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Preface.

affected to describe. The experience of the last fifty years has shown, perhaps more than that of any other period since Henry III. and Edward I., that the Constitution is no stiff and formal mechanism, but a natural and necessary product of all the latent forces of the national life and character. In no period has political action been more restless and energetic, and legislation progressed more rapidly and courageously. Nevertheless, the great and deeply-graven lineaments which mark out the English Constitution from every other are as distinct as they were at the accession of William IV. If they have altered or widened, they have done so only by keeping pace with the steady and widening impulses of the advancing national temperament, in obedience to the call of a civilisation which may properly be termed new.

It is thus no longer to lawyers and law-books alone that reference must be had for ascertaining what is the mode of government under which the English people live. Far rather is it to the utterances of statesmen, to critical acts of public policy, to the conduct of Parliamentary majorities, and to the assumptions of the Executive Government. The review is thus becoming far more political than legal, and still more ethical than either. Thus this treatise

is dedicated as much to establishing a new method, as to bringing to light a train of special facts to which the method is applied.

SHELDON AMOS.

9 KING'S BENCH WALK,

TEMPLE

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Indirect initiation of money grants by the Upper House . 23

Mr. Lowe on the predominance of the Lower House . . 26

Abolition of Purchase in the Army by Royal Warrant.

Power of the Crown to force a vote in the Lords by creation

of Peers . . . . . . . . . . .

Mr. Gladstone's justification of the proceeding by Warrant.

Macaulay and Wellington on the impotence of the Lords..

The House of Commons since the Reform Act . .

Theories of Individual and of Class Representation . . 33

Recent Acts embodying the modern theory . . . . 37

Sir Robert Peel on the influence of property . . . .

The Ballot Act . .

. . . . . . . . 39

Mr. Grote on the Ballot . . . . . . . . 41

The Parliamentary Elections Act . .

Early history of representation . . . . . . . 46

Current controversies as to representation

The notion of Delegacy . . . ..

Burke on the obligations of Members

. . . 50

Conduct of Mr. John Stuart Mill . . . . . . 52

Lord Macaulay on Canvassing . . . . . . . 52

Lord Macaulay on Pledges . . . . . . . . 54

Duration of Parliaments . . .

Modern recognition of individual political claims . .. 56

Representation of Minorities. . . . . . .

Schemes for substituting personal for local representation .

Necessary effect of Minority Representation on the character

of the House . . . . . . . .

True and false majorities . . . . . . .

The true claim of majorities . . . . . . .

Political Associations. ..

• Party Government'. . . . . . . . .

Burke on party ties . .

Historic origin of Party Government

Its foundation in nature . . .

Its value as a political expedient . . . . . 70

Peel on the limits of party loyalty . . . . . . 72

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