum crimen arguitur, ab ipso Domino cœlesti vescuntur pane, et sacramentum quod a seculis absconditum fuerat agnoscunt. Ep. ad Marcell. T. II. p. 628. ed. Martiam—animadvertat magnam inter Corinthios et Ephesios esse distantiam. Illis quasi parvulis atque lactentibus scribitur: in quibus orant dissensiones, etschismata, et audiebatur fornicatio, qualis ne inter gentes quidem.—Ephesii vero, apud quos fecit triennium, et omnia eis Christi aperuit sacramenta, aliter erudiuntur, &c. In ep. ad Eph. cap. v. T. IV. P. i. p. 389, 390. . " Ephesii sane nullâ reprehensione, sed multâ sunt laude digni, quia fidem apostolicam servaverunt. Primas. Præf. ad Comm. in S. Pauli Ep. ap. Bib. P. P. T. X. p. 144. H.
° Ephesii sunt Asiani. Hi, accepto verbo, veritatis perstiterunt in fide. Hos conlaudat Apostolus, scribens eis Româ a carcere. Argum. ep. ad Eph. ib. p. 217. A. ° —quæ scripsit S. Ignatius, S. Paulum * in totâ epistolâ memoriam eorum facere in Jesu Christo.' Hæc a martyre non otiose aut frigide, sed vere, imo signanter et vigilanter dicta sunt. Tota enim epistola, ad Ephesios scripta, ipsos Ephesios, eorumque honorem et curam maxime spectat, et summe honorificam eorum memoriam ad posteros. transmittit. In aliis epistolis apostolus eos, ad quos scribit, sæpè acriter objurgat—aut parce laudat. Hic omnibus modis perpetuo se Ephesiis applicat, illosque tamquam egregios christianos tractat, evangelio salutis firmiter credentes, et Spiritu promissionis obsignatos, concives sanctorum, et domesticos Dei. Pro iis sæpe ardenter orat, ipsos hortatur, obtestatur, laudat, utrumque sexum sedulo instruit, suum erga eos singularem affectum ubique prodit. Pearsom. Vind. Ignat. Part 2. cap. X. sub init.
* remain, how to reconcile the present reading in Ignatius, ‘with Dr. Mill's reasons against St. Paul’s epistle being ‘written to the Ephesians. The most plausible solution ‘ of which seems to be that in Mr. Locke. And what there follows to the end. I think we should cheerfully accept of Mr. Locke's, or any other reasonable solution of the difficulty, if there be any. This, so far as I am able to judge, is better than to attempt the alteration of a passage in an ancient author, without the authority of any manuscript, when there is nothing in the coherence, that necessarily requires it. And much better, than to alter a text of an epistle of the New Testament, contrary to the authority of all manuscripts, and the concurring testimony of all ancient christian writers. Beside that passage, there are in Ignatius's epistle to the Ephesians, many allusions and references to St. Paul's epistle to the Ephesians. Which shows, that he believed that epistle to have been written to the church at Ephesus. Those allusions (though not all of them) were taken notice of by us long P ago. And Dr. Jortin having observed, that ‘ Ignatius in his twelfth chapter takes notice of St. Paul’s epistle to the Ephesians, and his martyrdom, adds, “And as he was writing to the same church, he often alludes ‘to the apostle's letter to them.’ But there is one word in the twelfth chapter of Ignatius's epistle to the Ephesians, of which I have not yet taken sufficient notice. I mean the word ovuluvarai. “Ye are,” says he, “the companions of Paul in the mysteries of the gospel:” or, “ye are partakers of the mysteries of the gospel with Paul.” This is said out of a regard to St. Paul’s epistle to the Ephesians. And it fully shows, that Ignatius thought that epistle to have been sent to the church, to which himself was then writing. For that is their distinguishing character: at least it is a character, which is more especially the character of the christians to whom that letter is written. I formerly gave an account of Palladius, author of a Dialogue of the Life of Chrysostom, about the year 408. In that work Palladius has an argument, in which he observes, ‘ that Paul had called the Cretans liars, Tit. i. * 12; the Galatians stupid, Gal. iii. 1; and the Corinthians “proud, I Cor. v. 2. On the other hands he calls the P See Vol. ii. p. 85. * See the first volume of his Remarks upon Ecclesiastical History, p. 56. * Vol. v. p. 6. S m avatra)\w tri-eg 'Poplatec atroka)\ov, Kat uveaç Epsovec, oic Kat