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Art. X. A Dictionary of all Religions and Religious Denominations,
ancient and modern, Jewish, Pagan, Mahometan, or Christian : Also, of Ecclesiastical History. To which are prefixed, 1. an Essay on Truth, &c. by the late Rev. Andrew Fuller; 2. On the State of the World at Christ's Appearance, hy Mrs. Hannah Adams, original Editor of the Work. And to which are appended, A Sketch of Missionary Geography; with practical ReAections on the whole. By T. Williams. The third London Edition, with the Improvements of the fourth American Edition, and many new Articles. 8vo. pp. xvi. 464. Price 10s. 6d.
London. 1824. THIS copious title does not promise more than the volume
in fact comprises, which is saying much. It will answer, indeed, almost every useful purpose of a theological dictionary; for, though it does not contain all the useless technical definitions of grace, faith, salvation, &c. which are found in such dictionaries, it comprises most of the historical information relating to sects, heresies, councils, and opinions for which they are chiefly valuable. It has evidently cost the Editor great pains and labour, and he has suffered scarcely a denomination or a name of a denomination to escape him. By the aid of Broughton's two volumes folio, and Bishop Grégoire's curious, learned, but strangely inaccurate history of religious sects, Mr. Williams has brought into his alphabetical catalogue, an array of specific varieties of religious opinion, that it might seem to require the skill of a Linnæus to classify. The number of articles, being nearly doubled since the last edition, now amounts to between 900 and 1000; and complete as we believe the collection to be in the main, others, no doubt, might be detected lurking in the by-places of history. For instance, the Motoualies and the Enzairies, two Syrian sects described by Volney, and referred to by Burckhardt and other travellers, have escaped the Editor's notice. Some of the mere mick-names might, we should have thought, have been omitted ; but the Editor has met a similar objection by the following remarks.
Some have suggested that all obsolete sects might be omitted, and there are works formed on this plan; but it was determined to make this work as complete and comprehensive as possible within the compass of a single volume, and especially to make it useful to readers of ecclesiastical history, ancient as well as modern, where sects are often slightly referred to, and the reader's curiosity excited only, without being gratified. There is also a moral view in which such articles may be of use, as exhibiting the multiplied aberrations of the human mind, -as shewing that, in the church, as well as in the world, there is 6 nothing new under the sun." The same erron
may be new dressed for the taste of different ages ; but truth and error are in all ages the same, and human nature is equally weak and credulous.'
We are by no means of opinion that all the obsolete sects ought to have been omitted; it would materially have diminished the value of the work ; but the Editor has done well to reduce the black list of alleged ancient heresies. In order, however, to answer the purpose mentioned in the above extract, that of shewing the identity of error under its successive modifications, something different from a mere alphabetical catalogue would be requisite. A dictionary is by far the most convenient form for reference; but a classification of sects and heresies would be requisite in order to illustrate the natural history of error. Such a work might be made both interesting and useful, if competently executed; but this would require no ordinary power of analysis and philosophical discrimination. One use which such a work as the present dictionary may serve for, is to shew, that neither the Bible nor the Reformation can be with the least truth or reason charged with having given birth to the variety in men's creeds and opinions. This would appear still more strikingly evident, were the points on which all Protestants are substantially agreed, compared with the pre-existing varieties of religious opinion in the Church of Rome. The fact is, that the subdivisions of the Protestant world chiefly relate to church government and discipline; (the Socinians are the most important exception ;) whereas the Papists were agreed only on the subject of church government. . A declaration of the faith common to Protestant orthodox churches, episcopal, presbyterian, and congregational, might have its use.
The outline of Missionary Geography has evidently been drawn up with considerable care, and forms an interesting feature of the work. The population of Brazil is, at p. 428, incorrectly stated at two millions, but the error is corrected in the summary. On the whole, we consider the publication in its present enlarged and corrected form, as entitled to our warm co:nmendation.
Art. XI. The last Military Operations of General Riego ; also, the
Manner in which he was betrayed and treated until imprisoned at
General Riego, Svo. pp. 102. London. 1824.
the falling cause of the Spanish constitutionalists. On
the 4th of October, 1823, he introduced himself to the brave and unfortunate Riego, who had the frankness to declare in the first interview, that he had very few officers on whom he could depend. On the 9th, he tried his sword in a skirmish with the French detachment, and, at the expense of a wound, procured for himself the distinction of being appointed the General's first aide de camp. On the 14th, all was over. The final overthrow of the shattered forces which still acknowledged Riego as their leader, is narrated in the following terms:
• In about an hour afterwards the drums beat to arms; I ran to the stable and bridled my horse, and then called the General, who was much alarmed at the drums beating. We mounted our horses and rode to the field ; our cavalry were formed upon the plains on the right, in order to charge the enemy as they advanced ; some of our infantry were lying in ambush in the vineyards, and some on the main road ready to form squares.
Our Guerilla parties were upon the heights; and as the enemy advanced, they fired in upon them, which had great effect and disordered them very much. But per. ceiving that our cavalry did not charge them, as they ought to have done, the enemy continued to advance : had our cavalry charged them, we should have dispersed them at the first onset ; but their neglecting to do so gave the enemy fresh courage; and finding that our army was disordered, they kept advancing in parties, to make us believe that they were much stronger than they actually were. I am sorry to confess that their stratagem had the desired effect; for on our cavalry seeing them, they shamefully turned round and fled. My poor brave Guerillas kept up a constant fire, until they had not a cartridge left; they were then obliged to throw away their arms, and make their escape as well as they could.'
The sequel is too well known. They were betrayed by the people of the first house in which they sought a lodging, and were ultimately transmitted under a strong guard to Madrid, where they arrived on the 2nd of October. On the 8th of the following month, Riego was basely and cruelly executed by order of the absolute monarch. His poor aide-de-camp was
oomed to pay the penalty of a ten days campaign, by a six months solitary incarceration in a gloomy and filthy dungeon, in which it was probably expected and intended, that he should terminate his life. He appears to have been indebted for his liberty to the good offices of Mr. Bowring. Mr. Matthewes appears to be an open-hearted, spirited, rash, impetuous young man, whose talents only want to be rightly directed, and his feelings to be guided into a proper channel, to make him an honour to his profession.
ART. XII. SELECT LITERARY INFORMATION.
In the press, and speedily will be pub The Rev. Miles Jackson, Minister of lisbed, Schleusner's New Testament St. Paul's Church, Leeds, bas a new Lexicon, compressed into the form of a edition of his Sermons nearly ready, in Manual, comprising the whole of bis 2 vols. 12m0., in which will be included explanations and scriptore references; many new ones. and in general containing erery thing A poetical work, entitled The Bar, is Décessary for the vsual purpose of con in the press, with Sketches of eminent sultation, as well as for academic in Judges, Barristers, &c. and with copious struction. By J. Carey, LL.D. Author notes. of “ Latin Prosody made Easy,” and In the press, The Doctrine of Elecother popular school books.
tion, viewed in connexion with the Speedily will be published, a sinall responsibility of man. By the Rev. volume of Plain Sermons, chiefly for the William Hamilton, D.D. of Strathblane. use of Searnen ; dedicated by permis In the press, Solid Resources for Old sion to the Right Honourable Viscount Age, or the ineans by which the EvenMelville. By the Rev. Samuel Mad ing of Life may be rendered both Prodock, Vicar of Bishop's Sutton, and fitable and Pleasant. By the Author of Ropley, Hants.
Choice Pleasures for Youth. Part I. has just been published, price In the press, Advice to Cottagers; 45. 6d., of Selections from Horace, with shewing the means by wbich they may English Notes.
become rich, honourable, useful, and This Work is intended for the Use of happy. By J. Thornton. 18mo. Schools, and for those persons who may Also, Piety Exemplified in the Lives wish to renew their acquaintance with of Eminent Christians. Collected from the Classics; and the chief object is to authentic sources, and compiled chiefly present to the reader a Selection from for the instruction of youth. By the the Latin Classical Puets, which sball, Rev. J. T'hornton, 12mo. within a moderate size, and at a mode The Gaelic Dictionary, by Mr. Armrate expense, comprise the most impor strong, that was announced to be pubtant and interesting portions of the lished by subscription, and which was works of those elegant and justly ad destroyed at the late fire at Mr. Moyes's, mired writers, and which shall at the will be but little delayed by the accisame time be free from those parts dent, the publisher having made ar. which are not fit to meet the eye of the rangements for the reprioting the sheets youthful student. The notes are in destroyed, at the same time that the tended to elucidate the general meaning other pari of the work is going on. of the writers, and to fix in the mind of The Rev. Mr. Fry's History of the the reader those points, whether histo Christian Church, which was nearly rical, geographical, or moral, which are ready for publication, and which was most deserving his notice. A short ac destroyed at the late fire, is again at count of each author is prefixed, with press, and will shortly make its appearsuch particulars of the time and circum
A new edition of the Exposition stances connected with his writings as of the Romans, and Translation of the appeared necessary to illustrate the Cauticles, is also in the press. main purport of them. The female wbo The Rev. J. R. Pitman of the Foundhas been at the pains of acquiring a Jing and Magdalen, will shortly publish a knowledge of the Latin tongue, may course of Sermons for the Year ; conread these Selections with perfect confi taining two for each Sunday, and one dence, that she will find nothing that for each Holiday; abridged from emican give a moment's pain to the most nent Divines of the Established Church, delicate and chaste feelings. This Part and adapted to the Service of the Day. contains Fifty Odes, Six Satires, Ten For the Use of Schools and Families, Epistles, and the Ars Poetica,
In one large volume.
Art. XIII. LIST OF WORKS RECENTLY PUBLISHED. BIOGRAPHY.
was betrayed and treated until impriThe last Military Operations of Gene.
soned at Madrid; to which is added, a ral Riego; also the manner in which he
Narrative of the Sufferings of the Au