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Company and Cheney filed a bill to foreclose their mortgage in the state courts of the several states where the mortgaged property lay. These suits were removed to the proper federal courts, and were consolidated with the insolvency bills, so called, already referred to. The consolidated causes proceeded to decrees for sale in the various jurisdictions. The property was bid off in each court to James F. Joy and others, a purchasing committee under a plan of reorganization entered into by the foreclosing bondholders. The sales were confirmed, and deeds ordered to be executed. mittee took possession from the receivers of the part of the railroad west of the Mississippi river, but for some reason, not clearly disclosed in the record, the court did not order the receivers to deliver possession to the purchasers of the lines east of the Mississippi. The sale of Joy and associates in Ohio was expressly subject to the Humphreys and Lindley mortgage, the Knox and Jesup mortgage, the Compton lien, if any he had, and the Ohio divisional mortgages. While the railroad in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio was still in the hands of the receivers, Knox and Jesup began the proceeding in which this appeal was taken, by filing a bill against the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Company to foreclose their mortgage in the circuit courts of Northern Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, and for the appointment of receivers, and made parties defendant those holding mortgages on the part of the road within each jurisdiction, as well as the purchasing committee at the former sale. Humphreys and Lindley and the Farmers' Loan & Trust Company filed answers, which, by stipulation, were taken as cross bills, setting up their mortgage liens on the Ohio property, and praying a foreclosure and sale. The bills and cross bills all averred that at the time of filing the same the road was in the possession of the receivers appointed by the court below in the previous foreclosure suit. Citizens of the same state appeared on both sides of the controversy thus presented. Compton was made a party, in the way already stated, both to the Indiana and Ohio bills and cross bills. The litigation in the courts of the three states proceeded together. Mr. Justice Jackson, then the circuit judge for the Sixth circuit, and Judge Gresham, the circuit judge for the Seventh circuit, sat together, heard the points in dispute argued, and made the same orders, in their respective jurisdictions. The pleadings in the court below are quite confusing, and do not seem to have been prepared or filed with much care to keep separate the jurisdictions of the circuit courts of the three districts in which the litigation was pending. The amended bill of Knox and Jesup recited that a similar bill had been filed in the Southern district of Illinois, and attached the same as an exhibit. Both bills made parties all persons having or claiming an interest in any part of the line in the three Among these defendants was James F. Joy, as substituted trustee under the second Ohio divisional mortgage, and also as substituted trustee under the second Indiana divisional mortgage. The cross bill of Humphreys and Lindley, trustees under the mortgage issued by the Wabash Railway Company on the entire line east of the Mississippi river, made the same parties as in the amended bill. The amended cross bill of the Farmers' Loan & Trust Company, seeking to foreclose that part of the railroad lying in Ohio, only made parties defendant those having a mortgage lien on the Ohio Division. Compton was made a party to this cross bill, as was also James F. Joy, as trustee under the second mortgage on the Ohio property. By some error, Joy, as an answer to the amended bill of complaint, and the cross bills of Humphreys and Lindley and of the Farmers' Loan & Trust Company, filed the same answer made by him in the Indiana suit, in which he only set up, and asked to be protected in, his rights as substituted trustee in the mortgage of the Wabash & Western Railway Company, and made no averment or prayer in regard to the mortgage on the Ohio part of the railroad, in which he had also been substituted as trustee in place of E. D. Morgan, trustee. Other answers were filed by parties defendant, and the cause proceeded in the three different courts in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois as if the same questions were pending in each court, and the same issues were raised, without respect to the territorial jurisdiction of each court. Identically the same decree, foreclosing all the mortgages on all the railroad property east of the Mississippi river, divisional and otherwise, was entered in each district. The decree was entered March

23, 1889. Compton was not required to answer the bill and cross bills until April following, so that when the decree for sale was passed, the controversy over his claim was not at issue. This decree, though entered in the circuit court for the Northern district of Ohio, purports to foreclose divisional mortgages in Indiana and Illinois, and to order to a separate sale property without the territorial jurisdiction of the court, although there is no prayer for such relief, and there is nothing in the decree intended to operate upon the defendant mortgagor company to compel a conveyance of property in another jurisdiction. The decree provided that each division of the road covered by an underlying divisional mortgage should be offered separately, and then the whole road east of the Mississippi river should be offered as a unit. If the sum offered for the whole road exceeded the total of the separate bids, the road was to be struck off to the one making the unit bid, and the share of each division in the amount of the unit bid was to be determined in the proportion of the separate bids. The decree provided that no bid should be received on the Ohio bid which did not equal the sum due on both the Ohio divisional mortgages, and that no bid should be received on the Indiana Division which did not equal the amount due on the first Indiana divisional mortgage. Under this decree, Joy and his associates, the purchasing committee in the previous foreclosure proceedings, became the purchasers of the road, on their unit bid of $15,500,000. This exceeded by several thousand dollars the sum total of the bids on the separate divisions of the road. The separate bid on the Ohio property amounted to $2,810,595.68, or a little more than enough to pay the principal and interest of the two divisional mortgages. The separate bid on the Indiana Division was $3,650,000. This was about $1,300,000 less than would have been required to pay the second divisional mortgage on that division. The purchasing committee organized a new company, called the Wabash Railroad Company, to which they conveyed the railroad.

The new company was made a party below to contest Compton's lien, and his right to a resale or redemption of the Ohio property, and is a party to this appeal, to oppose the reversal or modification of the decree, claiming to assert the rights of all mortgagees whose interests passed to the purchaser by the foreclosure proceeding. Because of the discussion of the effect of the decree for sale on Compton's right, it is necessary to make a somewhat fuller reference to it. After finding the amount due upon each mortgage, and foreclosing each mortgage in default of the several payments directed to be made by the mortgagors, the decree ordered a sale at the city of Chicago, at which the mortgaged property should first be offered for sale separately, as described in each of the divisional mortgages. It was further provided that there should be deposited with the special master, as security for each bid, $100,000 in cash or in bonds; that after such bids had been made they should be accepted conditionally upon the result of the offer of the entire railway as a unit; that, if the highest bid for the railroad as an entirety exceeded the sum of the highest bids for the separate divisions, the entire property should be struck off to the highest bidder for the entire road; that in such case the court would distribute to each division its share of the unit bid, in proportion to the separate bids received for the separate divisions; and that in case of a sale of the property as a unit the purchaser must deposit, in cash or in bonds, $900,000, as a pledge that he would comply with his bid. The provision with reference to the payment was as follows: "There shall be paid in cash, of the price at which the said mortgaged premises and property shall be sold, in addition to the amount which may be paid at the time of sale, such further sums thereafter of the purchase money as the court may direct. The remainder of such purchase price may be paid either in cash or in bonds, with the overdue coupons thereto appertaining, at such proportion or value as the holders thereof would be entitled to receive thereon in case the said purchase price were paid by the purchasers in cash; and in all cases in which bonds shall be received by the said special masters, whether as a deposit at the time of said sale or sales, to bind the bids thereat, or in payment of the remainder of the purchase price at the time of the consummation of such sale or sales, the said bonds shall be so received at the rate or amount to which the holders thereof will be entitled to dividend thereon;

and, in case of the receipt of bonds for security at the time of sale, the said special masters shall at the time exercise their judgment in determining the probable amount of the dividend to which such bonds will be entitled."

The decree directed that upon the confirmation of the sale by the court, and the full payment of the entire purchase price, and the compliance by the purchaser with the condition of the sale and orders of the court in that behalf, the special masters should convey the property by good and sufficient deed to vest in the grantee "all the right, title, estate, interest, property, and equity of redemption, except as hereby reserved, of, in, and to all and singular the real estate, property, premises, and franchises therein described, in fee simple forever, and shall entitle the grantees to the possession thereof." All questions of account between the several different divisions of the railway as to earnings and expenses, as to payments made by the receivers on coupons or bonds secured by the mortgages upon the divisions, and all questions of the disposition of the proceeds arising from the sales under the decree, were reserved for future settlement and adjustment. The masters were required to pay the proceeds into court, to remain subject to the further order of the court. The decree then proceeded:

"All other questions arising under any of the pleadings or proceedings herein, not hereby disposed of or determined, are hereby reserved for future adjudication, including the claim for unearned interest on bonds not yet due. And the defendant James Compton having in open court, on the final hearing herein, objected to the rendering or entry of any decree in this cause at this time, on the ground that the issue raised by the amendment to the complainants' amended and supplemental ancillary bill, and to the cross bill of the cross complainants Solón Humphreys and Daniel A. Lindley, trustees, and the answers of the defendant James Compton to be filed herein, have not been tried and determined, the court overrules such objection; and the defendant James Compton duly excepts to such ruling, and the entry of this decree. But it is adjudged and decreed, in the premises, that the rendering and entry of this decree in advance of the trial and determination of such issues is upon and subject to the following condition, to wit: If, upon the determination of such issues, it shall be adjudged by this court that the decree rendered by the supreme court of the state of Ohio in the suit brought by said James Compton against the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Company and others, referred to in the pleading herein, and the lien thereby declared and adjudicated in his favor, continue in full force and effect, then the purchaser or purchasers at any sale or sales had hereunder of that portion of the property sold, covered, and affected by said lien, or the successors in the title of said purchaser or purchasers, shall pay to said James Compton, or his solicitors herein, within ten days after the entry of the decree herein in favor of said James Compton, the sum of three hundred and thirty-nine thousand nine hundred and twenty dollars and forty cents, with interest thereon at six per cent. per annum from May 1, 1888, being the amount found due on the equipment bonds by him owned, by the supreme court of Ohio, in his said suit, upon the surrender by him of the bonds and coupons owned by him, referred to in his petition in such suit; and in default of such payment this court shall resume possession of the property covered and affected by the said lien of the defendant James Compton, and enforce such decree as it may render herein in his favor by a resale of such property, or otherwise, as this court may direct. And it is further ordered and adjudged that, notwithstanding the entry of this decree, the said issues concerning the claim and interest of said Compton shall proceed to a final determination and decree in accordance with the rules and practice of this court, and any decree rendered thereupon shall bind the purchaser or purchasers at any sale or sales had hereunder, and all persons and corporations deriving any title to or interest in the said property affected by such lien, from or through them, or any of them; and nothing in this decree contained shall be construed as an adjudication of any matter or thing, as against the said James Compton, or to prejudice, annul or abridge any right, claim, or interest or lien which the said James Compton may have in, to, or upon the premises hereby directed to be sold, or any part thereof, or in, to, or upon any property whatsoever embraced in this decree, it being the intention to hereby preserve the rights of said Compton in the relation in which he now stands towards the mort

gagees, parties hereto." "Any sale, conveyance, or assignment of the railway and property hereinabove described, made under this decree, shall not have the effect of discharging any part of said property from the payment, or contribution to the payment, of claims or demands chargeable against the same, whether for costs and expenses, the expenses of the receivership of said property, and the full payment of all the debts and liabilities of the receivers of the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Company, namely, Solon Humphreys and Thomas E. Tutt, Thomas M. Cooley and General John McNulta, or upon intervening claims and allowances that have been, or may hereafter be, charged against the property of the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Company, or any part thereof, or said receivers, or either of them, or the adjustment of any equities arising out of the same between the parties thereto, or their successors, either by this court, or by the circuit court of the United States for the Eastern district of Missouri, or by any United States circuit court exercising either original or ancillary jurisdiction over said property of the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Company, or any part thereof, or by any United States circuit court, to which any of the parties in the consolidated cause of the Central Trust Company of New York and others against the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Company and others, in the circuit court of the United States for the Eastern district of Missouri, including the receivers, have been by said circuit court of the United States remitted in proceedings or actions ancillary to the jurisdiction of said lastnamed court, or otherwise. Nor shall any such sale, conveyance, transfer, or assignment made under and pursuant to this decree withdraw any of said railroad property or interests to be sold under this decree, as hereinbefore directed, from the jurisdiction of this and the other courts aforesaid; but the same shall remain in the custody of the receiver until such time as the court shall, on motion, direct said property, in whole, or, from time to time, in part, to be released to the purchaser or purchasers thereof, or any of them, and shall afterwards be subject to be retaken, and, if necessary, resold, if the sum so charged or to be charged against said property, or any part thereof, or said receivers, shall not be paid within a reasonable time after being required by order of this or said other courts. The conveyance and transfer of said property sold under this decree shall be subject to the powers and jurisdiction of the said courts, and the purchasers of the property sold under this decree, or any part thereof, and the parties hereto, or their successors, shall thereby become and remain subject to said jurisdiction of said courts, so far as necessary to the enforcement of this provision of this decree; and such jurisdiction shall continue until all the claims and demands that have been or may be allowed against said property of the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Company, or any part thereof, or said receivers, by order of said courts, shall be fully paid and discharged. The provision aforesaid shall apply to the purchasers of the same under this decree, and all persons taking said property through or under them; but the foregoing provisions shall not, nor shall any reservation of this decree contained, have the effect or be construed, nor are they or any of them intended, to give to any claims that may exist any validity, character, or status superior to what they now have, nor to decide or imply that any such claims exist. The effect of said provisions and reservations shall be to prevent this decree operating as an additional defense to claims, if any there are, prior in right to the liens of the mortgages upon said property heretofore and hereby foreclosed, and to preserve the prior right and lien of such claims, and all allowances, if found and decreed to exist."

The masters reported the making of the sale in accordance with the decree, and the sale was confirmed May 18, 1889. On June 18th an order requiring the masters to execute a deed, and to deliver possession, was made. This order recited that the purchasers had on deposit a large number of the bonds under all the mortgages, giving the exact amount of each, and then proceeded: "And it further appearing that the said purchasers, by their said petition, offer to deposit, at such time and in such amounts as the court may direct, cash sufficient to pay the expenses that the court may require to be paid, and to pay such sum on first mortgage bonds and funded debt bonds not deposited in said trust company as the court may v.68F.no.2-18

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direct to be paid in cash, and, as security for such payment, to deposit al! or any part of the bonds held by said trust company as the court may direct, and to substitute cash for bonds at such time and in such amounts as the court may require cash payments, and, further, to hold the said purchased property subject to be retaken by the court in the event any cash payments directed by the court shall not be made in pursuance of the court's directions. The court, thereupon, having duly considered the premises, does order, adjudge, and decree that the prayer of said petition be granted; that the said purchasers shall forthwith transfer to the said special masters, Bluford Wilson and A. J. Ricks, the bonds deposited with the Central Trust Company of New York, and herein before mentioned, to be held and disposed of by said special masters as the court may direct. Not withstanding such transfers of said bonds to said masters, said purchasing committee shall pay all such sums as may be required from them in carrying out their purchase; and in case of their failure to comply with any orders of the court with respect thereto the court may retake the property, and all of it, conveyed by said deed, and annul the title of the purchasing committee with respect thereto, and hold the same for further disposition, and as security for the rights of the bondholders under the various mortgages foreclosed. Upon such transfer the said special masters shall forthwith make, execute, and deliver to said purchasers a deed or deeds conveying to them or their assigns, all and singular, the railways, premises, and property described in and covered by the said several mortgages foreclosed and sold as aforesaid under the decree in this cause, and all the right, title, interest, and estate of all the parties in said cause, of, in, and to the same, and each and every part thereof, except as particularly reserved in and by said decree of foreclosure and sale, by a good and sufficient deed therefor." Then followed an order to deliver possession, closing with these words: "This order is made subject in all respects to the provisions of said decree of March 23, 1889." On August 17, 1889, the court ordered "that the issues presented in this cause as to the lien and claim of James Compton, made by the various pleadings herein, upon and concerning said claim and lien, and reserved in the former decree herein, saving the rights of said Compton, be, and the same are hereby, referred to Bluford Wilson," etc. The special master reported that Compton's lien was a valid one, and that he was entitled, by the saving clause of the decree, to have the Ohio Division resold, if the purchaser did not pay off his bonds, principal and interest, in full. The court below sustained the master in holding Compton's lien valid, but decided, as already stated, that his only remedy was to redeem the four divisional mortgages,-two in Ohio, and two in Indiana. Compton's counsel filed affidavits at the final hearing below to show that their client was deterred from bidding by their advice that the saving clause in the decree made it unnecessary for him thus to protect his claim, because, if his lien was held to be valid, the purchaser was required to pay it off, or let the property go to a resale, and that, but for his reliance on the saving clause, Compton could easily and safely have made a bid high enough to secure the payment of his claim from the proceeds of sale. The facts on which turned the issue as to whether the divisional mortgages were a first lien on the Toledo terminals were as follows: The first Ohio company was the Toledo & Illinois Railroad Company. Its charter of incorporation, dated April 20, 1853, provided for building a railroad from the city of Toledo, through the counties of Lucas, Henry, Fulton, Defiance, and Paulding, or parts of said counties, to the west boundary line of the state of Ohio, in the township of Harrison, in Paulding county. On September 8, 1853, it made a mortgage (known as the "First Ohio Mortgage") to the Farmers' Loan & Trust Company, to secure an issue of bonds amounting to $900,000. The property covered by that mortgage was described as follows, viz.: "Their road, made and to be made, including the right of way and the land occupied thereby, together with the superstructure and tracks thereon, and all rails and other materials and machinery used thereon or procured therefor, including the furniture and equipments of the road, and those to be purchased or paid for with the above-described bonds, and the bridges, viaducts, culverts, fences, depot grounds, and build

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