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that they discountenance every thing which does not more or less emanate from themselves, it should be mentioned that this journal is edited by a layman, its writers are mostly laymen, and its proprietor is a layman. Undoubtedly, due care is taken that nothing shall be published which is not in harmony with the authoritative teaching of the Church, by reference to a trustworthy judgment on all questions of morals and doctrine; but so far as the general conduct and character of the review is concerned, it is solely the work of the individuals employed in its actual production. Yet who objects to it on this ground, or places the less confidence in its conductors because of their independence of all control, except such as must influence every sincere Catholic, whether priest or layman ?

As one more indication of the tastes and wishes of Catholics, we should add, that our readers generally have welcomed with the utmost satisfaction a change made not long ago in our plans, by the introduction of a much more extended criticism on the miscellaneous publications of the day. There can be no doubt that a monthly periodical possesses peculiar advantages for exercising the functions of literary criticism in comparison with quarterly or weekly journals. A quarterly appears at such long intervals that it cannot keep up with the rapid stream of new publications, while if it attempted to notice all those of any pretensions, it would overwhelm its readers with a flood of criticism. Quarterlies, accordingly, are periodical collections of essays, rather than reviews of current literature. As to weekly criticism, able and brilliant as much of it unquestionably is, no one who is acquainted with its character will deny that it bears the marks of the breathless haste with which it is prepared, and that a very considerable proportion of it is altogether shallow and untrustworthy. A monthly journal steers clear of both of these disadvantages. It can notice books before the gloss of novelty is worn off; it can offer a very fair resumé of the books of the day without overloading the digestion of the reader; and it can do its work with such an amount of leisure and reflection as may permit a bona fide examination of the books that are criticised. The result will be still further trustworthy when, as in the case of the Rambler, a review is not the property of any individual publisher, and, therefore, is in no way hampered by private interests.

In pursuance of this plan, we have presented our readers, during the first six months of the present year, with reviews and notices of not less than 143 publications in miscellaneous English literature, exclusive of theological and philosophical and continental publications; and we think we are justified in saying, that a more fair, candid, and trustworthy picture of the current books of the time could not be found in any section of the periodical press.

During the time mentioned, we have given the characteristics of eleven books of Murray's publication, five of Longman's, thirteen of Bentley's, seven of Blackwood's, three of Hurst and Blackett's, three of Smith and Elder's, eight of J. W. Parker's, five of Bohn's, two of Moxon's, ten of Routledge's, two of Simpkin and Marshall's, two of Bradbury and Evans', nine of Addey's, nine of Cooke's, two of Chapman and Hall's, four of Chambers', one of Rivington's, one of Bosworth's, three of Mozley's, two of Saunders and Ottley's, three of Dean's, three of Black's, three of Grant and Griffith's, one of Hope's, two of Dolman's, two of Reeve's, one of Walton and Maberley's, one of Hogg's, one of Waterlow's, one of Gilbert's, one of Constable's,

six of Bryce's, one of Nisbett's, one of Low's, one of Hatchard's, one of Hall and Virtue's, three of Bogue's, one of Allen's, one of Mortimer's, one of Nichols', one of Washbourne's, one of Johnstone and Hunter's, two of Newby's, one of Hogarth's, and one of Masters'.

Many persons, again, are not aware of the large and rapidly-growing demand for the various books used in the education of different ranks on the part of Catholics resident in the colonies. The same also is true with respect to books of light literature. In the colonies Catholics hold a very different social position from that to which they have been too long accustomed in the old country, and their influence on the sale of books is proportionately great. It is needless to insist on the fact, that in such circumstances those books which throw no needless insults on Catholics and their faith will find their sale materially increased. And such, indeed, is the case already with certain publications, school-books, and others, for which a continued demand does actually exist on the part of Catholics at home and abroad. From these works, though the productions of Protestant authors, there has been excluded, through the good sense of their publishers, every thing which was uncalled-for and offensive to Catholics. Catholic parents, teachers, and readers, have found this out; and they are only too glad to avail themselves of the advantage thus put within their reach.

For we are not afraid of books written by those who are not Catholics, as the English public generally is afraid of our writings. We are not everlastingly suspicious of some hidden plot against morality, liberty, and patriotism. We are perfectly willing to be pleased and instructed by the most devoted of Protestants, however loudly they may praise their own creed, or whatever pictures they may draw of their own perfections, provided only they are content to do this without throwing dirt at us, or falsifying the facts of history and the present day. Really we do not think we are over-stating the truth, when we say that we never heard it objected to a book of any kind that it was written by a Protestant, without reference to its actual contents. Rather, if any thing, we generally regard a Protestant author who treats us with ordinary decency as so singular and delightful a phenomenon, that we are disposed to exaggerate his other merits, and to overlook his deficiencies out of regard to his good intentions. All we say is, Treat us as you would wish us to treat you. When you laugh at us, laugh with good humour, and not with savage spite. When you show up our faults or shortcomings, to which we do not make the very slightest objection, do not use the infirmities or delinquencies of individuals as a ground for wholesale tirades against all we hold most dear. Give us credit for being what we profess to be, until facts prove us to be the contrary:

On the whole, then, we think that, on the highest and on the most simply-commercial grounds, the thousands of Catholic readers are worth the consideration of the literary and publishing world of this country. We do not attempt to conceal the fact, that we ourselves should unquestionably be gainers by the purification of popular literature from those offensive blots to which we have alluded; for where we now have one book fitted for indiscriminate circulation among Catholics, we should then have a dozen or a score; and in proportion would be the advantage to us, both in the way of recreation and instruction. But setting us aside, we recommend the subject to the powerful class whom we are addressing, simply on the argumentum ad crumenam, holding out a quid pro quo as well deserving their attention. At the same time, we take leave to urge upon those,-a numerous class, we fain would hope, who judge the question on far higher than mere pecuniary grounds, that no possible benefit can accrue to all that is dearest to our common humanity by this perpetual worrying of an immense section of the people of the empire. It will not convert us into Protestants; but it must tend to nourish ill-blood against those who have so little regard for all we hold most sacred and most dear.

106

SUPPRESSION OF THE ENGLISH SECULAR COLLEGE

AT DOUAY DURING THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.

The decline of the English secular college at Douay began in the year 1791. Although since the year 1789 France had been convulsed with anarchy, yet the English subjects in Douay felt themselves comparatively safe, so long as the treaty of commerce and the presence of an English ambassador in Paris maintained friendly relations between England and France. Moreover, Douay was one of the last of the cities in the northern provinces to join in the revolution, and the loyal principles of its inhabitants were a further guarantee for the security of the English college. Nevertheless, the community was subjected to frequent and alarming annoyances, especially from the lawless conduct of the troops in garrison. The bloody contests that occasionally broke out between regiments of opposite political parties filled the city with consternation. Besides its share in the general fears, the college had its own particular causes of alarm. The military band, escorted by intoxicated soldiers, repeatedly forced its entrance into the court-yard to play republican airs. In the night-time the

repose of the students was frequently disturbed by the soldiers violently knocking at the doors with their muskets, and demanding replies to their vivas, as they paraded the streets in triumphal procession ; and by day they were molested by parties of soldiers asking for beer, which they were obliged to have always in readiness. On more than one occasion the soldiers came into the college itself, demanding that “the prisons should be opened," and the students be let out to join their processions. As one of the professors, Dr. Poynter, was remonstrating with these men, one of them who was drunk furiously drew his sword upon him, and was in the act of aiming a deadly blow, when four of the students rushed forward, and taking each a soldier by the arm, cried Vive la Nation," and led them into the street. On another occasion the college was in their possession for a night and a day; and the superiors were under the painful necessity of entertaining the drunken soldiers; to prevent them from committing any outrage, or forcing their way to the upper part of the house, to which the students were then confined.

These and the like causes of alarm, although they did not cause any considerable flight of the students, were such as to prevent the accession of new subjects. Hence, during the years 1791 and 1792 the number of the community diminished, by the departure of those who had finished their studies, and of some few others who withdrew through the feeling of insecurity. Thus, on the 1st of October, 1790, the community numbered 140; in 1791 it was reduced to 126; and at the same period of 1792, it was further reduced to 102 members.

At this time the Republic had been declared; the king with his family were prisoners in the Temple; the National Assembly had decreed his trial, and multitudes of the friends of order were daily falling victims to their loyalty beneath the guillotine. Douay had joined in the revolution, and England had begun to assume an attitude of hostility. The community in the college had become an especial object of jealous suspicion to the republican authorities in Douay,—not less for their refusal to take the oath of the civil constitution of the clergy, and their denial of all communion with the intruded clergy, than for their well-known loyalty and warm attachment to the honour and interests of their country. Difficulties also began now to be thrown in the way of obtaining passports. Thus, whilst the students felt their position to be extremely perilous, and all sighed for the security of their native land, yet they were most unwilling to abandon their beloved Alma Mater, now almost the only hope for the support of religion in their own unfortunate country.

On the 11th of February, 1793, war was declared with England by the French Republic. On the 18th, a band of armed townsmen, one hundred strong, entered the college. Their leader, without showing any warrant of his authority, placed the republican seals upon the two libraries, the philosophical room, the president's closet, and on whatever drawers and bureaus he thought proper, both in the president's and procurator's apartments; and three men of ferocious aspect and character were left to guard the sequestered property, and to prohibit the removal of any thing. These men were quartered in the rhetoricians' school, the door of which they kept constantly open, and thus commanded a view of the entrance and principal passages of the college. Their fidelity to their trust all the time, till the college was finally seized by the Republic, would have done honour to a better cause.

Three students, on the day on which this outrage was committed, and on the 21st of February four others, among whom was the Rev. Dr. Lingard, in company with the late Lord Stourton, with difficulty found means to retire. Thus, before the month of March 1793, the community was reduced to sixty-eight members.

By the declaration of war all postal communications with England had been stopped, and passports were refused. The

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